working capital

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Presentation on Working Capital : 

Presentation on Working Capital Presented By: Jitendra Kumar Faculty : BBA, Sikkim Manipal University

Working capitalIntroduction : 

Working capitalIntroduction Working capital typically means the firm’s holding of current or short-term assets such as cash, receivables, inventory and marketable securities. These items are also referred to as circulating capital Corporate executives devote a considerable amount of attention to the management of working capital.

Definition of Working Capital Working Capital refers to that part of the firm’s capital, which is required for financing short-term or current assets such a cash marketable securities, debtors and inventories. Funds thus, invested in current assets keep revolving fast and are constantly converted into cash and this cash flow out again in exchange for other current assets. Working Capital is also known as revolving or circulating capital or short-term capital. : 

Definition of Working Capital Working Capital refers to that part of the firm’s capital, which is required for financing short-term or current assets such a cash marketable securities, debtors and inventories. Funds thus, invested in current assets keep revolving fast and are constantly converted into cash and this cash flow out again in exchange for other current assets. Working Capital is also known as revolving or circulating capital or short-term capital.

Concept of working capital : 

Concept of working capital There are two possible interpretations of working capital concept: Balance sheet concept Operating cycle concept Balance sheet concept There are two interpretations of working capital under the balance sheet concept. a. Excess of current assets over current liabilities b. gross or total current assets.

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Excess of current assets over current liabilities are called the net working capital or net current assets. Working capital is really what a part of long term finance is locked in and used for supporting current activities. The balance sheet definition of working capital is meaningful only as an indication of the firm’s current solvency in repaying its creditors. When firms speak of shortage of working capital they in fact possibly imply scarcity of cash resources. In fund flow analysis an increase in working capital, as conventionally defined, represents employment or application of funds.

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Operating cycle concept A company’s operating cycle typically consists of three primary activities: Purchasing resources, Producing the product and Distributing (selling) the product. These activities create funds flows that are both unsynchronized and uncertain. Unsynchronized because cash disbursements (for example, payments for resource purchases) usually take place before cash receipts (for example collection of receivables). They are uncertain because future sales and costs, which generate the respective receipts and disbursements, cannot be forecasted with complete accuracy.

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“ circulating capital means current assets of a company that are changed in the ordinary course of business from one form to another, as for example, from cash to inventories, inventories to receivables, receivable to cash” ……Genestenbreg

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The firm has to maintain cash balance to pay the bills as they come due. In addition, the company must invest in inventories to fill customer orders promptly. And finally, the company invests in accounts receivable to extend credit to customers. Operating cycle is equal to the length of inventory and receivable conversion periods.

TYPES OF WORKING CAPITAL : 

TYPES OF WORKING CAPITAL WORKING CAPITAL BASIS OF CONCEPT BASIS OF TIME Gross Working Capital Net Working Capital Permanent / Fixed WC Temporary / Variable WC Regular WC Reserve WC Special WC Seasonal WC

Operating cycle of a typical company : 

Operating cycle of a typical company Payable Deferral period Inventory conversion period Cash conversion cycle Operating cycle Pay for Resources purchases Receive Cash Purchase resources Sell Product On credit Receivable Conversion period

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Inventory conversion period Avg. inventory = _________________ Cost of sales/365 Receivable conversion period Accounts receivable = ___________________ Annual credit sales/365 Payables deferral period Accounts payable + Salaries, etc = ___________________________ (Cost of sales + selling, general and admn. Expenses)/365

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Cash conversion cycle = operating cycle – payables deferral period. Importance of working capital Risk and uncertainty involved in managing the cash flows Uncertainty in demand and supply of goods, escalation in cost both operating and financing costs. Strategies to overcome the problem Manage working capital investment or financing such as

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Holding additional cash balances beyond expected needs Holding a reserve of short term marketable securities Arrange for availability of additional short-term borrowing capacity One of the ways to address the problem of fixed set-up cost may be to hold inventory. One or combination of the above strategies will target the problem Working capital cycle is the life-blood of the firm

Resource flows for a manufacturing firm : 

Resource flows for a manufacturing firm Fixed Assets Production Process Generates Inventory Via Sales Generator Accounts receivable Used in Accrued Direct Labour and materials Accrued Fixed Operating expenses Cash and Marketable Securities Suppliers Of Capital External Financing Return on Capital Collection process Used to purchase Used to purchase Used in Working Capital cycle

Working capital investment : 

Working capital investment The size and nature of investment in current assets is a function of different factors such as type of products manufactured, the length of operating cycle, the sales level, inventory policies, unexpected demand and unanticipated delays in obtaining new inventories, credit policies and current assets.

