phb-1-150-brinell-manual

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"The PHB-1 Pin Impact hardness tester is designed following the Brinell hardness test method. The test force is controlled by a shear pin. After reading the diameter of the indention with the reading microscope, the Brinell hardness value can be obtained from the look up table. "

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USER’S MANUAL HR Series Portable Rockwell/Superficial Rockwell Hardness Tester HBR Series Brinell Rockwell Hardness Tester Caution: 1. Safety goggles must be worn to prevent possible injury. 2. Gloves and the handing handle must be used during the hammer impact test. Attention: Check and confirm to bring the thin screw about 10-20mm up above the spiral tube before testing.If not the force can not be loaded and the instrument may be broken. 1. Introduction The HB-150 Portable Brinell HardnessTester is designed following the Brinell hardness test method. The test force is controlled by a shear pin. After reading the diameter of the indention with the reading microscope the Brinell hardness number can be obtained from the lookup table. The HB-150 Portable Brinell Hardness Tester has two types of application: C clamp and hammer impact see fig.1. It is capable of testing from small to very large specimens. It is especially suitable for assemblies Fig. 1 Portable Brinell Hardness T ester inconve-nient to be takento the lab and not allowed to be cut. The test can be completed in any dire-ction to test the hardness of upper lower and lateral part of the specimen. The test head itself can be used as a hammer impact tester. It can perform the testing by touching one side of the work piece. Its accuracy is much higher than any other type hammer impact tester. According to the similarity principle of Brinell hardness testing with testing force of 1580kg indenter diameter of 7.26mm then F/D2 30. The test condition of the HB tester is equivalent to the standard Brinell Fig. 2 Hammer Impact Hardness T ester hardness test with 3000kgf and 10mm ball indenter. The HB-150 Portable Brinell Hardness Tester can be widely used to test the hardness of forgings castings steels nonferrous metal and its alloy products and to test the hardness of annealed normalizing and temperedmechanical parts. Compared to the rebound type hardness tester the Brinell tester has many advantages such as higher precision fewer factors affecting accuracy and lower requirement on the surface roughness. The test result meets the requirements of most drawings without conversion and is more widely accepted in the international business. Used as a self-product the operation of HB-1 hammer impact Brinell hardness tester can be refered to hammer impact part of HB-150. 1

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2. Principle and Structure a 1 —— C clamp 2 —— Spiral tube 3 —— Thin screw 4 —— Handle 5 —— Anvil b 6 —— Test head Indenter holder 7 —— Rubber protective cap 8 —— Shear pin 9 —— Indenter The structure of the instrument is shown in Fig.3. The instrument is composed of C Clamp spriral tube test head thin screw handle anvil and the forve transmission system in the spiral tube. See Fig.3 a. The sprial tube is used for clamping the specimen and the thin screw is for applying test force. See Fig.3 b. The hammer impact Brinell hardness tester is composed of the test head which is taken off from the spiral tube impact cylinder holding handle and hammer. See Fig.2. The principle of the instrument and inside structure of the test head are shown in Fig.4. A shear pin is place in the horizontal hole on the test head. The indenter is pushed into the bottom hole and its top touches shear pin. The test head is placed into the spiral tube C clamp or impact cylinder hammer impact. When the test force is applied on top of the test head the force is transmitted to the indenter through the shear pin which presses indenter against the specimen. As soon as the test force reaches 1580kg the shear pin is cut into three segments by the cutting system comprising the test head and the indenter. The excessive force will not be transmitted to the indenter as it withdraws into bottom hole of the test headand a round indentation will remain on the surface of the specimen. The indentationdiameter is measured with a reading microscope and the Brinell hardness number can be obtained from the lookup table. Fig. 4 Principe of the instrument 2

