membrane filtration

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Membrane filtrationn:

Membrane filtrationn 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 1

Membrane filtration :

Membrane filtration In membrane separation systems , liquid containing two or more components comes into contact with a membrane that permits some components ( for example, water in the fluid ) to pass through the membrane (the permeate ), while other components cannot pass through it (the retentate ). 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 2

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The MF membranes are made from natural or synthetic polymers such as cellulose nitrate or acetate, polyamides. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 3

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TYPES OF MEMBRANE SEPERATION :

TYPES OF MEMBRANE SEPERATION Reverse Osmosis. (RO) Ultrafiltration. (UF) Nanofiltration . (NF) Microfiltration. (MF) Electrodialysis . (ED) Gas Separation. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 5

Macrofiltration or Particle filtration:

Macrofiltration or Particle filtration Pore size: 10 to 1000 micrometers ( μm ) The particles being screened are visible to the naked eye. Examples of the particle size are: bubbles, insect parts, dust, debris, crystals. Typical equipment used: bag filters, cheesecloth, metallic screens, nylon mesh . 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 6

Micro filtration :

Micro filtration The particles being screened are not visible to the naked eye . This pore size is used for sterile filtration, cell harvesting or clarification of fruit juices and in applications where water taste is not as important, like breweries. It retains particles from about 200 to 1000 Å.4 Two types of microfiltration systems : cross flow and dead-end. The least amount of hydrostatic force required 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 7

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Application :

Application In biotechnology for concentration of biomass , separations of soluble products . In non-sew age waste treatment for removing intractable particles in oily fluids, aqueous wastes which contain particulate toxics and stack gas. In paints for separating solvents from pigments etc. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 9

Ultra filtration :

Ultra filtration Ultrafiltration is a process of separating colloidal or molecular particles by filtration, using suction or pressure, by means of a colloidal filter or semipermeable membrane . 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 10

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This method is only somewhat dependant upon charge of the particle and is more concerned with the size of the particle. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 11

Continue,.:

Continue,. UF membranes are useful in separating components by rejecting macromolecules and allowing passage of all salts through the membrane . UF is used to separate milk proteins by passing milk at high pressure through a very fine membrane, as a pretreatment for other purification systems ( like ion exchange ). 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 12

Application :

Application Oil emulsion waste treatment . Electro coat paint recovery. Concentration of textile sizing. Concentration of gelatin . Enzyme & pharmaceutical preparations. Pulp mill waste treatment. Production of ultra pure water 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 13

Nano filtration :

Nano filtration Nanofiltration is the newest of the major methods, serving as an intermediate between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis . This process allows some salts through the membrane, allowing monovalent ions to pass while rejecting high percentages of divalent cations and multivalent ions . 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 14

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This process is used for sugar concentration, dye desalting , water softening, color removal in water , removing bacteria, some proteins by dairy industry, and meat processors for recovering value added by - products Nanofiltration membranes are rated in terms of percent salt rejection and flow. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 15

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Separation by this method is affected by the charge of the particles being rejected - particles with larger charges more likely to be rejected than others . This method is not effective on smaller weight organics like methanol. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 16

Application :

Application In biotechnology for concentration of biomass, separations of soluble products. In non-sewage waste treatment for removing intractable particles in oily fluids, aqueous wastes which contain particulate toxics and stack gas . 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 17

Electro dialysis:

Electro dialysis “This is an electro-membrane process in which the ions are transported through a membrane from one solution to another under the influence of an electrical potential.” 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 18

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Continue,. Electrodialysis is used widely for production of potable water from sea or brackish water, electroplating rinse recovery, desalting of cheese whey, production of ultra pure water etc. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 19

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Application :

Application Deacidification of fruit juices Heavy metal recovery Recovery of organic acids from salts pH control without adding acid or base Regeneration of ion-exchange resins with improved process design Acid recovery from etching baths 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 21

Gas seperation :

Gas seperation The membrane gas separation technology is over ten years old and is proving to be one of the most significant unit operations. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 22

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The membrane gas separation has been used for hydrogen separation and recovery, ammonia purge gas , refinery hydrogen recovery , separation in petrochemicals industry, natural gas processing, air separation, nitrogen production, air dehydration, helium recovery etc. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 23

