Ecology master register veliz flores juan (C)

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“No rights, no REDD!” This was the catchy slogan that indigenous peoples’ (IPs) representatives and their supporters chorused inside the venue of the 14th Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention in Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2008 in Poznan. They had taken the stage to demonstrate against the deletion of a reference in relation to indigenous peoples’ rights (IPR) in negotiations on UNFCCC’s prospective mitigation instrument ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation including the conservation, sustainable management or forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks’ (REDD+). REDD+ aims at compensating developing countries financially for the costs incurred in preventing deforestation. Thus, by building on the payment for ecosystem services-model, it reiterates the dominant focus of liberal environmentalism that favors market-based approaches to environmental governance (Bernstein 2002).

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EETAP Resource Library “Advancing Education Environmental Literacy” December 2002 Number 107 Ecology and Environmental Education: Key Principles Among the basic environmental knowledge that is needed in order to better understand and develop connections with one’s environment and community are the foundations of ecology. These foundations also are critical in helping one understand the impacts of human actions on the environment. Ecology Oekologie was first defined by Ernst Haeckel in 1866 as “the science of relations between organisms and their environment” Bramwell 1989 p.40. Ecology has followed a path of historical development similar to other fields of biology starting as a descriptive discipline in the nineteenth century. For instance Thoreau 1817-62 called the “poet-naturalist” followed what is known as the naturalist tradition whose roots were founded in a philosophic approach. www.hawkhill.com Keys to Scientific Literacy 2002. Darwin in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species stated that “plants and animals most remote in the scale of nature are bound together by a web of complex relations” and they interact in many different ways and are affected by natural selection Darwin 1964 The studies became more quantitative experimental and analytical in the twentieth century. Unlike Thoreau Eugene Odum did more than observe with the unaided senses. He incorporated modern technology into the study of ecology and was especially interested in quantitative studies www.hawkhill.com Keys to Scientific Literacy 2002. He clarified the relationship between human activity and “natural processes” as an essential part of his description of the concept ecosystem. Until his book Fundamentals of Ecology was published in 1953 ecology as a scientific discipline consisted of studies of individual aquatic and other systems that seemed to be understandable in isolation www.ecotopia.org 2002. Eugene Odum continued to refine the definition and concepts of ecology and compiled a list of the 20 most important ecological principles in his article: Great Ideas in Ecology for the 1990s 1992 including Thermodynamics Natural Selection Cyclic Behavior and Connectiveness. The last five items in Odum’s list relate to human ecology and the ecology-economics interface which he considers need to be major foci in environmental literacy education in view of the increasingly serious global impacts resulting from human activities Odum 1992. In the same era other ecologists like Aldo Leopold and Rachel Carson began to realize the need for ecosystem conservation and to explore the relationships between human beings and land use as well as pollution issues. The end of the twentieth century brought about changes in the way ecology is viewed. Pollan and Orr explored the place of ecology in our daily lives. Pollan who illustrated how people and plants have coevolved and formed a reciprocal relationship discussed the principles of ecology in terms of modern day gardening in his book Second Nature: A Gardener’s Education Pollan 1993. Orr focusing on the educational system said: “The goal of the revolution in education is the reconnection of young people to their own habitats and communities. The classroom is the ecology of the surrounding community not the confining four walls of the traditional school” Orr 1991. Orr proposed a set of goals for ecological literacy for students. He felt that no student should graduate from an educational institution without a basic comprehension of the following concepts: Orr 1991 • Laws of thermodynamics • Basic principles of ecology • Carrying capacity • Energetics • Least-cost end-use analysis • How to live well in a place

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Need more resources • Limits of technology • Appropriate scale Some resources about ecological links to environmental education are available for educators and can be found in the Educational Resources Information Center ERIC and Eisenhower National Clearinghouse ENC collections. To read about these resources and learn where to get them search the ERIC or ENC collections on line or at a local library or university. On line the material can be accessed by typing: • Sustainable agriculture and forestry • Steady-state economics • Environmental ethics Hungerford Volk 1991 also defined nine key ecological concepts that they said were necessary to include in the development of environmental education programs. This inclusion would aid a person toward becoming environmentally literate meaning that he or she is able and willing to make environmental decisions which are consistent with both a substantial quality of human life and an equally substantial quality of the environment. The concepts are as follows: http://ericir.syr.edu/Eric/ for ERIC and http://www.enc.org/resources/search/ for ENC. References Bramwell Anna. 1989. Ecology in the 20 th Century: A History. Yale University Press: New Haven. U.S.A. p.40 • Individuals and populations • Interactions and interdependence Green Lawrence W. And Others. Ecological Foundations of Health Promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion v10 n4 p270-81 Mar-Apr 1996. • Environmental influences and limiting factors • Energy flow and nutrient cycling • Community and ecosystem concepts Hungerford Harold R. Trudi L. Volk. 1998 Curriculum Development in Environmental Education for the Primary School: Challenges and Responsibilities. Essential Readings in Environmental Education. Champaign IL: Stipes. • Homeostasis • Succession • Humans as members of ecosystems • Ecological implication of human activities and communities Morris Christine Ballengee. Cultural Ecology: Arts of the Mountain Culture. Art Education v51 n3 p14- 19 May 1998. Much of the literature focuses on ecological concepts from a biological viewpoint but ecology is also intertwined with other disciplines. An example of a more integral teaching process is the inclusion of human ecology concepts which visualizes human beings as part of the environment and not just bystanders that do not impact it. Green et al. 1996 defines human ecology as the interrelations that exist between humans and their environments. Orr David. What Is Education For Six myths about the foundations of modern education and six new principles to replace them. In Context 27 Winter 1991 pg. 52. Pollan Michael. 1993. Second Nature: A Gardener’s Education. Dell Publishing. New York NY. Cultural ecology studies the connection of nature people and the relationship with the land. Morris 1998 says that this type of ecology permeates the cultures and has a great impact on the different aspects of arts values language and belief systems of different ethnic groups. www.hawkhill.com 2002. Keys to Scientific Literacy. www.ecotopia.org 2002. Ecology Hall of Fame. In order to prepare students academically these principles should be explored and applied.

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A Publication of the Environmental Education and Training Partnership funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and managed by The University of Wisconsin Stevens Point Print Resources From ERIC Kates Robert W. Population and Consumption: What We Know What We Need To Know. Environment v42 n3 p10-19 Apr 2000 EJ 608872 Discusses the modern view of the impact of population and consumption on environmental degradation. Eugene P. Odum. Great Ideas in Ecology for the 1990s. BioScience v427 July/August 1992 Presents a list of 20 basic concepts in ecology devised that might be included in courses designed to improve environmental literacy among undergraduates at the University of Georgia. From ENC Ecology. 2000. Prepared as part of the Discovery Channel Science Collections series. Discovery Communications Inc. ENC-019904. This resource guide provides science teachers and students in grades 5-9 with thirty-two pages of classroom tools for studying ecology. Volunteers teaching children: a guide for establishing VINE Ecology Education Programs. 1995. North American Association for Environmental Education NAAEE. ENC-011921. Each VINE program provides opportunities for small groups to work together in long term projects that engage participants in discovering new ecological relationships among plants and animals as they develop skills for observing investigating and thinking critically about the environment. This information sheet was prepared by Marisol Mayorga Susanna Weber and Joe E. Heimlich Ph.D. of the EETAP Resources Library at Ohio State University Extension. EETAP Resource Library is a project of the Environmental Education and Training Partnership effort. The goal of the Resource Library is to increase educators’ access to and use of databases such as ENC and ERIC. This information sheet may be freely reproduced for educational purposes.

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