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Joseph Stiglitz, an economist and winner of the Nobel Prize defines Globalization as follows: : 

Joseph Stiglitz, an economist and winner of the Nobel Prize defines Globalization as follows: Globalization "is the closer integration of the countries and peoples of the world ...brought about by the enormous reduction of costs of transportation and communication, and the breaking down of artificial barriers to the flows of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and people across borders."

Held and McGrew, 1999 : 

Held and McGrew, 1999 "Globalization, global integration: ‘…a widening, deepening and speeding up of interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary social life from the cultural to the criminal, the financial to the spiritual.

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Globalization is divided into four aspects or dimensions, (Held & McGrew, 1999) Economic Environmental Political Cultural

Ritva Kivikkokangas-Sandgren, 2005 : 

Ritva Kivikkokangas-Sandgren, 2005 Interregional flows and networks of interaction within all realms of social activity from cultural to the criminal on different regional levels from global to local.

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Thomas Friedman, political reporter for the New York Times, defines Globalization in terms of PARADIGM SHIFTS. We can compare the contemporary world to the world of the Cold War prior to the fall of Communism (1989).

The following is a partial list of contrasts derived from Thomas Friedman's book The Lexus and the Olive Tree. : 

The following is a partial list of contrasts derived from Thomas Friedman's book The Lexus and the Olive Tree.

Allahwerdi (2001): : 

Allahwerdi (2001): Five dimensions of globalization: Global economy, Good governance by people’s participation, Ecological sustainability and Multicultural society

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Bosworth and Gordon: A survey of some key processes Expansion of international commerce Rising importance of private capital flows Increasing travel and migration Increased communication and interaction between peoples

History of Globalization : 

History of Globalization Sharing between world cultures began 1000s of years ago. In the 19th century cultural sharing exploded.

19th Century : 

19th Century Europeans discover the Americas European Imperialism Industrial Revolution Inventions Transportation Telephone Telegraph

20th -21st Century : 

20th -21st Century Free market capitalism End of the Cold War THE INTERNET Exchange ideas Transfer $$ Share cultured 24/7


OLD GLOBALIZATION Was the medium of global empires to enlarge their power as superpowers.


NEW GLOBALIZATION Shrinkening the world by internet and IT, global corporations and social movements (NGO’s). Globalization today is driven by a confluence of forces: Economic shifts, technological, political and cultural shifts.

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One way to approach this: think about the world before globalization: Distance mattered—space often measured in time Territorial boundaries more or less kept things in and out Society and culture had spatial referents Everything had its “place” (literally)

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Distance becomes almost irrelevant (the end of distance) Boundaries are increasingly permeable. Groups and cultures increasingly don’t have a territorial basis (deterritorialization) A new kind of non-physical “place” is emerging (supraterritoriality)

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ECONOMIC Global finance and market of economy, multinationals, networking, international trade and business, new labor markets, new development cooperation.

Strengthening power and influence of international institutions: : 

Strengthening power and influence of international institutions:

IMF : 

IMF Oversees the global financial system by following the macroeconomic policies of its member countries Stabilizing international exchange rates and facilitating development through the enforcement of liberalising economic policies. Restructuring or aid. Offers highly leveraged loans, mainly to poorer countries.

WTO : 

WTO Replaced General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT) Provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements, and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements.


NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement (1993) Removed Tariffs Motor vehicles and automotive parts, computers, textiles, and agriculture.

WB : 

WB Provides leveraged loans to developing countries for capital programs. Stated goal of reducing poverty. Promote foreign investment, international trade and facilitate capital investment


POLITICAL Human rights, international terrorism, war and new security problems.

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Politics and Globalization Nation states are less able to control social and economic events within their territory Global/regional decision-making bodies (UN, EU, etc.) are rising in importance but… They are not yet fully democratic/accountable “CNN” effect pressures governments to intervene on human rights violations International non-state actors have gained power


DEMOCRACY Good governance by people’s participation, Human rights.


ECOLOGICAL Sustainable globalization: use of common resources and legislation (biosphere; water, forest, earth, air, atmosphere).


CULTURAL Multicultural society of different identities: local, political, gender, family, religious, national, individual and social. Multicultural education for intercultural literacy.


