MARINE BOTANY : MARINE BOTANY 1st Semester, SY 2009-2010
BIOL 113-MARINE BOTANY
COURSE INSTRUCTOR: Mr. AC Balala Introduction : Introduction “And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, [and] the fruit-tree yielding fruit after its kind, whose seed [is] in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. And the earth brought forth grass, [and] herb yielding seed after its kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed [was] in itself, after its kind: and God saw that it [was] good.” Genesis 1:11-12. WHAT IS MARINE BOTANY? : WHAT IS MARINE BOTANY? Study of marine plants in their natural habitats.
Floras---Algae and Angiosperms microalgae Macroalgae/seaweeds green, blue-green, diatoms,
dinoflagellates Green, Red, and Brown Seagrasses,
Marsh plants CLASSIFICATION OF MARINE PLANTS : CLASSIFICATION OF MARINE PLANTS MONERA
prokaryotes, absence of membrane-bound organelles, DNA is not organized into chromosomes.
photosynthetic, presence of many pigments besides chlorophyll a, no protective tissue around gametic cells, variations in life cycles.
photosynthetic, vascular tissues present, chlorophylls are dominant. Marine group has mostly angiosperms. Gymnosperms are non-marine, and very few species of mosses and ferns are marine.
ANIMALIA BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE : BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE : BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE Binomial nomenclature—Ulva lactuca
Binomial Nomenclature was proposed by Linnaeus in 1753. Cited in Species Plantarum.
Type Specimen—The specimen from where the description is made. Collected and placed in a herbarium. Herbarium label—species name, location, date of collection, habitat, name of collector and identifier. COURSE ORGANIZATION—MARINE BOTANY : COURSE ORGANIZATION—MARINE BOTANY The concern of this course focuses mainly on the macroscopic seaweeds, seagrasses and mangroves since the other components have been or will be taken up in another course. At the end of this course, the students must be able to:
discuss the importance of seaweeds, seagrasses and mangroves;
describe the general characteristics of seaweeds, seagrasses and mangroves based on morphology, cytology, reproduction and life histories; COURSE ORGANIZATION—MARINE BOTANY : COURSE ORGANIZATION—MARINE BOTANY identify seaweeds, seagrasses and mangroves using taxonomic keys;
explain the physiologic nature on the growth of marine plants;
relate the ecological factors (physical, chemical and biological factors) to the physiology and distribution of seaweeds, seagrasses and mangroves; and
describe the technologies and socio-economics of seaweed maricultures and mangrove reforestations. Marine Primary Producers : Marine Primary Producers Life on earth began in the sea and that, about 450 million years ago, all plants were marine plants (Dring, 1982). In the next 400 million years, land plants like bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms evolved by becoming less dependent on the presence of seawater except for seagrasses and mangroves. The sea remains, as it was in pre-Devonian times, the province of the algae. Today, about 90% of all marine plants belong to the group of algae (Table 1). Approximate number of marine species in each major plant group. (After Dring, 1982) : Approximate number of marine species in each major plant group. (After Dring, 1982) Approximate number of marine species in each major plant group. (After Dring, 1982) : Approximate number of marine species in each major plant group. (After Dring, 1982) Approximate number of marine species in each major plant group. (After Dring, 1982) : Approximate number of marine species in each major plant group. (After Dring, 1982) Why are marine plants important? : Why are marine plants important? Primary producers---important component in the food chain; utilizing carbon-dioxide for photosynthesis; oxygen is produced as a result of photosynthesis;
Habitats for other plants and animals;
Filter pollutants from water—improve water clarity;
Stabilize the sediments (mostly marine angiosperms);
Bioabsorption and Bioremediation;
Algae as superfood---health benefits (antioxidants, brain-boosting nutrients (ex: Phosphatidylserine), treatment of skin infections, antimicrobial, prevention of allergies, lower cholesterol levels, combat diabetes and other chronic diseases). EXAMPLES OF ALGAE WITHHEALTH BENEFITS : EXAMPLES OF ALGAE WITHHEALTH BENEFITS Chlorella (Green Alga—Chlorophyta)
Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga—Cyanophyta)
Seaweeds---Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), and Gracilaria tikvahiae (Rhodophyta) Chlorella : Chlorella Source: http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/image/47350/chlorella2.gif Spirulina : Spirulina Source: botit.botany.wisc.edu Seaweeds : Seaweeds ECOSYSTEM APPROACH : ECOSYSTEM APPROACH Photo by Dr. Mitra Eelgrass with the macroalga Gracilaria tikvahiae Slide 27: Coral Reef in Belize Importance of seaweeds, seagrasses and mangroves : Importance of seaweeds, seagrasses and mangroves Seaweeds are important as:
human food. Examples: Caulerpa (lato), Eucheuma (guso), Gracilaria & Gelidiella (gulaman dagat), Codium & Sargassum (samo).