FACTORS DETERMINING WORKING CAPITAL 1.     Nature of the Industry2.     Demand of Industry3.     Cash requirements4.     Nature of the Business5.     Manufacturing time6.     Volume of Sales7.     Terms of Purchase and Sales8.     Inventory Turnover9.     Business Turnover10. Business Cycle11. Current Assets requirements12. Production Cycle contd… : 

FACTORS DETERMINING WORKING CAPITAL 1.     Nature of the Industry2.     Demand of Industry3.     Cash requirements4.     Nature of the Business5.     Manufacturing time6.     Volume of Sales7.     Terms of Purchase and Sales8.     Inventory Turnover9.     Business Turnover10. Business Cycle11. Current Assets requirements12. Production Cycle contd…

Working Capital Determinants (Contd…)13.     Credit control14.     Inflation or Price level changes15.     Profit planning and control16.     Repayment ability17.     Cash reserves18.     Operation efficiency19.     Change in Technology20.     Firm’s finance and dividend policy 21.     Attitude towards Risk : 

Working Capital Determinants (Contd…)13.     Credit control14.     Inflation or Price level changes15.     Profit planning and control16.     Repayment ability17.     Cash reserves18.     Operation efficiency19.     Change in Technology20.     Firm’s finance and dividend policy 21.     Attitude towards Risk

EXCESS OR INADEQUATE WORKING CAPITALEvery business concern should have adequate working capital to run its business operations. It should have neither redundant or excess working capital nor inadequate or shortage of working capital.Both excess as well as shortage of working capital situations are bad for any business. However, out of the two, inadequacy or shortage of working capital is more dangerous from the point of view of the firm. : 

EXCESS OR INADEQUATE WORKING CAPITALEvery business concern should have adequate working capital to run its business operations. It should have neither redundant or excess working capital nor inadequate or shortage of working capital.Both excess as well as shortage of working capital situations are bad for any business. However, out of the two, inadequacy or shortage of working capital is more dangerous from the point of view of the firm.

Disadvantages of Redundant or Excess Working Capitalõ Idle funds, non-profitable for business, poor ROIõ Unnecessary purchasing & accumulation of inventories over required level õ  Excessive debtors and defective credit policy, higher incidence of B/D.õ Overall inefficiency in the organization.õ When there is excessive working capital, Credit worthiness suffers õ  Due to low rate of return on investments, the market value of shares may fall : 

Disadvantages of Redundant or Excess Working Capitalõ Idle funds, non-profitable for business, poor ROIõ Unnecessary purchasing & accumulation of inventories over required level õ  Excessive debtors and defective credit policy, higher incidence of B/D.õ Overall inefficiency in the organization.õ When there is excessive working capital, Credit worthiness suffers õ  Due to low rate of return on investments, the market value of shares may fall

Disadvantages or Dangers of Inadequate or Short Working Capital õ Can’t pay off its short-term liabilities in time. õ  Economies of scale are not possible.õ  Difficult for the firm to exploit favourable market situations õ  Day-to-day liquidity worsensõ  Improper utilization the fixed assets and ROA/ROI falls sharply : 

Disadvantages or Dangers of Inadequate or Short Working Capital õ Can’t pay off its short-term liabilities in time. õ  Economies of scale are not possible.õ  Difficult for the firm to exploit favourable market situations õ  Day-to-day liquidity worsensõ  Improper utilization the fixed assets and ROA/ROI falls sharply

MANAGEMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL ( WCM )Management of working capital is concerned with the problems that arise in attempting to manage the current assets, the current liabilities and the inter-relationship that exists between them. In other words, it refers to all aspects of administration of CA and CL.Working Capital Management Policies of a firm have a great effect on its profitability, liquidity and structural health of the organization. : 

MANAGEMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL ( WCM )Management of working capital is concerned with the problems that arise in attempting to manage the current assets, the current liabilities and the inter-relationship that exists between them. In other words, it refers to all aspects of administration of CA and CL.Working Capital Management Policies of a firm have a great effect on its profitability, liquidity and structural health of the organization.