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3. Technical Parameters Test force: 1580kg Tolerance of test force: 0.5 Accuracy: C clamp In accordance with ISO6506 Hammer impact 5 Indenter: Φ7.26mm steel spherical surface indenter range: 100-400HB Φ4.0mm carbide spherical surface indenter Optional range: 400-650HB Opening size H×D: 150mm×100mm Net weight: C clamp: 4.2kg Hammer impact: 0.8kg 4. Operation Instructions 4.1 Instructions for the C Clamp Tester The portable hardness testers includes the C Clamp which is a kind of static test. 4.1.1 Indenter Selection. According to the expected hardness of the testing piece choose the suitable indenter. When testing the softer metal with the hardness lower than 400HB choose the steel spherical surface indenter with a diameter of 7.26mm when testing hard steel materials with the hardness higher than 400HB choose the carbide spherical surface indenter with a diameter of 4.0mm. 4.1.2 Anvil Selection. Choose an appropriate anvil to fit the shape and size of the specimen and install it in the bottom of the C Clamp. The flat anvil is for flat blocks or sheets the V anvil is for cylinders the dome anvil is for curled sheets and pipes. The right anvil should provide a firm support for the specimen and there should be no slipping or distortion when the force is applied. 4.1.3 Put a shear pin into the horizontal hole of the test head. Push the indenter into the bottom hole of the test head with the spherical surface out and make sure it contacts the shear pin. Cover the bottom of the test head with the rubber protective cap in order that the cap contacts the bottom of the test head closely the indenter should come out from the central hole of protective cap. The purposes of the cap are to protect the surface of the specimen and prevent shear pin from spattering. 4.1.4 Install the test head into the bottom of the spiral tube. 4.1.5 Check and confirm to bring the thin screw which is under the handle about 10-20mm up above the spiral tube. If not operate according to Step 4.1.9. 4.1.6 Place the specimen in the opening of the C Clamp. Make sure the back of the specimen completely contacts the anvil and the indenter is perpendicular to the tested surface of the specimen. Rotate the handle clockwise drive the spiral tube down and clamp the tester on the specimen. After the indenter reaches the specimen continue rotating the handle to drive the thin screw down until a breaking sound is heard which means the shear pin is broken and the force application is completed. 4.1.7 Rotate the handle counterclockwise and raise the spiral tube. 4.1.8 Take out the test head from the lower part of the spiral tube and take off the rubber protective cap. Remove the broken shear pin and push the indenter out with the pin removal tool. 3

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4.1.9 Hold the lower part of the spiral tube rotate the handle counterclockwise and raise the thin screw up about 10-20mm above the spiral tube. Do make sure to raise the thin screw up after each test. 4.1.10 Use the reading microscope to read the indentation diameter in two perpendicular directions. Refer to Section 4.4 for the instructions of the reading microscope. 4.1.11 Check Appendix A or Appendix B with the average indentation diameter to get the Brinell hardness value. 4.2 Instructions for the Hammer Impact Tester The hammer impact tester does not include the C Clamp. It only includes the test headimpact cylinder holding handle and hammer. The hardness testing by hammer impact tester is a kind of dynamic hardness testing. The hardness testing by hammer impact tester is a kind of dynamic hardness testing. 4.2.1 Put a shear pin into the horizontal hole of the test head. Push the indenter into the bottom hole of the test head with the spherical surface out and make sure it contacts the shear pin. 4.2.2 Place the test head into impact cylinder. 4.2.3 Put the handle on the specimen. Put the impact cylinder into the handle and make sure the bottom of the impact cylinder rest firmly on the specimen. 4.2.4 Use the flat side of a 3 lb 1.5kg hammer to apply a sharp blow on top of the test head. The shear pin must be broken at the first blow. If the pin is not broken another blow must be applied in order to remove the pin and the result must be ignored. 4.2.5 Take out the test head and remove the broken shear pin with the pin removal tool. Push the indenter outward off the hole of the shear pin. If the shear pin is not completely broken off the test should be considered as invalid. Install a new shear pin and test again. Be sure to break off the shear pin completely. 4.2.6 The dynamic test with a bigger force may result in an elliptic indentation. The diameter of the indentation must be measured in at least two directions. Use the smallest diameter as the valid one to check Appendix C D or E for the Brinell hardness value. 4.3 Usage of the Reading Microscope 4.3.1 Look into the ocular with enough light and turn the barrel dial to make the vertical lens line aligned with the “0” scale of the horizontal line. Meanwhile the long scale mark should rest on “0” scale of the barrel dial. 4.3.2Put the reading microscope on the test piece to locate the indentation in the centre of the viewing field of the microscope. Move the microscope to make the vertical line tangential to the left edge of the indentation. Press the bottom of the reading microscope turn the barrel dial to make the vertical line tangential to the right edge of the indentation. 4.3.3Read the integral part mm of the indentation diameter from the horizontal scale mark then read the 2-digit decimal part of the indentation diameter from the barrel dial. 4.3.3When the vertical line is aligned with the “0” scale mark of the horizontal line but the “0” scale mark of the barrel dial is not aligned with the long scale mark it means the microscope is inaccurate. Adjustment should be made as follow: a. Make the vertical lens line aligned with the “0” scale mark of the horizontal line. 4

