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Program:

Program Program is a collection of instructions that will perform some task. 1 Noornilo Nafees

Problem Solving Steps:

Problem Solving Steps Analyse the problem. Identify the solution for the problem and divide it into small task. Algorithm has to be prepared. Based on the algorithm the program will be created. Then it has to be executed. 2 Noornilo Nafees

Program Development Cycle:

Program Development Cycle Methodologies Program planning method Waterfall method etc,. 3 Noornilo Nafees

Program planning method:

Program planning method Specification Review Informal Design Test & Debug Coding Formal Design Maintaining 4 Noornilo Nafees

Slide5:

Specification review collect the requirements understand the requirements Informal Design Identifies the major tasks Identifies the subtasks Formal Design It converts the informal design to some format that can be understand by others. 5 Noornilo Nafees

Slide6:

Coding It converts the Design into Programs. It translate these programs to machine language. Test & Debug It use sample data to test whether it works properly. It also eliminate the errors. 6 Noornilo Nafees

Slide7:

Maintaining It Modifies the programs if necessary. 7 Noornilo Nafees

Waterfall method:

Waterfall method Feasibility Analysis Maintenance Testing Impl Design 8 Noornilo Nafees

Slide9:

Feasibility It determines whether it is possible to create the project or not. It also produce the plans and the estimates. Analysis It get the requirements from the customer. It analysis the requirements. 9 Noornilo Nafees

Slide10:

Design It is the process of designing how the requirements to be implemented. Implementation It converts the designs into code. After coding it use language translators to compile the code. 10 Noornilo Nafees

Slide11:

Testing Here the modules are integrated together. Then the project is tested and find whether it meets the customer/user requirements. Maintenance It make modifications based on the customer feedbacks. 11 Noornilo Nafees

Algorithm:

Algorithm An algorithm is a well organized, pre arranged and defined textual computational module that receives some values or set of values as IP & provides a single or a set of values as OP. It helps the programmer in breaking down the solution of a problem into a number of sequential steps. 12 Noornilo Nafees

Characteristics:

Characteristics The steps in the algorithm must be unambiguous . It should be written in sequence. Ensure that the algorithm will terminate. It should conclude after a finite number of steps. 13 Noornilo Nafees

Factors used to judge the algorithm :

Factors used to judge the algorithm Time Memory Accuracy Sequence etc,. 14 Noornilo Nafees

Example:

Example Addition of two numbers Step1: Start Step2: Read a, b Step3: Add the value of a with b and store the result in c. Step4: Display the value of c Step5: Stop 15 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode Pseudo means imitates and code means instruction. It is formal design tool. It is also called Program Design Language. 16 Noornilo Nafees

Keywords:

Keywords READ,GET PRINT,DISPLAY COMPUTE,CALCULATE 17 Noornilo Nafees

Guideline for writing Pseudocode:

Guideline for writing Pseudocode Steps should be understandable Capitalize the keyword. Indent to show hierarchy. End multiple line structure etc,. 18 Noornilo Nafees

Example:

Example READ a,b C=a+b WRITE C stop 19 Noornilo Nafees

Example:

Example READ a,b IF a>b PRINT a is greater ELSE PRINT b is greater ENDIF stop 20 Noornilo Nafees

Advantage & Disadvantage:

Advantage & Disadvantage It can be easily modified It can be understood easily Compare to flowchart it is difficult to understand the program logic. 21 Noornilo Nafees

Flowcharts:

Flowcharts It is the pictorial representation of the process. It describes the sequence & flow of control & information in a process It uses different symbols for depicting different activities 22 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart Symbols:

Flowchart Symbols Terminal symbol It is used to represent the start, end of the program logic. Input/Output It is used for input or output. Process Symbol It is used to represent the calculations, data movements, initialization operations etc,. 23 Noornilo Nafees

Slide24:

Decision Symbol It is used to denote a decision to be made at that point Flow lines It is used to connect the symbols Connectors It is used to connect the flow lines. Loop It is used to denote loops involved in the process. 24 Noornilo Nafees

Guidelines for preparing flowcharts:

Guidelines for preparing flowcharts It should be clear and easy to follow Standard symbols should be used. The flow lines should not intersect each others. In case of complex flowcharts use the connectors symbols. Direction of flow of procedure is from left to right or top to bottom It must have one logical start and end. 25 Noornilo Nafees

Slide26:

Only one flow line should enter the process symbol and only one flow line should come out from a process symbol. Only one flow line used with the terminal symbol. START STOP 26 Noornilo Nafees

Slide27:

Only one flow line should enter the decision symbol and two or three flowlines may leave from the decision symbol. 27 Noornilo Nafees

Benefits of Flowcharts:

Benefits of Flowcharts Makes Logic Clear Communication Effective Analysis Proper Documentation Efficient Coding Proper Debugging Efficient Program Maintenance 28 Noornilo Nafees

Limits of Flowcharts:

Limits of Flowcharts It is difficult to use flowcharts for large program Difficult to modify Cost etc,. 29 Noornilo Nafees

Design Structures:

Sequence control structure Flow chart Pseudocode Process 1 Process 2 Process n Process 2 Process n Process 1 Design Structures 30 Noornilo Nafees

Design Structures:

Sequence control structure The instructions are computed in sequence i.e. it performs instruction one after another. It uses top-down approach. Design Structures 31 Noornilo Nafees

Example:

Example START C=a+b Print c Read a,b STOP 32 Noornilo Nafees

SELECTION CONTROL STRUCTURE:

SELECTION CONTROL STRUCTURE It is used for making decisions. It allows the program to make a choice from alternative paths. IF …THEN IF …THEN… ELSE CASE etc., 33 Noornilo Nafees

IF…THEN:

IF…THEN Pseudocode Flow chart IF condition THEN process 1 . . END IF . . If condition NO YES Process 1 34 Noornilo Nafees

Example:

Example Start Read a If a>0 Print a is Positive Stop no yes 35 Noornilo Nafees

IF…THEN…ELSE:

IF…THEN…ELSE Pseudocode Flowchart IF condition THEN process 1 . . ELSE process 2 . . END IF . . If condition YES NO Process 1 Process 2 36 Noornilo Nafees

Example:

Example Start Read a,b If a>b Print a is Greater Print b is Greater Stop no yes 37 Noornilo Nafees

CASE structure:

CASE structure Pseudocode Flow chart . . CASE Type Case Type-1: Process 1 Case Type-2: Process 2 . . Case Type-n: Process n . . END CASE Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Process 1 Process 2 Process 3 no no no yes yes yes 38 Noornilo Nafees

Slide39:

start stop Read m1,m2,m3 Avg=(m1+m2+m3)/3 If Avg>=60 If Avg>=50 If Avg>=35 Fail Print First Class Print Second Class Print Third Class Example: Finding the Grade 39 Noornilo Nafees

Looping control structure:

Looping control structure It is used to execute some instructions several time based on some condition. WHILE loop Do…WHILE loop etc., 40 Noornilo Nafees

WHILE Loop :

WHILE Loop Pseudocode Flow chart . . WHILE condition . . Body of the loop . . END WHILE Body of The loop condition no yes 41 Noornilo Nafees

Example:

Example Start Num=0 Num=Num+1 Print Num while Num<5 stop no yes 42 Noornilo Nafees

DO…WHILE Loop :

DO…WHILE Loop Pseudocode Flow chart DO . . Body of the loop . . WHILE condition . . END WHILE Body of The loop condition no yes 43 Noornilo Nafees

Example:

Example Start Num=0 Num=Num+1 Print Num while Num<5 stop no yes 44 Noornilo Nafees

Example: Finding the area of a circle:

Example: Finding the area of a circle Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of r Step3: Calculate area Step4: Print area Step5: Stop 45 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode Set area READ the r COMPUTE area=3.14*r*r PRINT area stop 46 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart START area=3.14*r*r Print area Read r STOP 47 Noornilo Nafees

Find the largest among three Numbers:

Find the largest among three Numbers Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of a, b, c Step3: IF (a>b) and (a>c) THEN print a is largest ELSE IF (b>c) THEN print b is largest ELSE print c is largest Step4: Stop 48 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ a, b, c IF (a>b) and (a>c) THEN WRITE a is largest ELSE IF (b>c) THEN WRITE b is largest ELSE WRITE c is largest ENDIF stop 49 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart START Print b Is largest Read a,b,c stop If (a>b) and (a>c) If b>c Print a Is largest Print c Is largest no yes yes no 50 Noornilo Nafees

Finding roots of the Quadratic equation:

Finding roots of the Quadratic equation Step:1 Start Step:2 Enter the values of a,b,c Step:3 Find the value of D Using the Formula, D = b*b-4*a*c Step:4 If D is greater than or equal to zero find 2 roots root1 (-b+sqrt(D))/(2*a) root2 (-b-sqrt(D))/(2*a) Step:5 Print root1 & root2 Step:6 If D is less than zero, then print the roots are imaginary Step:7 Stop 51 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode Set root1,root2 READ the value of a, b, c Find D b*b-4*a*c IF D>=0 THEN calculate root1=(-b+sqrt(D))/(2*a) root2=(-b-sqrt(D))/(2*a) ELSE Roots are imaginary END IF WRITE root1,root2 Stop 52 Noornilo Nafees

Flow chart:

Flow chart Start Stop D=b*b-4*a*c Root1=[-b+sqrt(D)]/(2*a) Root2=[-b+sqrt(D)]/(2*a) Read a,b,c Print root1,root2 If D>=0 no yes Print roots are imaginary 53 Noornilo Nafees

Swapping two variables:

Swapping two variables Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of a, b Step3: c = a a = b b = c Step4: Print the value of a and b Step5: Stop 54 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ the value of a, b To swap use c = a a = b b = c WRITE a, b stop 55 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart START c = a a = b b = c Print a, b Read a, b STOP 56 Noornilo Nafees

Swapping two variables without using another variable:

Swapping two variables without using another variable Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of a, b Step3: a = a + b b = a - b a = a - b Step4: Print the value of a and b Step5: Stop 57 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ the value of a, b To swap use a = a + b b = a - b a = a - b WRITE a, b stop 58 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart START a = a + b b = a - b a = a - b Print a, b Read a, b STOP 59 Noornilo Nafees

Finding the year is leap year or not:

Finding the year is leap year or not Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of year Step3: IF year % 4 ==0 THEN print It is a Leap year ELSE print It is not a Leap year Step4: Stop 60 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ year IF year % 4 ==0 THEN WRITE It is a Leap year ELSE WRITE It is not a Leap year ENDIF stop 61 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart Start Read year year % 4 ==0 Print It is a Leap year Print It is not a Leap year Stop no yes 62 Noornilo Nafees

Finding the Factorial:

Finding the Factorial Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of n and set i =1 Step3: While i <= n do fact =fact * i i = i + 1 else Goto step5 Step4: Goto step 3 Step5: print the value of fact Step6: Stop 63 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ the value of n and set i =1 WHILE (i <= n) do fact =fact * i i = i + 1 ENDWHILE Repeat the loop until condition fails WRITE fact stop 64 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart Start Read n i = 1 fact=fact * i i=i+1 Print fact while i<=n stop no yes 65 Noornilo Nafees

Finding the Sum of the digits:

Finding the Sum of the digits Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of n and set i = 0, sum = 0 Step3: While n>0 do r=n%10 sum=sum + r n=n/10 else Goto step5 Step4: Goto step 3 Step5: print the value of sum Step6: Stop 66 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ the value of n and set i =0, sum=0 WHILE (n>0) do r=n%10 sum=sum + r n=n/10 ENDWHILE Repeat the loop until condition fails WRITE sum stop 67 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart Start r = 0,sum=0 r=n%10 sum=sum + r n=n/10 Print sum while n>0 stop no yes Read n 68 Noornilo Nafees

Finding the Reverse of a Number:

Finding the Reverse of a Number Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of n and set i = 0, sum = 0 Step3: While n>0 do r=n%10 sum=sum *10 + r n=n/10 else Goto step5 Step4: Goto step 3 Step5: print the value of sum Step6: Stop 69 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ the value of n and set i =0, sum=0 WHILE (n>0) do r=n%10 sum=sum *10 + r n=n/10 ENDWHILE Repeat the loop until condition fails WRITE sum stop 70 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart Start r = 0,sum=0 r=n%10 sum=sum *10 + r n=n/10 Print sum while n>0 stop no yes Read n 71 Noornilo Nafees

Armstrong Number:

Armstrong Number Example: 153 1 3 +5 3 + 3 3 =153 72 Noornilo Nafees

Finding an Armstrong Number:

Finding an Armstrong Number Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of n and set a = n, sum = 0 Step3: While n>0 do r=n%10 sum=sum + r*r*r n=n/10 else Goto step5 Step4: Goto step 3 Step5: If a = sum then Print Armstrong Number Else Print It is Not an Armstrong Number Endif Step6: Stop 73 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ the value of n and set a =n, sum=0 WHILE (n>0) do r=n%10 sum=sum + r*r*r n=n/10 ENDWHILE Repeat the loop until condition fails IF a=sum THEN WRITE Armstrong Number ELSE WRITE It is not an Armstrong Number ENDIF stop 74 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart Start a = n,sum=0 r=n%10 sum=sum + r*r*r n=n/10 Print Armstrong No while n>0 stop no yes Read n if a=sum Print It is Not an Armstrong No 75 Noornilo Nafees

Fibonacci series:

Fibonacci series Example: 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 11…. 76 Noornilo Nafees

Finding the Fibonacci series:

Finding the Fibonacci series Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of n and set f=0,f1=-1, f2=1 Step3: While (f<n) do f=f1+f2 f1=f2 f2=f Print f else Goto step5 Step4: Goto step 3 Step5: Stop 77 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ the value of n and set f=0 ,f1=-1, f2=1 WHILE (f<n) do f=f1+f2 f1=f2 f2=f WRITE f ENDWHILE Repeat the loop until condition fails stop 78 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart Start f=0,f1= -1,f2=1 f=f1+f2 f1=f2 f2=f Print f while f<n stop no yes Read n 79 Noornilo Nafees

Conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit:

Conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of Celsius Step3: Fahrenheit = (1.8* Celsius) + 32 Step4: Print Fahrenheit Step5: Stop 80 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode Set Fahrenheit READ the Celsius COMPUTE Fahrenheit = (1.8* Celsius) + 32 PRINT Fahrenheit stop 81 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart START Fahrenheit = (1.8* Celsius) + 32 Print Fahrenheit Read Celsius STOP 82 Noornilo Nafees

Conversion of Fahrenheit to Celsius:

Conversion of Fahrenheit to Celsius Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of Fahrenheit Step3:Calculate Celsius =(Fahrenheit – 32)/1.8 Step4: Print Celsius Step5: Stop 83 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode Set Celsius READ the Fahrenheit COMPUTE Celsius =(Fahrenheit – 32)/1.8 PRINT Celsius stop 84 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart START Celsius =(Fahrenheit – 32)/1.8 Print Celsius Read Fahrenheit STOP 85 Noornilo Nafees

Finding the sum of odd number between 1 to n:

Finding the sum of odd number between 1 to n Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of n and set sum=0,i=1 Step3: While (i<=n) do sum=sum+i i=i+2 else Goto step5 Step4: Goto step 3 Step5: Print sum Step6: Stop 86 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ the value of n and set sum=0,i=1 WHILE (i<=n) do sum=sum+i i=i+2 ENDWHILE Repeat the loop until condition fails WRITE sum stop 87 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart Start sum=0,i=1 sum=sum+i i=i+2 Print sum stop Read n While i<=n 88 Noornilo Nafees

Finding the sum of even number between 1 to n:

Finding the sum of even number between 1 to n Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of n and set sum=0,i=0 Step3: While (i<=n) do sum=sum+i i=i+2 else Goto step 5 Step4: Goto step 3 Step5: Print sum Step6: Stop 89 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ the value of n and set sum=0,i=0 WHILE (i<=n) do sum=sum+i i=i+2 ENDWHILE Repeat the loop until condition fails WRITE sum stop 90 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart Start sum=0,i=0 sum=sum+i i=i+2 Print sum stop Read n While i <=n 91 Noornilo Nafees

Conversion of Binary number to Decimal:

Conversion of Binary number to Decimal Algorithm Step1: Start Step2: Read the value of n and set i = 0, sum = 0 Step3: While n>0 do r=n%10 sum=sum + r*pow(2,i) n=n/10 i=i+1 else Goto step5 Step4: Goto step 3 Step5: print the value of sum Step6: Stop 92 Noornilo Nafees

Pseudocode:

Pseudocode READ the value of n and set i =0, sum=0 WHILE (n>0) do r=n%10 sum=sum + r*pow(2,i) n=n/10 i=i+1 ENDWHILE Repeat the loop until condition fails WRITE sum stop 93 Noornilo Nafees

Flowchart:

Flowchart Start sum=0,i=0 Print sum stop Read n While n>0 r=n%10 sum=sum + r*Pow(2,i) n=n/10 i=i+1 94 Noornilo Nafees

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