extraction 2nd sem

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Extraction By Mrs. Chetana Modi:

Extraction By Mrs. Chetana Modi It is the process in which the animal or plant tissues are treated with specific solvents whereby the medicinally active constituents are dissolved out, cell tissues and most of inert components remain undissolved .

Definations :

Definations Menstrumm - solvents used for extraction. Marc- residue left after extraction. Macerate- solution of soluble constitutents .

Solvents used for extraction:

Solvents used for extraction

Solvents used for extraction:

Solvents used for extraction Water Alcohol Cheap, non-toxic, non-inflammable Interfere clarity of preparation Growth of mould and bacteria Hydrolysis Large amount of heat to concentrate the preparation No growth of mould and bacteria Neutral, Non-toxic Small amount of heat to concentrate the preparation Costly

Extraction process:

Extraction process

Infusion :

Infusion

Infusion :

Infusion Fresh infusion Aq. Solution of active constituents Used within 12 hours after its preparation due to bacterial or fungal growth. Concentrated infusion By double or triple maceration 8 times stronger than the fresh infusion Can be stored for longer period Dilution is 1 to 7 volume of water

Maceration process:

Maceration process

Simple Maceration Maceration process for tinctures made from organized drugs :

Simple Maceration Maceration process for tinctures made from organized drugs

Maceration with Adjustment Maceration process for tinctures made from unorganized drugs :

Maceration with Adjustment Maceration process for tinctures made from unorganized drugs

Multiple Maceration Maceration process for concentrated preparation:

Multiple Maceration Maceration process for concentrated preparation

Double maceration process:

Double maceration process Drug is macerated twice by using the menstrumm which is divided in two equal parts. Qty required for each maceration= ( V total -V retained by drug )/2 + V retained by drug

Double maceration:

Double maceration

Triple maceration process:

Triple maceration process Drug is macerated thrice by using the menstrumm which is divided in three equal parts. Qty required for each maceration= ( V total -V retained by drug )/3 + V retained by drug

Triple maceration:

Triple maceration

Example of extracts:

Example of extracts Fresh infusion Fresh infusion of Quassia concentrated infusion Concentrated infusion of Chirata Simple Maceration Tincture of orange Tincture of lemon Tincture of squill Maceration with Adjustment Tincture of tolu Compound tincture of benzoin Double Maceration Concentrated infusion of orange Concentrated infusion of gentian Triple Maceration Liquid extract of senna Concentrated infusion of quassia

Percolation :

Percolation “Percolate” means I pass thorough. Percolation is defined as short successive maceration or extraction by the method of displacement. The official processes are: A process for tinctures— simple percolation Processes for concentrated preparation—reserved percolation Continuous hot percolation— soxhlet extraction

Percolation :

Percolation

Simple percolation:

Simple percolation

Size reduction:

Size reduction Finer the powder, better the extraction does not universally hold true. The optimum grade is the best.

Imbibitions (moistening) :

Imbibitions ( moistening )

Packing :

Packing Percolator

Maceration :

Maceration

Percolation :

Percolation

Reserved percolation for concentrated preparation:

Reserved percolation for concentrated preparation Modified percolation process Drug: percolate=1:1 or 2:1 Product is fluid like liquid extract and concentrated infusions. Advantages Major part-no heat treatment-for themolabile material Economical No precipitation due to fractionation of solvent.

Reserved percolation-PROCESS for concentrated preparation:

Reserved percolation-PROCESS for concentrated preparation

Continuous hot process soxhlet extraction:

Continuous hot process soxhlet extraction Modified simple percolation For those drugs Low penetration of menstrum in cellular tissues Low solubility of active constituents Less menstrum Not suitable for thermolabile drugs

Soxhlet extractor:

Soxhlet extractor Flask holding menstrum Extractor with attached siphon and side tube Reflux condenser at the top of soxhelt

Process :

Process

Factors affecting selection of methods of extraction:

Factors affecting selection of methods of extraction

Thank you:

Thank you