Typhoid fever

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Typhoid fever :

Typhoid fever

History of Typhoid fever:

History of Typhoid fever Carl Joseph Eberth who discovered the typhoid bacillus in1880. The best known carrier was "Typhoid Mary“ ; Mary Mallon was a cook in Oyster Bay, New York in 1906 who is known to have infected 53 people, 5 of whom died. Thomas Willis who is credited with the first description of typhoid fever in 1659.


Definition Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Typhoid fever is rare in industrialized countries. However, it remains a serious health threat in the developing world, especially for children. Typhoid fever spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who's infected. Signs and symptoms usually include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and either constipation or diarrhea. When treated with antibiotics, most people with typhoid fever feel better within a few days, although a small percentage of them may die of complications. Vaccines against typhoid fever are available, but they're only partially effective. Vaccines usually are reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are traveling to areas where typhoid fever is common.


Causes Typhoid fever is caused by a virulent bacterium called Salmonella typhi. typhoid fever spread through contaminated food or water and occasionally through direct contact with someone who is infected. In developing nations , most cases result from contaminated drinking water and poor sanitation . contract the infection if you eat food handled by someone with typhoid fever who hasn't washed carefully after using the toilet. Water is contaminated where inadequate sewerage systems and poor sanitation.


Symptoms If you don't receive treatment for typhoid fever, you may enter a second stage during which you become very ill and experience: Life-threatening complications often develop at this time. gastro-intestinal bleeding intestinal perforation 1 st week of illness 2 nd week illness Fever, that starts low and increases daily, often to as high as 103 or 104 F. Headache Weakness and fatigue Dry cough Loss of appetite Abdominal pain Diarrhea or constipation Rash Continuing high fever Either diarrhea or severe constipation Considerable weight loss Extremely distended abdomen


SYMPTOMS Rose spots Aches and pains High fever Diarrhea Typhoid Meningitis Chest congestion


RISK FACTORS Typhoid fever remains a serious worldwide threat — especially in the developing world — affecting an estimated 22 million people each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The disease is endemic in India, Southeast Asia, Africa, South America and many other areas . Work in or travel to areas where typhoid fever is endemic Work as a clinical microbiologist handling Salmonella typhi bacteria Have close contact with someone who is infected or has recently been infected with typhoid fever Have an immune system weakened by medications such as corticosteroids or diseases such as HIV/AIDS Drink water contaminated by sewage that contains S. typhi


COMPLICATION Intestinal bleeding or holes The most serious complication of typhoid fever — intestinal bleeding or holes (perforations) — may develop in the third week of illness. About 5 percent of people with typhoid fever experience this complication . Inflammation of the heart muscle ( myocarditis ) Inflammation of the lining of the heart and valves ( endocarditis ) Pneumonia Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) Inflammation of the gallbladder ( cholecystitis ) Kidney or bladder infections Infection and inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meningitis) Psychiatric problems such as delirium, hallucinations and paranoid psychosis


TEST AND DAIGNOSIS Blood, bone marrow, or stool cultures test Widal test


TREATMENT Medication Antibiotics Antibiotics, such as ampicillin , chloramphenicol , fluoroquinolone trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole , Amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin etc used to treat typhoid fever. Prompt treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case-fatality rate to approximately 1%.

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Diet Fluids and electrolytes should be monitored and replaced diligently. Oral nutrition with a soft digestible diet is preferable in the absence of abdominal distension Activity No specific limitations on activity are indicated. Rest is helpful, but mobility should be maintained if tolerable. The patient should be encouraged to stay home from work until recovery.


PREVENTION Vaccines Two vaccines are available. One is injected in a single dose about two weeks before exposure. One is given orally in four capsules, with one capsule to be taken every other day. Wash your hands. Frequent hand-washing is the best way to control infection. Wash your hands thoroughly with hot, soapy water, especially before eating or preparing food and after using the toilet. Use alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Avoid drinking untreated water. Avoid raw fruits and vegetables. Choose hot foods. Avoid food that's stored or served at room temperature. Steaming hot foods are best.

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