Commodity Market in India : Commodity Market in India Joseph Anbarasu on 12 – 1 - 2011 Commodity market : Commodity market A potato producer could purchase potato futures on a commodity exchange to lock in a price for a sale of a specified amount of potato at a future date, while at the same time a speculator could buy and sell potato futures with the hope of profiting from future changes in potato prices. Process : Process Introduction : Introduction A revolution in Commodity derivatives and risk management
Commodity options banned in India between 1952 and 2002
Commodity market began from 2003 onwards
Almost all stock exchanges have commodity market segments apart from 3 national level electronic exchanges
Almost Eighty commodities are in the list now Three Electronic Exchanges : Three Electronic Exchanges The NMCE has most major agricultural commodities and metals under its fold,
The NCDEX, has a large number of agriculture, metal and energy commodities.
MCX also offers many commodities for futures trading (We will see this exchange in detail at the end). History : History Cotton Trade Association started futures trading in 1875
Derivatives trading started in oilseeds in Bombay (1900), raw jute and jute goods in Calcutta (1912), wheat in Hapur (1913) and in Bullion in Bombay (1920)
The Government of Bombay prohibited options business in cotton in 1939
In 1943, forward trading was prohibited in oilseeds and some other commodities including food-grains, spices, vegetable oils, sugar and cloth. After Independence : After Independence The Parliament passed Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952
The Act envisages three-tier regulation:
The Exchange which organizes forward trading in commodities can regulate trading on a day-to-day basis;
the Forward Markets Commission provides regulatory oversight under the powers delegated to it by the central Government, and
the Central Government - Department of Consumer Affairs, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution is the ultimate regulatory authority.
In 1960s, following several years of severe draughts that forced many farmers to default on forward contracts (and even caused some suicides), forward trading was banned in many commodities considered primary or essential. Policy Shift – Kabra Committee : Policy Shift – Kabra Committee Government set up a Committee in 1993 to examine the role of futures trading. The Kabra Committee recommended allowing futures trading in 17 commodity groups.
It recommended certain amendments to Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act 1952, particularly allowing options trading in goods and registration of brokers with Forward Markets Commission. After Effect : After Effect The Government accepted most of these recommendations and futures trading was permitted in all recommended commodities.
Derivatives do perform a role in risk management led the government to change its stance.
Liberalization facilitates market forces to act freely
The next decade is being touted as the decade of commodities. Why Derivatives? : Why Derivatives? The possibility of adverse price changes in future creates risk for businesses.
Derivatives are used to reduce or eliminate price risk arising from unforeseen price changes.
A derivative is a financial contract whose price depends on, or is derived from, the price of another asset.
Two important derivatives are futures and options. Commodity Futures Contracts : Commodity Futures Contracts A futures contract is an agreement for buying or selling a commodity for a predetermined delivery price at a specific future time.
They are Standardized Contracts
Traded in Future Exchanges (Default is taken care)
Chicago Board of Trade in 1848 Commodity Options contracts : Commodity Options contracts Like futures, options are also financial instruments used for hedging and speculation.
The commodity option holder has the right, but not the obligation, to buy (or sell) a specific quantity of a commodity at a specified price on or before a specified date.
Buyer and Selling.
Call Option and Put option
The option holder will exercise the option only if it is beneficial to him; otherwise he will let the option lapse. Example : Example For example, suppose a farmer buys a put option to sell 100 Quintals of wheat at a price of $25 per quintal and pays a ‘premium’ of $0.5 per quintal (or a total of $50). If the price of wheat declines to say $20 before expiry, the farmer will exercise his option and sell his wheat at the agreed price of $25 per quintal. However, if the market price of wheat increases to say $30 per quintal, it would be advantageous for the farmer to sell it directly in the open market at the spot price, rather than exercise his option to sell at $25 per quintal. Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX) : Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX) Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX) is an independent commodity exchange based in India.
Established in 2003 and Based in Mumbai
Turnover in 2009 was USD 1.24 trillion
Sixth largest commodity exchange
It was established in 2003 and is based in Mumbai.
MCX offers futures trading in
bullion, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, energy, and a number of agricultural commodities (menthol oil, cardamom, potatoes, palm oil and others). Organisation : Organisation MCX has also set up in joint venture the MCX Stock Exchange.
Earlier spin-offs from the company include the National Spot Exchange, an electronic spot exchange for bullion and agricultural commodities, and
National Bulk Handling Corporation (NBHC) India's largest collateral management company which provides bulk storage and handling of agricultural products. MCX Achievement : MCX Achievement It is regulated by the Forward Markets Commission.
MCX is India's No. 1 commodity exchange with 83% market share in 2009
Competitor is National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Ltd
Globally, MCX ranks no. 1 in silver, no. 2 in natural gas, no. 3 in crude oil and gold in futures trading
The highest traded item is gold.
MCX has several strategic alliances with leading exchanges across the globe
As of early 2010, the normal daily turnover of MCX was about US$ 6 to 8 billion
MCX now reaches out to about 800 cities and towns in India with the help of about 126,000 trading terminals
MCX COMDEX is India's first and only composite commodity futures price index Key shareholders : Key shareholders Financial Technologies (I) Ltd.,
State Bank of India and its associates,
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD),
National Stock Exchange of India Ltd. (NSE),
Fid Fund (Mauritius) Ltd. Corporation Bank,
Union Bank of India,
Bank of India,
Bank of Baroda ,
SBI Life Insurance Co. Ltd.,
IL & FS, Merrill Lynch, and
New York Stock Exchange Unresolved Issues : Unresolved Issues Commodity Options
Farmers not beneficiaries in price rise
The Warehousing and Standardization
Physical Delivery needs backup
Cash Versus Physical Settlement
Lack of Economy of Scale
Tax and Legal bottlenecks
Across States impossible
Indoctrination is ineffective Thanks : Thanks Narender L. Ahuja for his article “Commodity Derivatives Market in India: Development, Regulation and Future Prospects” International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, ISSN 1450-2887 Issue 2 (2006), Euro-Journals Publishing, Inc. 2006