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b. Unscrew the three screws on the barrel dial. c. Make the “0” scale mark on the barrel dial exactly aligned with the long scale mark. d. Fasten the three screws. 5. Verification The Brinell standard hardness block is used to calibrate the Brinell tester. The test result on the test block should be close to the hardness of testing pieces. Impact on testing blocks by hardness tester and get indentation measuring the average diameter value of indentation by microscope then get the hardness value aftercheck appendix. The error of this tester is the difference between this value and the value of testing block. 6. Cautions and Tips 6.1 When testing with the C Clamp the thin screw must be brought about 20mm up before testing. If not the thin screw cannot drive the test force on the specimen and it may bedamaged. 6.2 Do not disassemble the spiral tube. The tester will be damaged permanently and the warranty will be void. 6.3 When the hardness of specimen is greater than 400HB the carbide indenter must be used. 6.4 Indenters are normal wear items and are not covered by the warranty. The carbide indenter is more brittle and more easily broken than the steel indenter. 6.5 To protect the specimen surface from the impact cylinder a cardboard with a hole bigger than indenter can be placed between the impact cylinder and the specimen. 6.6 Wear safety goggles and gloves to prevent possible injury.6. Cautions and Tips 7. Factors Affecting Testing Accuracy 7.1 Specimen Surface The surface of the specimen should be smooth and clean for the best accuracy. The rough surface makes the indentation edge blurry and affects the measurement of the indentation diameters which will increase the dispersity of the test result. The rough surface can also reduce the specimen’s resistance against the pressing indenter which will result in a lower Brinell hardness value. Use a sand paper or polish machine to polish the part to be tested for better accuracy.If the oxide coating decarbonization layer dust or dirt remains on the specimen surfacethe hardness testing will be invalid. Remove those things before testing. 7.2 Supporting of the specimen Carefully clean the bearing surface of the specimen to ensure that the impurities or dirt like oxide coating grease and dust can not be found between the back side of the specimen 5

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and the supporting anvil. Choose the proper anvil proper testing surface and the bearing surface to ensure that the specimen is firmly supported without sliding or deformation when the test force is applied. 7.3 Impact Effect of Hammer Impact Tester The specimen may move under the test force when the hammer impact tester is being used which will affect the testing result. When testing with the hammer impact hardness tester loading and unloading of the test force is finished in an instant and the dwell time of the greatest test force does not reach the set time of the ordinary Brinell hardness testing. This will affect the testing result. As above-mentioned the operator should regularly make comparison tests with the standard Brinell hardness testers in order to ensure the accuracy of the testing result. The static C Clamp tester can be used as the comparison tester to verify the test result of the hammer impact hardness tester. The accuracy of the hammer impact Brinell hardness tester can be lowered by impact effect so the prior selection should be static C Clamp testing if the specimen size allows. 8. Factors Affecting Testing Accuracy Brinell hardness test can reflect the average mechanical properties of a large region of the specimen so there is a close relation between the Brinell hardness and other mechanical properties of materials especially tensile strength. The approximate conversion equation is: σ b KHB in this equation: σb is the tensile strength value in MPa K is a constant depending on the material. The tensile strength of materials can be obtained indirect by testing the Brinell hardness with its approximate value obtained by conversion which is of great importance in practical production by both increasing work efficiency and saving material as well. The conversion of hardness-tensile strength of some metallic materials is shown below: Material Brinell Hardness Value Approximate Conversion Steel 125~175 >175 σ b ≈ 3.43HB MPa σ b ≈ 3.63HB MPa Cast aluminum alloy σ b ≈ 2.6HB MPa annealed brass bronze σ b ≈ 5.5HB MPa Brass bronze after being cold-processed σ b ≈ 4.0HB MPa 6

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9. Standard Package Standard package of PHB-150Brinell Hardness Tester 1 Tester 1 steel ball indenter 1 Flat anvil 1 V anvil 1 Brinell standard hardness block 1 Holding handle 1 Pin removal tool 1 Pack of shear pins 250 pieces 1 Impact cylinder 1 Reading microscope 20x 2 Rubber protective caps 1 Carrying case 1 Manual Standard package of PHB-1 Brinell Hardness Tester 1 Test head 1 Impact cylinder 1 Indenter 1 Holding handle 1 Pack of shear pins 250 pieces 1 Peading microscope 20x 1 Brinell standard hardness block 1 Pin removal tool 1 Carryingcase 1 Manual 10. Optional Accessories and Spare Parts Steel ball indenter Carbide ball indenter Brinell standard hardness block Test head Shear pins a pack of 250pcs Hemispherical spot anvil used for testing tubing or curled specimens Small flat anvil used for testing small specimens 40x reading microscope used for Φ4.0mm carbide indenter 3 lb hammer 7

