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Behaviour Role of Management is to: : Role of Management is to: Clarify goals and objectives for everyone involved Encourage participation, upward communication, and suggestions Plan and organize for an orderly work flow Have technical and administrative expertise to answer organization-related questions Facilitate work through team building, training, coaching and support Provide feedback honestly and constructively Role of Management is to: : Keep things moving by relying on schedules, deadlines, and helpful reminders Control details without being over-bearing Apply reasonable pressure for goalaccomplishment Empower and delegate key duties to others while maintaining goal clarity and commitment Recognize good performance with rewards and positive reinforcement Role of Management is to: Characteristics of an Organization : Characteristics of an Organization Organization System of consciously coordinated activities of two or more people Span of Control The number of people reporting directly to a manager Staff Managers Provide research, advice, and recommendations to line managers Line Managers Have authority to make organizational decisions Characteristics of an Organization (cont.) : Characteristics of an Organization (cont.) Hierarchy of Authority Authority moves from the top down Division of Labour At each successively lower level in the organization jobs become more specialized. Unity of Command Specifies that each employee should report to only one manager, otherwise inefficiency would prevail because of conflicting orders and lack of accountability Coordination of effort, a common goal, division of labour, and a hierarchy of authority enable an organization to exist Slide 6: Contingency approach suggests that organizations should be structured to fit the demands of the situation Differentiation refers to the division that cause people to think and act differently Integration refers to cooperation among specialists to achieve common goals differentiation and integration simultaneously fragment the organization and bind it together Contingency Approach to Designing Organizations Slide 7: Mechanistic organizations are rigid bureaucracies with strict rules, narrowly defined tasks, and top-down communication; tend toward centralized decision-making Organic organizations are flexible networks of multitalented individuals who perform a variety of tasks; tend toward decentralized decision making In stable environments, successful organizations are often mechanistic In unstable environments, successful organizations are often organic Contingency Approach to Designing Organizations (cont’d) McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y : Theory X Theory Y 1. People dislike work 1. Work is a natural activity 2. People must be pushed to 2. People committed toobjectiveswork and capable of self-direction 3. Most people prefer to be 3. Rewards help people becomedirected committed to organizational objectives 4. Employees can learn to seek responsibility 5. Employees typically have imagination, ingenuity, and creativity McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y What Is Total Quality Management? (TQM) : What Is Total Quality Management? (TQM) Total quality management is an organizational culture dedicated to training, continuous improvement, and customer satisfaction. Principles of TQM: Do it right the first time to eliminate costly rework Listen to and learn from customers and employees Make continuous improvement an everyday matter Build teamwork, trust and mutual respect E-business Implications for OB : E-business Implications for OB E-business involves using the Internet to facilitate every aspect of running a business. E-Management – Fast paced; virtual teams; networking skills E-communication – E-mail; telecommuting Goal setting and feedback – Web-based goal-setting and tracking Organizational structure – Virtual teams and organizations; managers need to be flexible and adaptable Job design – the work itself is a powerful motivator (telecommunication) E-Business Implications for OB (cont’d) : E-Business Implications for OB (cont’d) Decision making – Less time to make more decisions; information overload; empowerment and participative decision making Speed, conflict, and stress – Does relentless speed equal burnout? Change and resistance to change – Employees are being asked to digest huge doses of change Ethics – Electronic monitoring; repetitive motion injuries; abuse of part-timers (no benefits, no job security); privacy issues Response Questions : Response Questions What is your personal experience with Theory X and Theory Y managers? How would you respond to a new manager who made this statement: “TQM is about statistical process control, not about people”? Consider the implications of working as a telecommuter. How would you strike a balance between independence and feelings of isolation? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.