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The Human Digestive System


Digestion Phases Include Ingestion Movement Mechanical and Chemical Digestion Absorption Elimination


Digestion Types Mechanical (physical) Chew Tear Grind Mash Mix Chemical Enzymatic reactions to improve digestion of Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids

Digestive System Organization:

Digestive System Organization Gastrointestinal ( Gl ) tract Tube within a tube Direct link/path between organs Structures Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large Intestine Rectum 4


Mouth Teeth mechanically break down food into small pieces. Tongue mixes food with saliva (contains amylase, which helps break down starch). Epiglottis is a flap-like structure at the back of the throat that closes over the trachea preventing food from entering it.


Esophagus Approximately 10” long Functions include: Secrete mucus Moves food from the throat to the stomach using muscle movement called peristalsis If acid from the stomach gets in here that’s heartburn.


Stomach J-shaped muscular bag that stores the food you eat, breaks it down into tiny pieces. Mixes food with digestive juices that contain enzymes to break down proteins and lipids. Acid in the stomach kills bacteria. Food found in the stomach is called chyme. 7

Small Intestine:

Small Intestine Small intestines are roughly 7 meters long Lining of intestine walls has finger-like projections called villi, to increase surface area. The villi are covered in microvilli which further increases surface area for absorption. 8

PowerPoint Presentation:

8/9/2014 9

Small Intestine:

Small Intestine Nutrients from the food pass into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls. Absorbs: 80% ingested water Vitamins Minerals Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Secretes digestive enzymes 10

Large Intestine:

Large Intestine About 5 feet long Accepts what small intestines don’t absorb Rectum (short term storage which holds feces before it is expelled).

Large Intestine:

Large Intestine Functions Bacterial digestion Ferment carbohydrates Protein breakdown Absorbs more water Concentrate wastes

Accessory Organs:

Accessory Organs Not part of the path of food, but play a critical role. Include: Liver, gall bladder, and pancreas


Liver Directly affects digestion by producing bile Bile helps digest fat filters out toxins and waste including drugs and alcohol 14

Gall Bladder:

Gall Bladder Stores bile from the liver, releases it into the small intestine. Fatty diets can cause gallstones


Pancreas Produces digestive enzymes to digest fats, carbohydrates and proteins Regulates blood sugar by producing insulin

Fun Facts:

Fun Facts HOW LONG ARE YOUR INTESTINES? At least 25 feet in an adult. Be glad you're not a full-grown horse -- their coiled-up intestines are 89 feet long! Food drying up and hanging out in the large intestine can last 18 hours to 2 days! In your lifetime, your digestive system may handle about 50 tons!!

PowerPoint Presentation:

Now it's... QUIZ TIME!

On a sheet of paper, write the name of each colored organ::

On a sheet of paper, write the name of each colored organ: Green: Red: Pink: Brown: Purple: Green: Yellow:

How’d you do?:

How’d you do? Green: Esophagus Red: Stomach Pink: Small Intestine Brown: Large Intestine Purple: Liver Green: Gall Bladder Yellow: Pancreas Great Job!

References and Links:

References and Links Your Digestive System and How It Works Digestive system diagram comes from this site The Real Deal on the Digestive System Pancreas: Introduction and Index Your Gross and Cool Body - Digestive System

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