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Appendix A :Indentation—Brinell Hardness Table 1 C Clamp Tester Steel Indenter ∮7.26mm Indentation Diameter mm Hardness HB Indentation Diameter mm Hardness HB Indentation Diameter mm Hardness HB Indentation Diameter mm Hardness HB 2.00 480.0 2.35 349.0 2.70 264.0 3.05 204.0 2.01 475.6 2.36 346.0 2.71 262.0 3.06 202.6 2.02 471.2 2.37 343.0 2.72 260.0 3.07 201.2 2.03 466.8 2.38 340.0 2.73 258.0 3.08 199.8 2.04 462.4 2.39 337.0 2.74 256.0 3.09 198.4 2.05 458.0 2.40 334.0 2.75 254.0 3.10 197.0 2.06 454.0 2.41 331.4 2.76 252.2 3.11 195.6 2.07 450.0 2.42 328.8 2.77 250.4 3.12 194.2 2.08 446.0 2.43 326.2 2.78 248.6 3.13 192.8 2.09 442.0 2.44 323.6 2.79 246.8 3.14 191.4 2.10 438.0 2.45 321.0 2.80 245.0 3.15 190.0 2.11 434.2 2.46 318.4 2.81 243.2 3.16 188.8 2.12 430.4 2.47 315.8 2.82 241.4 3.17 187.6 2.13 426.6 2.48 313.2 2.83 239.6 3.18 186.4 2.14 422.8 2.49 310.6 2.84 237.8 3.19 185.2 2.15 419.0 2.50 308.0 2.85 236.0 3.20 184.0 2.16 415.4 2.51 305.8 2.86 234.4 3.21 182.8 2.17 411.8 2.52 303.6 2.87 232.8 3.22 181.6 2.18 408.2 2.53 301.4 2.88 231.2 3.23 180.4 2.19 404.6 2.54 299.2 2.89 229.6 3.24 179.2 2.20 401.0 2.55 297.0 2.90 228.0 3.25 178.0 2.21 397.4 2.56 294.6 2.91 226.4 3.26 176.8 2.22 393.8 2.57 292.2 2.92 224.8 3.27 175.6 2.23 390.2 2.58 289.8 2.93 223.2 3.28 174.4 2.24 386.6 2.59 287.4 2.94 221.6 3.29 173.2 2.25 383.0 2.60 285.0 2.95 220.0 3.30 172.0 2.26 379.4 2.61 282.8 2.96 218.4 3.31 171.0 2.27 375.8 2.62 280.6 2.97 216.8 3.32 170.0 2.28 372.2 2.63 278.4 2.98 215.2 3.33 169.0 2.29 368.6 2.64 276.2 2.99 213.6 3.34 168.0 2.30 365.0 2.65 274.0 3.00 212.0 3.35 167.0 2.31 361.8 2.66 272.0 3.01 210.4 3.36 166.0 2.32 358.6 2.67 270.0 3.02 208.8 3.37 165.0 2.33 355.4 2.68 268.0 3.03 207.2 3.38 164.0 2.34 352.2 2.69 266.0 3.04 205.6 3.39 163.0 8

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C Clamp Tester Steel Indenter ∮7.26mm Indentation Diameter mm Hardness HB Indentation Diameter mm Hardness HB Indentation Diameter mm Hardness HB Indentation Diameter mm Hardness HB 3.40 162.0 3.59 143.0 3.78 127.6 3.97 112.4 3.41 161.0 3.60 142.0 3.79 126.8 3.98 111.6 3.42 160.0 3.61 141.2 3.80 126.0 3.99 110.8 3.43 159.0 3.62 140.4 3.81 125.2 4.00 110.0 3.44 158.0 3.63 139.6 3.82 124.4 4.01 109.2 3.45 157.0 3.64 138.8 3.83 123.6 4.02 108.4 3.46 156.0 3.65 138.0 3.84 122.8 4.03 107.6 3.47 155.0 3.66 137.2 3.85 122.0 4.04 106.8 3.48 154.0 3.67 136.4 3.86 121.2 4.05 106.0 3.49 153.0 3.68 135.6 3.87 120.4 4.06 105.4 3.50 152.0 3.69 134.8 3.88 119.6 4.07 104.8 3.51 151.0 3.70 134.0 3.89 118.8 4.08 104.2 3.52 150.0 3.71 133.2 3.90 118.0 4.09 103.6 3.53 149.0 3.72 132.4 3.91 117.2 4.10 103.0 3.54 148.0 3.73 131.6 3.92 116.4 4.11 102.4 3.55 147.0 3.74 130.8 3.93 115.6 4.12 101.8 3.56 146.0 3.75 130.0 3.94 114.8 4.13 101.2 3.57 145.0 3.76 129.2 3.95 114.0 4.14 100.6 3.58 144.0 3.77 128.4 3.96 113.2 4.15 100.0 Appendix B: Indentation—Brinell Hardness Table 2 C Clamp Tester—Carbide Indenter ∮4mm Diameter HB Diameter HB Diameter HB Diameter HB 1.45 742.0 1.71 614.0 1.97 471.9 2.23 366.8 1.46 735.2 1.72 608.3 1.98 466.9 2.24 363.4 1.47 728.4 1.73 602.5 1.99 462.0 2.25 360.0 1.48 721.6 1.74 596.8 2.00 457.0 2.26 356.8 1.49 714.8 1.75 591.0 2.01 452.8 2.27 353.6 1.50 708.0 1.76 584.9 2.02 448.5 2.28 350.4 1.51 701.4 1.77 578.8 2.03 444.3 2.29 347.2 1.52 694.8 1.78 572.8 2.04 440.0 2.30 344.0 1.53 688.2 1.79 566.7 2.05 435.8 2.31 340.8 1.54 681.6 1.80 560.6 2.06 431.6 2.32 337.6 1.55 675.0 1.81 555.5 2.07 427.5 2.33 334.4 1.56 673.5 1.82 550.4 2.08 423.3 2.34 331.2 1.57 672.0 1.83 545.4 2.09 419.2 2.35 328.0 1.58 668.9 1.84 540.3 2.10 415.0 2.36 325.5 1.59 665.7 1.85 535.2 2.11 411.0 2.37 323.0 1.60 662.6 1.86 529.4 2.12 407.0 2.38 320.4 1.61 658.9 1.87 523.7 2.13 403.0 2.39 317.9 1.62 655.2 1.88 517.9 2.14 399.0 2.40 315.4 1.63 651.4 1.89 512.2 2.15 395.0 2.41 312.6 1.64 647.7 1.90 506.4 2.16 391.4 2.42 309.7 1.65 644.0 1.91 501.5 2.17 387.8 2.43 306.9 1.66 639.2 1.92 496.6 2.18 384.2 2.44 304.0 1.67 634.3 1.93 491.6 2.19 380.6 2.45 301.2 1.68 629.5 1.94 486.7 2.20 377.0 1.69 624.6 1.95 481.8 2.21 373.6 1.70 619.8 1.96 476.8 2.22 370.2 9

