logging in or signing up distillation theory jitpatel21 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 1174 Category: Science & Tech.. License: All Rights Reserved Like it (1) Dislike it (0) Added: March 20, 2010 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 1 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... By: sakhi111 (38 month(s) ago) will u pl allow me to download Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: sakhi111 (38 month(s) ago) sir, i am working as lecturer in pharmacy college can you please send me your presentation so that i will be helpful to my students. my email adr. is firstname.lastname@example.org Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Theory of distillation : Theory of distillation Ideal solutions : Ideal solutions Ideal solution is defined as the one which there is no change in the properties of the components other than dilution, when they are mixed to form a solution E.g. methanol & water which have similar properties Benzene & toluene Ethyl bromide & ethyl chloride Raoult’s law : Raoult’s law Raoult’s law states that the partial vapour pressure of each volatile component is equal to the vapour pressure of the pure constituent multiplied by its mole fraction in the solution at a given temp. pA=p0AXA pB=p0BXB Dalton’s law : Dalton’s law Dalton’s law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of ideal gases may be considered as sum of the partial vapour pressure exerted by each gas, if alone were present & occupied the volume. P = pA + pB P =p0AXA +p0BXB Because pA=p0AXA pB=p0BXB Slide 5: v.p. of mixture v.p. of A v.p. of B 0% A 100% B 100% A 0% B v.p. of mixture v.p. of A v.p. of B 0% A 100% B 100% A 0% B v.p. of mixture v.p. of A v.p. of B 0% A 100% B 100% A 0% B v.p. composition P =p0AXA +p0BXB P >p0AXA +p0BXB P<p0AXA +p0BXB Applications : Applications According to an ideal solution, the component having relatively greater vapour pressure will be distilled first. This principle is used in simple distillation Real solutions : Real solutions Most systems show varying degree of deviation fro raoult’s law, depending on the nature of the liquids and the temp. These solutions are known as real solutions. E.g. carbon tetrachloride & cyclohexane Chloroform & acetone Positive deviation : Positive deviation When vapour pressure is greater than the sum of the partial pressures of the individual components, such systems are said to exhibit positive deviation from raoult’s law. P >p0AXA +p0BXB B’coz of differ in polarity, length of hydrocarbon chain & degree of association. Negative deviation : Negative deviation When vapour pressure is lower than the sum of the partial pressures of the individual components, such systems are said to exhibit negative deviation from raoult’s law. P <p0AXA +p0BXB B’coz of hydrogen bonding, salt formation and hydration between components of solution Applications : Applications The area include fractional distillation of intermediates and drugs, purification of alcohol and other organic solvents. Volatility : Volatility The volatility of any substance in a solution may be defined as the equilibrium partial pressure of the substance in the vapour phase divided by the mole fraction of the substance in the solution Volatility of component A, vA= = Partial vapour pressure of A Mole fraction of A in solution pA XA Relative Volatility : Relative Volatility Consider a mixture of liquid containing two substance A & B, in such cases, the volatility of the one component is expressed in terms of the second. Relative Volatility, a = = Volatility of component A Volatility of component B pAXB XApB Relative Volatility : Relative Volatility According to dalton’s law, the partial vapour pressure of A & B may be expressed as: pA=YAP pB=YBP Relative Volatility, aAB = = YAPXB XAYBP YAXB XAYB You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.