TREND /SCENARIO OF GLOBALIZATION IN HEALTH CARE Countries look beyond their borders to promote effective health care strategies. Population health status and its distribution are determined by population-level influences, individual- level health risks, and the health care system.

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Rapid advances in communications and travel and an increasingly integrated global economy are defining new challenges and reviving earlier ones. The educated and Internet-savvy consumers, expectations of patients, highly trained physicians/ nurse / technicians. The rapid growing of technologies and new discoveries helps the rapid reduction of infectious, communicable diseases more specifically vaccine-preventable diseases of children are some of the forces behind the demand for globalization in healthcare.

Proponents of Globalization : 

Proponents of Globalization Increased Employment Higher Wages More “Service” Jobs Cheaper Goods (like gas? like cars? like food? like textbooks?)


FREE TRADE MEANS BETTER JOBS Refocus US jobs Boeing Microsoft Hollywood

Opponents of Globalization : 

Opponents of Globalization THIRD WORLD Exploitation of child labor Environmental degradation Destruction of indigenous cultures Destruction of small farmers Genetically engineered foods

Opponents of Globalization : 

Opponents of Globalization USA Corporate greed Job loss Retirement loss Trade imbalance Loss of small farms Loss of small businesses


RACE TO THE BOTTOM NAFTA & GATT Capitalize on Third World Poverty Low environmental standards Low wages Poor safety Child labor Companies compete to find the poorest most desperate country in which to manufacture

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Developed nations have outsourced manufacturing and white collar jobs. Less jobs for their people. Manufacturing work is outsourced to developing nations like China where the cost of manufacturing goods and wages are lower. Programmers, editors, scientists and accountants have lost their jobs due to outsourcing to cheaper locations like India.

Outsourcing, Off-shoring, and Globalization : 

Outsourcing, Off-shoring, and Globalization The creation of new jobs - blue collar and white collar – in the third/developing world is just one controversial element of globalization. Small Farms and Dairies in decline.

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Globalization has led to exploitation of labor. Prisoners and child workers are used to work in inhumane conditions. Safety standards are ignored to produce cheap goods.

Child Labor : 

Child Labor Christians helped to stop Child Labor in the United States. United States 1909 Pakistan 2006

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Job insecurity. Earlier people had stable, permanent jobs. Now people live in constant dread of losing their jobs to competition. Increased job competition has led to reduction in wages and consequently lower standards of living.

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Terrorists have access to sophisticated weapons enhancing their ability to inflict damage. Terrorists use the Internet for communicating among themselves.

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Companies have set up industries causing pollution in countries with poor regulation of pollution.

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Protection dulls US workers ambitions Erecting barriers to FREE TRADE causing other counties to punish the US US workers are mismatched with service/technology society People need to be technical Mathematical Creative


PROS AND CONS OF GLOBALIZATION PRO-GLOBALIZATION Multinational Corporations World Economic Relationships Free Trade “cheap” goods ANTI-GLOBALIZATION Child labor Exploitation Third World Poverty Protectionism Environmental hazards

Who benefits from free trade, and who does not? : 

Who benefits from free trade, and who does not? Corporations Real smart people who invent things Real aggressive people who start large companies Communist Governments like China Poor People in Poor Countries Poor People in the US Non-technical people in the US Manual Labor in the US The Environment Small Farms and Businesses

What could be an ideal economic globalization? : 

What could be an ideal economic globalization? The Solar Economy; Renewable Energy For a Sustainable Global Future. America's ideal of freedom, citizens find the dignity and security of economic independence. Worldwide education and health.

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WHERE WE ARE... WHERE WE WANT TO GO . . . GLOBALLY-COMPETITIVE Malaysia Japan Thailand Indonesia Taiwan India China South Korea Hong Kong Vietnam      Singapore       Here! By Year 2010  Philippines

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Amartya Sen: Normative Debates (Good vs. Bad) Whether globalization is a Western curse Whether globalization fairly benefits the poor Whether the institutional infrastructure of globalization is adequate

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“Over the past decade globalization has been driven by technological advances…..But globalization has also been driven by policies and ideas…” Bosworth & Gordon

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Globalization critics as was recently presented as the Global Agenda, in the ILO’s report on A Fair Globalisation: Creating Opportunities for All, by the Presidents of Tanzania and Finland in 2004.

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Presented by: JOFREY A. WONG, RN, RM, MN PhD in Development Management (Educational Administration)

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