3D Nature of Working Capital Management : 

3D Nature of Working Capital Management Dimension I Profitability, Risk, & Liquidity Dimension II Composition & Level of CA Dimension III Composition & Level of CL

PRINCIPLES OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT / POLICY : 

PRINCIPLES OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT / POLICY PRINCIPLES OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT Principle of Risk Variation Principle of Cost of Capital Principle of Equity Position Principle of Maturity of Payment

FORECASTING / ESTIMATION OF WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS : 

FORECASTING / ESTIMATION OF WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS Factors to be considered Total costs incurred on materials, wages and overheads The length of time for which raw materials remain in stores before they are issued to production. The length of the production cycle or WIP, i.e., the time taken for conversion of RM into FG. The length of the Sales Cycle during which FG are to be kept waiting for sales. The average period of credit allowed to customers. The amount of cash required to pay day-to-day expenses of the business. The amount of cash required for advance payments if any. The average period of credit to be allowed by suppliers. Time – lag in the payment of wages and other overheads

PROFORMA - WORKING CAPTIAL ESTIMATES : 

PROFORMA - WORKING CAPTIAL ESTIMATES 1. TRADING CONCERN STATEMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS Amount (Rs.) Current Assets (i) Cash ---- (ii) Receivables ( For…..Month’s Sales)---- ---- (iii) Stocks ( For……Month’s Sales)----- ---- (iv)Advance Payments if any ---- Less : Current Liabilities (i) Creditors (For….. Month’s Purchases)- ---- (ii) Lag in payment of expenses -----_ WORKING CAPITAL ( CA – CL ) xxx Add : Provision / Margin for Contingencies ----- NET WORKING CAPITAL REQUIRED XXX

1. MANUFACTURING CONCERN : 

1. MANUFACTURING CONCERN STATEMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS Amount (Rs.) Current Assets (i) Stock of R M( for ….month’s consumption) ----- (ii)Work-in-progress (for…months) (a) Raw Materials ----- (b) Direct Labour ----- (c) Overheads ----- (iii) Stock of Finished Goods ( for …month’s sales) (a) Raw Materials ----- (b) Direct Labour ----- (c) Overheads ----- (iv) Sundry Debtors ( for …month’s sales) (a) Raw Materials ----- (b) Direct Labour ----- (c) Overheads ----- (v) Payments in Advance (if any) ----- (iv) Balance of Cash for daily expenses ----- (vii)Any other item ----- Less : Current Liabilities (i) Creditors (For….. Month’s Purchases) ----- (ii) Lag in payment of expenses ----- (iii) Any other ----- WORKING CAPITAL ( CA – CL )xxxx Add : Provision / Margin for Contingencies ----- NET WORKING CAPITAL REQUIRED XXX

Points to be remembered while estimating WC : 

Points to be remembered while estimating WC (1) Profits should be ignored while calculating working capital requirements for the following reasons. (a) Profits may or may not be used as working capital (b) Even if it is used, it may be reduced by the amount of Income tax, Drawings, Dividend paid etc. (2) Calculation of WIP depends on the degree of completion as regards to materials, labour and overheads. However, if nothing is mentioned in the problem, take 100% of the value as WIP. Because in such a case, the average period of WIP must have been calculated as equivalent period of completed units. (3) Calculation of Stocks of Finished Goods and Debtors should be made at cost unless otherwise asked in the question.

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THE WORKING CAPITAL CYCLE(OPERATING CYCLE) Accounts Payable Cash Raw Materials W I P Finished Goods Value Addition Accounts Receivable SALES

Time & Money Concepts in Working Capital Cycle : 

Time & Money Concepts in Working Capital Cycle Each component of working capital (namely inventory, receivables and payables) has two dimensions ........TIME ......... and MONEY, when it comes to managing working capital

TIME IS MONEY : 

TIME IS MONEY You can get money to move faster around the cycle or reduce the amount of money tied up. Then, business will generate more cash or it will need to borrow less money to fund working capital. As a consequence, you could reduce the cost of bank interest or you'll have additional free money available to support additional sales growth or investment. Similarly, if you can negotiate improved terms with suppliers e.g. get longer credit or an increased credit limit, you effectively create free finance to help fund future sales.

MANAGEMENT OF CASH : 

MANAGEMENT OF CASH 1. Importance of Cash When planning the short or long-term funding requirements of a business, it is more important to forecast the likely cash requirements than to project profitability etc. Bear in mind that more businesses fail for lack of cash than for want of profit.

2. Cash vs Profit : 

2. Cash vs Profit Sales and costs and, therefore, profits do not necessarily coincide with their associated cash inflows and outflows. The net result is that cash receipts often lag cash payments and, whilst profits may be reported, the business may experience a short-term cash shortfall. For this reason it is essential to forecast cash flows as well as project likely profits.