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Appendix C: Indentation—Brinell Hardness Table 3 Hammer Impact—Steel Ball Indenter ∮7.26mm—for Steel Diameter HB Diameter HB Diameter HB Diameter HB 2.05 484.0 2.49 315.4 2.93 217.6 3.37 155.2 2.06 479.2 2.50 312.0 2.94 215.8 3.38 153.8 2.07 474.4 2.51 309.0 2.95 214.0 3.39 152.4 2.08 469.6 2.52 306.0 2.96 212.4 3.40 151.0 2.09 464.8 2.53 303.0 2.97 210.8 3.41 149.8 2.10 460.0 2.54 300.0 2.98 209.2 3.42 148.6 2.11 455.8 2.55 297.0 2.99 207.6 3.43 147.4 2.12 451.6 2.56 294.2 3.00 206.0 3.44 146.2 2.13 447.4 2.57 291.4 3.01 204.4 3.45 145.0 2.14 443.2 2.58 288.6 3.02 202.8 3.46 143.6 2.15 439.0 2.59 285.8 3.03 201.2 3.47 142.2 2.16 435.0 2.60 283.0 3.04 199.6 3.48 140.8 2.17 431.0 2.61 280.8 3.05 198.0 3.49 139.4 2.18 427.0 2.62 278.6 3.06 196.6 3.50 138.0 2.19 423.0 2.63 276.4 3.07 195.2 3.51 136.8 2.20 419.0 2.64 274.2 3.08 193.8 3.52 135.6 2.21 415.2 2.65 272.0 3.09 192.4 3.53 134.4 2.22 411.4 2.66 270.0 3.10 191.0 3.54 133.2 2.23 407.6 2.67 268.0 3.11 189.6 3.55 132.0 2.24 403.8 2.68 266.0 3.12 188.2 3.56 130.6 2.25 400.0 2.69 264.0 3.13 186.8 3.57 129.2 2.26 396.4 2.70 262.0 3.14 185.4 3.58 127.8 2.27 392.8 2.71 260.0 3.15 184.0 3.59 126.4 2.28 389.2 2.72 258.0 3.16 182.6 3.60 125.0 2.29 385.6 2.73 256.0 3.17 181.2 3.61 123.8 2.30 382.0 2.74 254.0 3.18 179.8 3.62 122.6 2.31 378.4 2.75 252.0 3.19 178.4 3.63 121.4 2.32 374.8 2.76 250.0 3.20 177.0 3.64 120.2 2.33 371.2 2.77 248.0 3.21 175.8 3.65 119.0 2.34 367.6 2.78 246.0 3.22 174.6 3.66 117.6 2.35 364.0 2.79 244.0 3.23 173.4 3.67 116.2 2.36 360.4 2.80 242.0 3.24 172.2 3.68 114.8 2.37 356.8 2.81 240.0 3.25 171.0 3.69 113.4 2.38 353.2 2.82 238.0 3.26 169.6 3.70 112.0 2.39 349.6 2.83 236.0 3.27 168.2 3.71 110.8 2.40 346.0 2.84 234.0 3.28 166.8 3.72 109.6 2.41 342.6 2.85 232.0 3.29 165.4 3.73 108.4 2.42 339.2 2.86 230.2 3.30 164.0 3.74 107.2 2.43 335.8 2.87 228.4 3.31 162.8 3.75 106.0 2.44 332.4 2.88 226.6 3.32 161.6 3.76 104.6 2.45 329.0 2.89 224.8 3.33 160.4 3.77 103.2 2.46 325.6 2.90 223.0 3.34 159.2 3.78 101.8 2.47 322.2 2.91 221.2 3.35 158.0 3.79 100.4 2.48 318.8 2.92 219.4 3.36 156.6 3.80 99.0 10