Reverse osmosis:

Reverse osmosis RO has the finest membrane size . In reverse osmosis, the natural process of osmosis is countered by applied externalpressure . Normally, pure water would move from a region of higher concentration (such as pure fresh water) into one of lower concentration (such as a solution of water and salt ). 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 24

Reverse osmosis:

Reverse osmosis 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 25

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The most common force is pressure generated by a pump. Considerably higher pressures are necessary to overcome osmotic pressures. RO allows only pure water through the membrane , filtering out inorganic salts , some forms of non-ionic organic compound. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 26

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Continue,. RO is used to reduce inorganic salts in water that has demanding specs such as boiler feed water , car wash rinse water, potable water , glass rinsing, pure water for dialyses, beverages , pharmaceutical water and maple syrup concentration . 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 27

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It can also be used to remove bacteria, salts sugars , proteins , particles , dyes, water recycling , concentrating milk solids and removing water from whey. With RO, the charge of the particles (ions) facilitates separation . The larger the charge and the larger the particle, the more likely it will be rejected . 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 28

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Pleated cartridges are used for microfiltration and UF systems. Materials used to make membranes are cellulose acetate , polymers , such as polyamides and polysulfones and composites ( or ceramic) of porous carbon, zirconium oxide or alumina. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 29

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Factors affecting extraction:

Factors affecting extraction 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 32

solvent:

solvent Cheap Non toxic Stable physically chemically inert Water and ethanol are mainly used as a solvent 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 33

Water :

Water Water is solvent for proteins, gums and colouring matter Mould and bacteria can grow in aqueous media Water allow hydrolysis of many substance It need more heat than other. 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 34

Ethanol :

Ethanol Ethanol is solvent for alkaloids, glycosides. Moulds and bacteria cannot grow in this media It promote the absorption of the molecule Latent heat of vaporisation is less than water 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 35

Concentration gradient:

Concentration gradient Rate of diffusion is depends upon the presence of suitable concentration gradient from the centre of the particle outwards and through the boundary layer by agitating the sample the local concentration will disperse there by increase the concentration gradieent 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 36

Continue,. :

Continue,. Its also decrease the thickness of the boundary layer so that concentration is steeper and shorter. The flow replace the solution by pure solvent causing the increasing the the concentration gradient Velocity of the solvent which is reduce the boundary layer 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 37

Temperature and viscosity:

Temperature and viscosity Incresing temperature will increase the extraction rate Viscosity of the solvent is decreased, which is reduce the boundary layer so the extraction rate is fast The diffusion coefficient which is directly propotional to the temperature and indirectly propotional to the viscosity 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 38

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extraction is never complete if the drug is immersed in bulk of the solution Since the equilibrium is set up between tha solution containing drug and the free solution 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 39

Emulsion formulation:

Emulsion formulation Emulsion are problem that occur with certain sample and solvent condition If a emulsion are not broken with short boundary the recovery can be affected. Emulsion are broken by adding salt solution to the aqueous phase Heating or cooling the extraction vessel Filtering through the glass wool plug 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 40

Adsorption of drug on particulate :

Adsorption of drug on particulate If a particulate present in the sample will affect the recovery of the sample In such a case washing the particulate after filtration with strong solvent will recover the absorbed drug The stronger solvent for recovering the sample will affect the pH of the sample and increased the ionic strength 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 41

Binding of drug with protein in plasma sample:

Binding of drug with protein in plasma sample Compound that are commonly recover from the LLE extraction may bind with plasma Disturbing the protein binding in plasma sample are adding detergent adding orgonic solvent or strong acid diluting with water 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 42

Mutual solubility of immisicible solvent:

Mutual solubility of immisicible solvent Immisicible solvent have small but finite mutualsolubility and mutually dissolved solvent can change the relative volume of two phases. Therefore its practice to saturate the each phase with other ery 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 43

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Continue,. so that the volume of phase containing the analyte can be known allowing accurate and optimun determination of the analyte recovery The simplest procedure for saturation is to equilibrate two phases in seperating funnel without the sample 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 44

Thank you:

Thank you 4/7/2012 JOHN MILTON.S. 45

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