DEMONSTRATIVES

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DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS THIS THAT THOSE THESE

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DEMONSTRATIVES ARE THE WORDS THAT MEAN THIS, THAT, THESE AND THOSE. DEMONSTRATIVES CAN BE ADJECTIVES OR THEY CAN BE PRONOUNS. LOOK AT THIS PARAGRAPH: THERE ARE TWO SHIRTS I REALLY LIKE, THIS ONE THAT I HAVE IN MY HAND AND THAT YELLOW SHIRT I WAS LOOKING AT ON THAT RACK OVER THERE. I LIKE THIS SHIRT BECAUSE IT IS WHITE AND GOES WITH EVERYTHING, BUT THAT ONE IS MORE STYLISH AND I THINK IT LOOKS BETTER ON ME. WHAT DO YOU THINK? * IN THIS PARAGRAPH, THIS ONE AND THAT ONE ARE PRONOUNS, AND THAT AND THIS ARE ADJECTIVES. NOTE THAT IN THE CASE OF THE ADJECTIVES, BOTH ARE FOLLOWED BY THE NOUN SHIRT OR RACK, WHEREAS THE PRONOUNS , ATHOUGH THEY REFER BACK TO THE NOUN SHIRT, ARE ALONE OR WITH ONE.

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IN SPANISH, THERE ARE THREE SETS OF DEMONSTRATIVES. LET’S LOOK ONLY AT DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. FOR THIS/THESE, YOU SAY: ESTA MOCHILA – THIS BOOKBAG ESTOS LIBROS – THESE BOOKS ESTE PAPEL – THIS PAPER ESTAS SILLAS – THESE CHAIRS SINGULAR PLURAL MASCULINO ESTE ESTOS FEMININA ESTA ESTAS

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FOR THAT AND THOSE, YOU WILL USE: ESE CHICO – THAT BOY ESA SEÑORA – THAT LADY ESOS PAPELES – THOSE PAPERS ESAS CLASES – THOSE CLASSES SINGULAR PLURAL MASCULINO ESE ESOS FEMININA ESA ESAS

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HOWEVER, IN ADDITION TO THESE TWO SETS OF DEMONSTRATIVES , IN SPANISH THERE IS A THIRD SET. THIS THIRD SET IS USED FOR THAT AND THOSE WHEN REFERRING TO SOMETHING FAR AWAY IN DISTANCE OR IN TIME. AQUEL AÑO – THAT YEAR AQUELLAS MONTAÑAS – THOSE MOUNTAINS AQUELLOS TIEMPOS – THOSE TIMES AQUELLA ÉPOCA – THAT EPOCH SINGULAR PLURAL MASCULINO AQUEL AQUELLOS FEMININA AQUELLA AQUELLAS

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NOW LET’S LOOK AT SOME EXAMPLES IN SPANISH USING BOTH DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS: Me gusta esta blusa , pero prefiero e sa blusa que tienes . Y aquella blusa que está en la entrada es muy grande , ¿no crees ? (I like this blouse, but I prefer that blouse that you have. And that blouse by the entrance is very large, don’t you think?) En aquellos días ellos respetaban la ley, pero en e stos días no respetan nada. (In those days they respected the law, but in these days they don’t respect anything.) Creo que este examen es muy difícil . Pero ese último examen fue muy fácil . Y aquel examen que tuvimos primero fue muy sencillo . (I believe that this test is very hard. But that last test was very easy. And that test that we had first was very simple.)

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YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THE THREE SETS OF DEMONSTRATIVES ARE OFTEN USED TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN VARYING DEGREES OF DISTANCE. IN THE EXAMPLE IN THE LAST SLIDE DEALING WITH STORE ITEMS, WE USED ESTA BLUSA FOR THE ONE NEAR BY, ESA BLUSA FOR THE ONE OVER THERE, AND AQUELLA BLUSA FOR THE ONE NEAR THE ENTRANCE, THE FARTHEST AWAY. THIS IS A VERY COMMON USAGE OF THESE THREE GROUPS.