Collection of Data : Collection of Data Methods of Research A. Definition : A. Definition Data, plural for datum, are collection of numbers, quantities, facts or records, used as based fro drawing conclusions or making inferences. ( Good, p 155)
Data are what research is searching for and which are subjected to analysis, statistical procedures and interpretation so that inferences, principles or generalizations are drawn.
Data also reveal unsatisfactory conditions that need to be improved. The application of newly discovered facts and principles to remedy unsatisfactory conditions becomes the basis of human progress and the improvement of the quality of human life. B. Classification of Data according to Source : B. Classification of Data according to Source Data are classified according to source as follows:
Data that are gathered from primary sources.
2. Secondary Data
Data gathered from secondary sources. C. Advantages of Primary and Secondary Data : C. Advantages of Primary and Secondary Data Primary Data Secondary Data The primary data frequently give detailed definitions of terms and statistical units used in the surveys.
The primary data usually includes a copy of the schedule and a description of the procedure used in the selection of the type of sample and in collecting data.
Usually broken down into finer classifications. Secondary data are more convenient to use because they are already condensed and organized.
Analysis and interpretation are done more easily
Libraries make secondary data more easily accesible D. Categories of Data Gathered : D. Categories of Data Gathered Facts
These are recollections, observations and perceptions of respondents about themselves and of other people.
2. Attitudes and Feelings
These are the respondent’s ideas and thoughts about the research, topic and his personal feelings about the worth of the item being investigated.
These data may include the respondent’s opinion about or his actual behavior, in a given situation.
4. Psychomotor skills
This refer to the manipulative skills of the individual and his activities that involve his five senses.
5. Results of test and experiments.
6. All other data gathered from the primary and secondary sources of data E. Selecting the Method of Collecting Data : E. Selecting the Method of Collecting Data Clerical tools
a. The questionnaire method
b. The interview method
c. The empirical observation method
d. The registration method
e. The testing method
f. The experimental method
g. The library method
B. Mechanical Devices
c. camera, etc.
The choice of the method depends upon some factors such as the nature of the problem, the population of the universe under study, the cost of the survey, and the time factor. F. The Research Instruments or Tool : F. The Research Instruments or Tool Mechanical Devices
Mechanical devices includes almost all tools used.
B. Clerical Tools
Clerical tools are used when the researcher studies people and gathers data on the feelings, emotions, attitudes and judgments of the subjects. Some examples of clerical tools are filed records, histories, case studies, questionnaires, and interview schedules G. Characteristics of a Good Research Instrument : G. Characteristics of a Good Research Instrument The instrument must be valid and reliable
It must be based upon the conceptual framework or what the researcher wants to find out.
It must gather data suitable for and relevant to the research topic.
It must gather data that would test the hypotheses or answer the questions under ivestigation.
It should be free from all kinds of bias
It must contain only questions or items that are unequivocal.
It must contain clear and definite directions to accomplish it.
If the instrument is a mwchanical device, it must be of the best or latest model.
It must be accompanied by a good cover letter.
It must be accompanied, if possible, by a letter or recommendation from a sponsor.