: Joseph Stiglitz, an economist and winner of the Nobel Prize defines Globalization as follows: : Joseph Stiglitz, an economist and winner of the Nobel Prize defines Globalization as follows: Globalization "is the closer integration of the countries and peoples of the world ...brought about by the enormous reduction of costs of transportation and communication, and the breaking down of artificial barriers to the flows of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and people across borders." Held and McGrew, 1999 : Held and McGrew, 1999 "Globalization, global integration: ‘…a widening, deepening and speeding up of interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary social life from the cultural to the criminal, the financial to the spiritual. Slide 6: Globalization is divided into four aspects or dimensions, (Held & McGrew, 1999)
Cultural Ritva Kivikkokangas-Sandgren, 2005 : Ritva Kivikkokangas-Sandgren, 2005 Interregional flows and networks of interaction within all realms of social activity from cultural to the criminal on different regional levels from global to local. Slide 8: Thomas Friedman, political reporter for the New York Times, defines Globalization in terms of PARADIGM SHIFTS.
We can compare the contemporary world to the world of the Cold War prior to the fall of Communism (1989). The following is a partial list of contrasts derived from Thomas Friedman's book The Lexus and the Olive Tree. : The following is a partial list of contrasts derived from Thomas Friedman's book The Lexus and the Olive Tree. Allahwerdi (2001): : Allahwerdi (2001): Five dimensions of globalization:
Good governance by people’s participation,
Ecological sustainability and
Multicultural society Slide 11: Bosworth and Gordon: A survey of some key processes Expansion of international commerce
Rising importance of private capital flows
Increasing travel and migration
Increased communication and interaction between peoples History of Globalization : History of Globalization Sharing between world cultures began 1000s of years ago.
In the 19th century cultural sharing exploded. 19th Century : 19th Century Europeans discover the Americas
Telegraph 20th -21st Century : 20th -21st Century Free market capitalism
End of the Cold War
24/7 OLD GLOBALIZATION : OLD GLOBALIZATION Was the medium of global empires to enlarge their power as superpowers. NEW GLOBALIZATION : NEW GLOBALIZATION Shrinkening the world by internet and IT, global corporations and social movements (NGO’s). Globalization today is driven by a confluence of forces: Economic shifts, technological, political and cultural shifts. Slide 19: One way to approach this: think about the world before globalization: Distance mattered—space often measured in time
Territorial boundaries more or less kept things in and out
Society and culture had spatial referents
Everything had its “place” (literally) Slide 24: Distance becomes almost irrelevant (the end of distance)
Boundaries are increasingly permeable.
Groups and cultures increasingly don’t have a territorial basis (deterritorialization)
A new kind of non-physical “place” is emerging (supraterritoriality) Slide 27: DIMENSIONS
OF GLOBALIZATION ECONOMIC : ECONOMIC Global finance and market of economy, multinationals, networking, international trade and business, new labor markets, new development cooperation. Strengthening power and influence of international institutions: : Strengthening power and influence of international institutions: IMF : IMF Oversees the global financial system by following the macroeconomic policies of its member countries
Stabilizing international exchange rates and facilitating development through the enforcement of liberalising economic policies.
Restructuring or aid.
Offers highly leveraged loans, mainly to poorer countries. WTO : WTO Replaced General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT)
Provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements, and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements. NAFTA : NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement (1993)
Motor vehicles and automotive parts, computers, textiles, and agriculture. WB : WB Provides leveraged loans to developing countries for capital programs.
Stated goal of reducing poverty.
Promote foreign investment, international trade and facilitate capital investment POLITICAL : POLITICAL Human rights, international terrorism, war and new security problems. Slide 36: Politics and Globalization
Nation states are less able to control
social and economic events within their
Global/regional decision-making bodies
(UN, EU, etc.) are rising in importance
They are not yet fully democratic/accountable
“CNN” effect pressures governments to
intervene on human rights violations
International non-state actors have
gained power DEMOCRACY : DEMOCRACY Good governance by people’s participation, Human rights. ECOLOGICAL : ECOLOGICAL Sustainable globalization: use of common resources and legislation (biosphere; water, forest, earth, air, atmosphere). CULTURAL : CULTURAL Multicultural society of different identities: local, political, gender, family, religious, national, individual and social. Multicultural education for intercultural literacy. TREND /SCENARIO OF GLOBALIZATION IN HEALTH CARE : TREND /SCENARIO OF GLOBALIZATION IN HEALTH CARE Countries look beyond their borders to promote effective health care strategies.