Calculating Cash Flows : 

Calculating Cash Flows Project cumulative positive net cash flow over several periods and, conversely, a cumulative negative cash flow Cash flow planning entails forecasting and tabulating all significant cash inflows relating to sales, new loans, interest received etc., and then analyzing in detail the timing of expected payments relating to suppliers, wages, other expenses, capital expenditure, loan repayments, dividends, tax, interest payments etc.

CASH MANAGEMENT STRATEGIESCash PlanningCash Forecasts and Budgeting Receipts and Disbursements Method Adjusted Net Income Method (Sources and Uses of Cash) : 

CASH MANAGEMENT STRATEGIESCash PlanningCash Forecasts and Budgeting Receipts and Disbursements Method Adjusted Net Income Method (Sources and Uses of Cash)

MANAGING CASH FLOWSAfter estimating cash flows, efforts should be made to adhere to the estimates of receipts and payments of cash. Cash Management will be successful only if cash collections are accelerated and cash payments (disbursements), as far as possible, are delayed. : 

MANAGING CASH FLOWSAfter estimating cash flows, efforts should be made to adhere to the estimates of receipts and payments of cash. Cash Management will be successful only if cash collections are accelerated and cash payments (disbursements), as far as possible, are delayed.

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Methods of ACCELERATING CASH INFLOWS Prompt payment from customers (Debtors) Quick conversion of payment into cash Decentralized collections Lock Box System (collecting centers at different locations)   Methods of DECELERATING CASH OUTFLOWS Paying on the last date Payment through Cheques and Drafts Adjusting Payroll Funds (Reducing frequency of payments) Centralization of Payments Inter-bank transfers Making use of Float (Difference between balance in Bank Pass Book and Bank Column of Cash Book)

MANAGEMENT OF RECEVABLES : 

MANAGEMENT OF RECEVABLES Receivables ( Sundry Debtors ) result from CREDIT SALES. A concern is required to allow credit in order to expand its sales volume. Receivables contribute a significant portion of current assets. But for investment in receivables the firm has to incur certain costs (opportunity cost and time value ) Further, there is a risk of BAD DEBTS also. It is, therefore very necessary to have a proper control and management of receivables.

OBJECTIVES The objective of Receivables Management is to take sound decision as regards to investment in Debtors. In the words of BOLTON S E., the objective of receivables management is “ to promote sales and profits until that point is reached where the return on investment in further funding of receivables is less than the cost of funds raised to finance that additional credit” : 

OBJECTIVES The objective of Receivables Management is to take sound decision as regards to investment in Debtors. In the words of BOLTON S E., the objective of receivables management is “ to promote sales and profits until that point is reached where the return on investment in further funding of receivables is less than the cost of funds raised to finance that additional credit”

AVERAGE COLLECTION PERIOD AND AGEING SCHEDULE : 

AVERAGE COLLECTION PERIOD AND AGEING SCHEDULE The collection of BOOK DEBTS can be monitored with the use of average collection period and ageing schedule. The ACTUAL AVERAGE COLLECTION PERIOD IS COMPARED WITH THE STANDARD COLLECTION PERIOD to evaluate the efficiency of collection so that necessary corrective action can be initiated and taken.

Guidelines for Effective Receivables Management : 

Guidelines for Effective Receivables Management Have the right mental attitude to the control of credit and make sure that it gets the priority it deserves. Establish clear credit practices as a matter of company policy. Make sure that these practices are clearly understood by staff, suppliers and customers. Be professional when accepting new accounts, and especially larger ones. Check out each customer thoroughly before you offer credit. Use credit agencies, bank references, industry sources etc. Establish credit limits for each customer... and stick to them.

7. Continuously review these limits when you suspect tough times are coming or if operating in a volatile sector. 8. Keep very close to your larger customers. 9. Invoice promptly and clearly. 10. Consider charging penalties on overdue accounts. 11. Consider accepting credit /debit cards as a payment option. 12. Monitor your debtor balances and ageing schedules, and don't let any debts get too large or too old. : 

7. Continuously review these limits when you suspect tough times are coming or if operating in a volatile sector. 8. Keep very close to your larger customers. 9. Invoice promptly and clearly. 10. Consider charging penalties on overdue accounts. 11. Consider accepting credit /debit cards as a payment option. 12. Monitor your debtor balances and ageing schedules, and don't let any debts get too large or too old.