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Appendix D: Indentation—Brinell Hardness Table 4 Hammer Impact—Steel Ball Indenter ∮7.26mm—for Cast Iron Diameter HB Diameter HB Diameter HB Diameter HB 2.50 308.0 2.84 237.8 3.18 186.4 3.52 150.0 2.51 305.8 2.85 236.0 3.19 185.2 3.53 149.0 2.52 303.6 2.86 234.4 3.20 184.0 3.54 148.0 2.53 301.4 2.87 232.8 3.21 182.8 3.55 147.0 2.54 299.2 2.88 231.2 3.22 181.6 3.56 146.0 2.55 297.0 2.89 229.6 3.23 180.4 3.57 145.0 2.56 294.6 2.90 228.0 3.24 179.2 3.58 144.0 2.57 292.2 2.91 226.4 3.25 178.0 3.59 143.0 2.58 289.8 2.92 224.8 3.26 176.8 3.60 142.0 2.59 287.4 2.93 223.2 3.27 175.6 3.61 141.2 2.60 285.0 2.94 221.6 3.28 174.4 3.62 140.4 2.61 282.8 2.95 220.0 3.29 173.2 3.63 139.6 2.62 280.6 2.96 218.4 3.30 172.0 3.64 138.8 2.63 278.4 2.97 216.8 3.31 171.0 3.65 138.0 2.64 276.2 2.98 215.2 3.32 170.0 3.66 137.2 2.65 274.0 2.99 213.6 3.33 169.0 3.67 136.4 2.66 272.0 3.00 212.0 3.34 168.0 3.68 135.6 2.67 270.0 3.01 210.4 3.35 167.0 3.69 134.8 2.68 268.0 3.02 208.8 3.36 166.0 3.70 134.0 2.69 266.0 3.03 207.2 3.37 165.0 3.71 133.2 2.70 264.0 3.04 205.6 3.38 164.0 3.72 132.4 2.71 262.0 3.05 204.0 3.39 163.0 3.73 131.6 2.72 260.0 3.06 202.6 3.40 162.0 3.74 130.8 2.73 258.0 3.07 201.2 3.41 161.0 3.75 130.0 2.74 256.0 3.08 199.8 3.42 160.0 3.76 129.2 2.75 254.0 3.09 198.4 3.43 159.0 3.77 128.4 2.76 252.2 3.10 197.0 3.44 158.0 3.78 127.6 2.77 250.4 3.11 195.6 3.45 157.0 3.79 126.8 2.78 248.6 3.12 194.2 3.46 156.0 3.80 126.0 2.79 246.8 3.13 192.8 3.47 155.0 3.81 125.2 2.80 245.0 3.14 191.4 3.48 154.0 3.82 124.4 2.81 243.2 3.15 190.0 3.49 153.0 3.83 123.6 2.82 241.4 3.16 188.8 3.50 152.0 3.84 122.8 2.83 239.6 3.17 187.6 3.51 151.0 3.85 122.0 11

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Appendix E: Indentation—Brinell Hardness Table 5 Hammer Impact—Carbide Indenter ∮4mm Diameter HB Diameter HB Diameter HB Diameter HB 1.55 742.0 1.79 596.0 2.03 462.9 2.27 359.4 1.56 1.80 589.8 2.04 457.8 2.28 355.6 1.57 1.81 585.0 2.05 452.8 2.29 351.8 1.58 1.82 580.2 2.06 447.8 2.30 348.0 1.59 1.83 575.4 2.07 442.9 2.31 344.6 1.60 708.0 1.84 570.6 2.08 437.9 2.32 341.2 1.61 1.85 565.8 2.09 433.0 2.33 337.8 1.62 1.86 559.3 2.10 428.0 2.34 334.4 1.63 1.87 552.8 2.11 423.7 2.35 331.0 1.64 1.88 546.4 2.12 419.4 2.36 327.3 1.65 673.0 1.89 539.9 2.13 415.2 2.37 323.6 1.66 1.90 533.4 2.14 410.9 2.38 319.8 1.67 1.91 528.1 2.15 406.6 2.39 316.1 1.68 1.92 522.8 2.16 402.1 2.40 312.4 1.69 1.93 517.4 2.17 397.6 2.41 309.5 1.70 639.8 1.94 512.1 2.18 393.0 2.42 306.6 1.71 636.0 1.95 506.8 2.19 388.5 2.43 303.8 1.72 632.2 1.96 501.0 2.20 384.0 2.44 300.9 1.73 628.4 1.97 495.3 2.21 380.6 2.45 298.0 1.74 624.6 1.98 489.5 2.22 377.2 2.46 294.6 1.75 620.8 1.99 483.8 2.23 373.8 2.47 291.3 1.76 614.6 2.00 478.0 2.24 370.4 2.48 287.9 1.77 608.4 2.01 473.0 2.25 367.0 2.49 284.6 1.78 602.2 2.02 467.9 2.26 363.2 2.50 281.2 12