Population health status and its distribution are determined by population-level influences, individual- level health risks, and the health care system. Slide 51: Rapid advances in communications and travel and an increasingly integrated global economy are defining new challenges and reviving earlier ones.
The educated and Internet-savvy consumers, expectations of patients, highly trained physicians/ nurse / technicians.
The rapid growing of technologies and new discoveries helps the rapid reduction of infectious, communicable diseases more specifically vaccine-preventable diseases of children are some of the forces behind the demand for globalization in healthcare. Proponents of Globalization : Proponents of Globalization Increased Employment
More “Service” Jobs
(like gas? like cars?
like food? like textbooks?) FREE TRADE MEANS BETTER JOBS : FREE TRADE MEANS BETTER JOBS Refocus US jobs
Hollywood Opponents of Globalization : Opponents of Globalization THIRD WORLD
Exploitation of child labor
Destruction of indigenous cultures
Destruction of small farmers
Genetically engineered foods Opponents of Globalization : Opponents of Globalization USA
Loss of small farms
Loss of small businesses RACE TO THE BOTTOM : RACE TO THE BOTTOM NAFTA & GATT
Capitalize on Third World Poverty
Low environmental standards
Companies compete to find the poorest most desperate country in which to manufacture Slide 57: Developed nations have outsourced manufacturing and white collar jobs.
Less jobs for their people.
Manufacturing work is outsourced to developing nations like China where the cost of manufacturing goods and wages are lower.
Programmers, editors, scientists and accountants have lost their jobs due to outsourcing to cheaper locations like India. Outsourcing, Off-shoring, and Globalization : Outsourcing, Off-shoring, and Globalization The creation of new jobs - blue collar and white collar – in the third/developing world is just one controversial element of globalization.
Small Farms and Dairies in decline. Slide 59: Globalization has led to exploitation of labor.
Prisoners and child workers are used to work in inhumane conditions.
Safety standards are ignored to produce cheap goods. Child Labor : Child Labor Christians helped to stop Child Labor in the United States. United States 1909 Pakistan 2006 Slide 61: Job insecurity. Earlier people had stable, permanent jobs.
Now people live in constant dread of losing their jobs to competition.
Increased job competition has led to reduction in wages and consequently lower standards of living. Slide 63: Terrorists have access to sophisticated weapons enhancing their ability to inflict damage.
Terrorists use the Internet for communicating among themselves. Slide 64: Companies have set up industries causing pollution in countries with poor regulation of pollution. Slide 66: Protection dulls US workers ambitions
Erecting barriers to FREE TRADE causing other counties to punish the US
US workers are mismatched with service/technology society
People need to be technical
Creative PROS AND CONS OF GLOBALIZATION : PROS AND CONS OF GLOBALIZATION PRO-GLOBALIZATION
World Economic Relationships
“cheap” goods ANTI-GLOBALIZATION
Child labor Exploitation
Third World Poverty
Environmental hazards Who benefits from free trade, and who does not? : Who benefits from free trade, and who does not? Corporations
Real smart people who invent things
Real aggressive people who start large companies
Communist Governments like China Poor People in Poor Countries
Poor People in the US
Non-technical people in the US
Manual Labor in the US
Small Farms and Businesses What could be an ideal economic globalization? : What could be an ideal economic globalization? The Solar Economy; Renewable Energy For a Sustainable Global Future.
America's ideal of freedom, citizens find the dignity and security of economic independence.
Worldwide education and health. Slide 71: WHERE WE ARE... WHERE WE WANT TO GO . . . GLOBALLY-COMPETITIVE Malaysia Japan Thailand Indonesia Taiwan India China South Korea Hong Kong Vietnam Singapore Here! By Year 2010 Philippines Slide 72: Amartya Sen: Normative Debates
(Good vs. Bad)
Whether globalization is a Western curse
Whether globalization fairly benefits the poor
Whether the institutional infrastructure of globalization is adequate Slide 73: “Over the past decade globalization has been driven by technological advances…..But globalization has also been driven by policies and ideas…”
Bosworth & Gordon Slide 74: Globalization critics as was recently
presented as the Global Agenda, in
the ILO’s report on
Opportunities for All,
Presidents of Tanzania and Finland
in 2004. Slide 77: Presented by:
JOFREY A. WONG, RN, RM, MN
PhD in Development Management