KIDNEY STONE (RENAL CALCULUS)

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Defintion,Causes and risk factors, signs and symptoms, treatment and prevention etc.

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KIDNEY STONE (RENAL CALCULUS):

KIDNEY STONE (RENAL CALCULUS)

Some Photos of Kidney Stone:

Some Photos of Kidney Stone X-ray :- Bilateral kidney stone.

Definition:

Definition A kidney stone , also known as a renal calculus. Kidney stones are solid accumulations of material that form in the tubal system of the kidney. Kidney stones cause problems when they block the flow of urine through or out of the kidney. When the stones move along the ureter , they cause severe pain . Urine is formed by the kidneys. Blood flows into the kidneys, and specialized tubes ( nephrons ) within the kidneys allow a certain amount of fluid from the blood, and certain substances dissolved in that fluid, to flow out of the body as urine. Sometimes, a problem causes the dissolved substances to become solid again. Tiny crystals may form in the urine, meet, and cling together to create a larger solid mass called a kidney stone. Many people do not ever find out that they have stones in their kidneys. These stones are small enough to allow the kidney to continue functioning normally, never causing any pain. These are called "silent stones." Kidney stones cause problems when they interfere with the normal flow of urine. They can block (obstruct) the flow down the tube (the ureter ) that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. 80% of stones under 2mm in size 90% of stones pass through the urinary Generally stone smaller than 6mm are passable

Causes:

Causes Increase the risk of stone formation include low fluid intake and high dietary intake of animal protein, sodium, refined sugars, fructose and high fructose corn syrup,oxalate,grapefruit juice, apple juice, and cola drinks. can be caused due to less intake of fluids, consuming calcium based food products, higher intake of tomato, rice, Potato, etc and consuming Non-Vegetarian food like fish and meat and liquor. In most of cases it is found that kidney stones occurrences are hereditary as well. Type of Stones Calcium stones. Most kidney stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance found in food. Some fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts and chocolate, have high oxalate levels. Your liver also produces oxalate. Dietary factors, high doses of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery and several metabolic disorders can increase the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine. Calcium stones may also occur in the form of calcium phosphate. Struvite stones. Struvite stones form in response to an infection, such as a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning. Uric acid stones. Uric acid stones can form in people who don't drink enough fluids or who lose too much fluid, those who eat a high-protein diet, and those who have gout. Certain genetic factors also may increase your risk of uric acid stones. Cystine stones. These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of certain amino acids

Risk Factors of Kidney Stone:

Risk Factors of Kidney Stone Family or personal history. If someone in your family has kidney stones, you're more likely to develop stones, too. And if you've already had one or more kidney stones, you're at increased risk of developing another. An adult. Kidney stones are most common in adults age 40 and older, though kidney stones may occur at any age. A man. Men are more likely to develop kidney stones, although an increasing number of women are developing kidney stones. Dehydration. Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of kidney stones. People who live in warm climates and those who sweat a lot may be at higher risk than others. Certain diets. Eating a diet that's high in protein, sodium and sugar may increase your risk of some types of kidney stones. This is especially true with a high-sodium diet. Too much sodium in your diet increases the amount of calcium your kidneys must filter and significantly increases your risk of kidney stones. Being obese. High body mass index (BMI), large waist size and weight gain have been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones

Signs and Symptoms:

Signs and Symptoms Blood in urine Vomiting and nausea Pus in the urine Burning sensation during urination Fever and chills if there is an infection Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin Pink, red or brown urine Cloudy or foul-smelling urine Persistent urge to urinate Urinating more often than usual Fever and chills if an infection is present Need Immediate Medical attention Pain so severe that you can't sit still or find a comfortable position Pain accompanied by nausea and vomiting Pain accompanied by fever and chills Blood in your urine Difficulty passing urine

Test and Diagnosis of Kidney stone:

Test and Diagnosis of Kidney stone Blood Analysis Urine Analysis CT Scan Abdominal x-ray Ultrasound Cystoscopy

Treatment and Durg:

Treatment and Durg Most kidney stones won't require invasive treatment. You may be able to pass a small stone by: Drinking water. Drinking as much as 2 to 3 quarts (1.9 to 2.8 liters) a day may help flush out your urinary system. Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, drink enough fluid — mostly water — to produce clear or nearly clear urine. Pain relievers. Passing a small stone can cause some discomfort. To relieve mild pain, your doctor may recommend pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or naproxen sodium (Aleve). Medical therapy. Your doctor may give you a medication to help pass your kidney stone. This type of medication, known as an alpha blocker, relaxes the muscles in your ureter , helping you pass the kidney stone more quickly and with less pain. Surgery to remove very large stones in the kidney. A procedure called percutaneous nephrolithotomy ( nef -row- lih -THOT-uh-me) involves surgically removing a kidney stone using small telescopes and instruments inserted through a small incision in your back. You'll receive general anesthesia during the surgery and be in the hospital for one to two days while you recover. Parathyroid gland surgery. Some calcium stones are caused by overactive parathyroid glands, which are located on the four corners of your thyroid gland, just below your Adam's apple. When these glands produce too much parathyroid hormone (hyperparathyroidism), your calcium levels can become too high and kidney stones may form as a result.

PowerPoint Presentation:

High Calcium Oxalate Food: Medium Calcium Oxalate Food: spinach beets swiss chard wheat germ soybean crackers peanuts okra chocolate black Indian tea sweet potatoes grits grapes celery green pepper red raspberries fruit cake strawberries marmalade liver Prevention Drink water throughout the day. For people with a history of kidney stones, doctors usually recommend passing about 2.6 quarts (2.5 liters) of urine a day. Your doctor may ask that you measure your urine output to make sure that you're drinking enough water. If you live in a hot, dry climate or you exercise frequently, you may need to drink even more water to produce enough urine. If your urine is light and clear, you're likely drinking enough water. Eat fewer oxalate-rich foods. If you tend to form calcium oxalate stones, your doctor may recommend restricting foods rich in oxalates. These include rhubarb, beets, okra, spinach, Swiss chard, sweet potatoes, nuts, tea, chocolate and soy products.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Choose a diet low in salt and animal protein. Reduce the amount of salt you eat and choose nonanimal protein. Medications Calcium stones. To help prevent calcium stones from forming, diuretic or a phosphate-containing preparation. Uric acid stones. Your doctor may prescribe allopurinol ( Zyloprim , Aloprim ) to reduce uric acid levels in your blood and urine and a medicine to keep your urine alkaline. In some cases, allopurinol and an alkalinizing agent may dissolve the uric acid stones. Struvite stones. To prevent struvite stones, to keep your urine free of bacteria that cause infection. Long-term use of antibiotics in small doses may help achieve this goal. Cystine stones. Cystine stones can be difficult to treat. drink more fluids so that you produce a lot more urine. If that alone doesn't help, your doctor may also prescribe a medication that decreases the amount of cystine in your urine.