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Appendix F Conversion Value of Hardness and Strength of Ferrous Metal Table A conversion value of hardness and strength of all kinds of steels Hardness Tensile strength σ b /MPa Rockwell Superficial Rockwell Vickers Brinell (F/D 2 30) HRC HRA HR15N HR30N HR45N HV HBS HBW Carbon steel Chrome steel Chrome-vanadium steel Chrome nickel steel chrome molybdenum steel chromium nickel molybdenum steel chromansil Super high strength steel Stainless steel 20.0 60.2 68.8 40.7 19.2 226 225 774 742 736 782 747 781 740 20.5 60.4 69.0 41.2 19.8 228 227 784 751 744 787 753 788 749 21.0 60.7 69.3 41.7 20.4 230 229 793 760 753 792 760 794 758 21.5 61.0 69.5 42.2 21.0 233 232 803 769 761 797 767 801 767 22.0 61.2 69.8 42.6 21.5 235 234 813 799 770 803 774 809 777 22.5 61.5 70.0 43.1 22.1 238 237 823 788 779 809 781 816 786 23.0 61.7 70.3 43.6 22.7 241 240 833 798 788 815 789 824 796 23.5 62.0 70.6 44.0 23.3 244 242 843 808 797 822 797 832 806 24.0 62.2 70.8 44.5 23.9 247 245 854 818 807 829 805 840 816 24.5 62.5 71.1 45.0 24.5 250 248 864 828 816 836 813 848 826 25.0 62.8 71.4 45.5 25.1 253 251 875 838 826 843 822 856 837 25.5 63.0 71.6 45.9 25.7 256 254 886 848 837 851 831 850 865 847 26.0 63.3 71.9 46.4 26.3 259 257 897 859 847 859 840 859 874 858 26.5 63.5 72.2 46.9 26.9 262 260 908 870 858 867 850 869 883 868 27.0 63.8 72.4 47.3 27.5 266 263 919 880 869 876 860 870 893 879 27.5 64.0 72.7 47.8 28.1 269 266 930 891 880 885 870 890 902 890 28.0 64.3 73.0 48.3 28.7 273 269 942 902 892 894 880 901 912 901 28.5 64.6 73.3 48.7 29.3 276 273 954 914 903 904 891 912 922 913 29.0 64.8 73.5 49.2 29.9 280 276 965 925 915 914 902 923 933 924 29.5 65.1 73.8 49.7 30.5 284 280 977 937 928 924 913 935 943 936 30.0 65.3 74.1 50.2 31.1 288 283 989 948 940 935 924 947 954 947 30.5 65.6 74.4 50.6 31.7 292 287 1002 960 953 946 936 959 965 959 31.0 65.8 74.7 51.1 32.3 296 291 1014 972 966 957 948 972 977 971 31.5 66.1 74.9 51.6 32.9 300 294 1027 984 980 969 961 985 989 983 32.0 66.4 75.2 52.0 33.5 304 298 1039 996 993 981 974 999 1001 996 32.5 66.6 75.5 52.5 34.1 308 302 1052 1009 1007 994 987 1012 1013 1008 33.0 66.9 75.8 53.0 34.7 313 306 1065 1022 1022 1007 1001 1027 1026 1021 33.5 67.1 76.1 53.4 35.3 317 310 1078 1034 1036 1020 1015 1041 1039 1034 34.0 67.4 76.4 53.9 35.9 321 314 1092 1048 1051 1034 1029 1056 1052 1047 34.5 67.7 76.7 54.4 36.5 326 318 1105 1064 1067 1048 1043 1071 1066 1060 35.0 67.9 77.0 54.8 37.0 331 323 1119 1074 1082 1063 1058 1087 1079 1074 35.5 67.9 77.0 55.3 37.6 335 327 1133 1088 1098 1078 1074 1103 1094 1087 13