MANAGEMENT OF INVENTORIES : 

MANAGEMENT OF INVENTORIES Managing inventory is a juggling act. Excessive stocks can place a heavy burden on the cash resources of a business. Insufficient stocks can result in lost sales, delays for customers etc. INVENTORIES INCLUDE RAW MATERIALS, WIP & FINISHED GOODS

FACTORS INFLUENCING INVENTORY MANAGEMENT : 

FACTORS INFLUENCING INVENTORY MANAGEMENT Lead Time Cost of Holding Inventory Material Costs Ordering Costs Carrying Costs Cost of tying-up of Funds Cost of Under stocking Cost of Overstocking Contd…

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Stock Levels Reorder Level Maximum Level Minimum Level Safety Level / Danger Level Variety Reduction Materials Planning Service Levels Obsolete Inventory and Scrap Quantity Discounts

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES : 

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES MANAGING INVENTORIES EFFICIENTLY DEPENDS ON TWO QUESTIONS How much should be ordered? When it should be ordered? The first question “how much to order” relates to ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY and The second question “when to order”arises because of uncertainty and relates to determining the RE-ORDER POINT

ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY [ EOQ ] : 

ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY [ EOQ ] The ordering quantity problems are solved by the firm by determining the EOQ ( or the Economic Lot Size ) that is the optimum level of inventory. There are two types of costs involved in this model. ordering costs carrying costs The EOQ is that level of inventory which MINIMIZES the total of ordering and carrying costs.

EOQ FORMULA : 

EOQ FORMULA For determining EOQ the following symbols are used C = Consumption /Annual Usage / Demand Q = Quantity Ordered O = Ordering Cost per Order I = Inventory Carrying Cost (as a % on P ) P = Price per Unit TC = Total Cost of Ordering & Carrying 2 CO / PI

Total Cost of ordering & carrying inventory are equal to ( TC ) = C Q x O + x P x I Q 2 TC is minimized at EOQ : 

Total Cost of ordering & carrying inventory are equal to ( TC ) = C Q x O + x P x I Q 2 TC is minimized at EOQ

EOQ – GRAPHICAL APPROACH : 

EOQ – GRAPHICAL APPROACH Costs Carrying Costs Ordering Cost Order Size Q EOQ Minimum Total Costs

QUANTITY DISCOUNTS & EOQ : 

QUANTITY DISCOUNTS & EOQ The standard EOQ analysis is based on the assumption that the price per unit remains constant irrespective of the order size. When quantity discounts are available (very usual) then price per unit is influenced by the order quantity. To determine the optimum lot size with price discounts, the following procedure is adopted Determine the normal EOQ assuming no discount. Call it Q* If Q* enables the firm to get the quantity discount then it represents the optimum lot size. If Q* is less than the minimum order size ( Q’ ) required for quantity discount compute the change in profit as a result of increasing Q* to Q’

The formula for change in profit is given as : 

The formula for change in profit is given as C C Q’( P-D ) I Q* PI Dl = CD + - O - - Q* Q’ 2 2 where Dl = change in profit C = Annual Consumption / Usage / Demand D = Discount per unit when available Q* = EOQ without Quantity Discount Q’ = Min order size required for Discount O = Fixed Ordering Cost P = Purchase price per unit without discount I = Inventory carrying cost (% on Price)

SELECTIVE CONTROL OF INVENTORYDifferent classification methods : 

SELECTIVE CONTROL OF INVENTORYDifferent classification methods

MANAGEMENT OF ACCOUNTS PAYABLE : 

MANAGEMENT OF ACCOUNTS PAYABLE Creditors are a vital part of effective cash management and should be managed carefully to enhance the cash position. Purchasing initiates cash outflows and an over-zealous purchasing function can create liquidity problems. Guidelines for effective management of Accounts Payable……

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Who authorizes purchasing in your company - is it tightly managed or spread among a number of (junior) people? Are purchase quantities geared to demand forecasts? Do you use order quantities which take account of stock-holding and purchasing costs? Do you know the cost to the company of carrying stock ? Do you have alternative sources of supply ? If not, get quotes from major suppliers and shop around for the best discounts, credit terms, and reduce dependence on a single supplier. How many of your suppliers have a returns policy ? Are you in a position to pass on cost increases quickly through price increases to your customers ? If a supplier of goods or services lets you down can you charge back the cost of the delay ? Can you arrange (with confidence !) to have delivery of supplies staggered or on a just-in-time basis ?

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Ratios associated with WCM

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