agar source. Example, Gracilaria spp.
carrageenan source. Example, Eucheuma & Kappaphycus.
gelan or algin source. Example, Sargassum spp. Importance of seaweeds : medicine and for dentistry such as laxative, wound dressing, treatment of heat burns, prevention of gastroesophageal reflex, bleeding control (hemostatic agent), used in obstetrics and gynecology, impression material for dental purposes, and source of various folk medicine.
as fertilizers and soil conditioners.
source of growth hormones like auxins, gibberellin, and cytokinin.
Source of insecticidal substance like Sargassum. Importance of seaweeds Importance of seaweeds : Ecological importance:
primary producers in shallow coastal areas;
food source for herbivores (molluscs, echinoderms, crustaceans, fishes, reptiles & mammals);
serve as shelters and nurseries for some fishes and invertebrates;
provide substrate for attachment of epiphytes and epifauna;
recycle nutrients from seawater by absorption;
produces sediments from calcareous seaweeds; and
serve as a base for detrital food chains. Importance of seaweeds Importance of seagrasses : A. Ecological Importance:
Major source of productivity in shallow waters;
Direct food source for herbivores- sea urchins, sea cows, some fishes and turtles.
Physical support of dense epiphytic communities.
Serve as a base for detrital food chains.
Export detrital material and nutrients to other ecosystems.
Recycle nutrients that are otherwise trapped in the sediment by absorption. Importance of seagrasses Importance of seagrasses : Ecological Importance:
Serve as nurseries and shelters for some fishes and invertebrates.
Floating leaves act as wave breakers forming a calm water habitat and serve as protective canopy shielding bed inhabitants from strong sunlight and from desiccation.
Produces sediments from decomposed calcified epiphytes.
Dense matted root system- stabilize soft bottoms by trapping sediment, thereby offering resistance to waves and protecting coastal areas from erosion. Importance of seagrasses Importance of seagrasses : B. Traditional Uses:
Woven into baskets.
Burned for salt and soda.
Stuffing for mattresses.
Upholstery and packing material.
Compost for fertilizer. Importance of seagrasses Importance of seagrasses : Traditional Uses:
Insulation for sound and temperature.
Fiber substitute in making nitrocellulose.
Piles to build dikes.
Cigars and children’s toys. Importance of seagrasses Slide 35: C. Contemporary Uses:
Source of useful chemicals.
Fertilizer and fodder.
Food and medicine for man, Examples: the fruits or leaves are used to check profuse bleeding; boiled fruit for temporary or permanent sterility. Importance of seagrasses Importance of mangroves : Direct uses (Hogarth 1999):
Fuel: charcoal and firewood;
Construction: timber, scaffolds, railway sleepers, mining props, boat building, dock pilings, beams and poles, thatch, matting, fence posts and chipboard;
Fishing: fishing stakes, fishing boats, wood for smoking fish, tanning for nets/lines, fish poison, fish-attracting shelters;
Textiles: synthetic fibers (rayon), dyes, tannin for preserving leather;
Food and drinks: sugar, alcohol, cooking oil, vinegar, tea substitute, fermented drinks, dessert topping, seasoning (bark), sweetmeats (propagules) and vegetables (fruits & leaves); Importance of mangroves Importance of mangroves : Direct uses (Hogarth 1999):
Domestic: glue, hairdressing oil, tool handles, musical instruments, rice mortar, toys, matchsticks, incence, cigarette wrappers and cosmetics;
Medical: treatment of ringworm, mange, toothache, leprosy, sore throat, constipation, dysentery, diarrhea, boils, bleeding lice, fungal infections, bleeding, fever, catarrh, kidney stone, gonorrhea, herpes etc.; and
Miscellaneous: paper manufacture. Importance of mangroves Importance of mangroves : Indirect uses:
Stem, prop roots and pneumatophores serve as shelters and attachments for various animals like mollusks, shrimps, crabs, fishes etc.
Honey production from bees using mangrove flowers.
Mangroves serve as habitat and sanctuaries for birds, reptiles, amphibians and other animals.
Mangrove roots retain sediment and consolidate the soil, hence facilitate accretion and retard coastal erosion.
Mangroves can be exploited for ecotourism. Importance of mangroves Slide 39: End