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Hardness Tensile strength σ b /MPa Rockwell Superficial Rockwell Vickers Brinell (F/D 2 30) HRC HRA HR15N HR30N HR45N HV HBS HBW Carbon steel Chrome steel Chrome-vanadium steel Chrome nickel steel chrome molybdenum steel chromium nickel molybdenum steel chromansil Super high strength steel Stainless steel 36.0 68.4 77.5 55.8 38.2 340 332 1147 1102 1114 1093 1090 1119 1108 1101 36.5 68.7 77.8 56.2 38.8 345 336 1162 1116 1131 1109 1106 1136 1123 1116 37.0 69.0 78.1 56.7 39.4 350 341 1117 1131 1148 1125 1122 1153 1139 1130 37.5 69.2 78.4 57.2 40.0 355 345 1192 1146 1165 1142 1139 1171 1155 1145 38.0 69.5 78.7 57.6 40.6 360 350 1207 1161 1183 1159 1157 1189 1171 1161 38.5 69.7 79.0 58.1 41.2 365 355 1222 1176 1201 1177 1174 1207 1187 1170 1176 39.0 70.0 79.3 58.6 41.8 371 360 1238 1192 1219 1195 1192 1226 1204 1195 1193 39.5 70.3 79.6 59.0 42.4 376 365 1254 1208 1238 1214 1211 1245 1222 1219 1209 40.0 70.5 79.9 59.5 43.0 381 370 370 1271 1225 1257 1233 1230 1265 1240 1243 1226 40.5 70.8 80.2 60.0 43.6 387 375 375 1288 1242 1276 1252 1249 1285 1258 1267 1244 41.0 71.1 80.5 60.4 44.2 393 380 381 1305 1260 1296 1273 1269 1306 1277 1290 1262 41.5 71.3 80.8 60.9 44.8 398 385 386 1322 1278 1317 1293 1289 1327 1296 1313 1280 42.0 71.6 81.1 61.3 45.4 404 391 392 1340 1296 1337 1314 1310 1348 1316 1336 1299 42.5 71.8 81.4 61.8 45.9 410 396 397 1359 1315 1358 1336 1331 1370 1336 1359 1319 43.0 72.1 81.7 62.3 46.5 416 401 403 1378 1335 1380 1358 1353 1392 1357 1381 1339 43.5 72.4 82.0 62.7 47.1 422 407 409 1397 1355 1401 1380 1375 1415 1378 1404 1361 44.0 72.6 82.3 63.2 47.7 428 413 415 1417 1376 1424 1404 1397 1439 1400 1427 1383 44.5 72.9 82.6 63.6 48.3 435 418 422 1438 1398 1446 1427 1420 1462 1422 1450 1405 45.0 73.2 82.9 64.1 48.9 441 424 428 1459 1420 1469 1451 1444 1487 1445 1473 1429 45.5 73.4 83.2 64.6 49.5 448 430 435 1481 1444 1493 1476 1468 1512 1469 1496 1453 46.0 73.7 83.5 65.0 50.1 454 436 441 1503 1468 1517 1502 1492 1537 1493 1520 1479 46.5 73.9 83.7 65.5 50.7 461 442 448 1526 1493 1541 1527 1517 1563 1517 1544 1505 47.0 74.2 84.0 65.9 51.2 468 449 455 1550 1519 1566 1554 1542 1589 1543 1569 1533 47.5 74.5 84.3 66.4 51.8 475 463 1575 1546 1591 1581 1568 1616 1569 1594 1562 48.0 74.7 84.6 66.8 52.4 482 470 1600 1574 1617 1608 1595 1643 1595 1620 1592 48.5 75.0 84.9 67.3 53.0 489 478 1626 1603 1643 1636 1622 1671 1623 1646 1623 49.0 75.3 85.2 67.7 53.6 497 486 1653 1633 1670 1665 1649 1699 1651 1674 1655 49.5 75.5 85.5 68.2 54.2 504 494 1681 1665 1697 1695 1677 1728 1679 1702 1689 50.0 75.8 85.7 68.6 54.7 512 502 1710 1698 1724 1724 1706 1758 1709 1731 1725 50.5 76.1 86.0 69.1 55.3 520 510 1732 1752 1755 1735 1788 1739 1761 51.0 76.3 86.3 69.5 55.9 527 518 1768 1780 1786 1764 1819 1770 1792 51.5 76.6 86.6 70.0 56.5 535 527 1806 1809 1818 1794 1850 1801 1824 52.0 76.9 86.8 70.4 57.1 544 535 1845 1839 1850 1825 1881 1834 1857 52.5 77.1 87.1 70.9 57.6 552 544 1869 1883 1856 1914 1867 1892 14

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Hardness Tensile strength σ b /MPa Rockwell Superficial Rockwell Vickers Brinell (F/D 2 30) HRC HRA HR15N HR30N HR45N HV HBS HBW Carbon steel Chrome steel Chrome-vanadium steel Chrome nickel steel chrome molybdenum steel chromium nickel molybdenum steel chromansil Super high strength steel Stainless steel 53.0 77.4 87.4 71.3 58.3 561 552 1899 1917 1888 1947 1901 1929 53.5 77.7 87.6 71.8 58.8 569 561 1930 1951 1936 1966 54.0 77.9 87.9 72.2 59.4 578 569 1961 1986 1971 2006 54.5 78.2 88.1 72.6 59.9 587 577 1993 2022 2008 2047 55.0 78.5 88.4 73.1 60.5 596 585 2026 2058 2045 2090 55.5 78.7 88.6 73.5 61.1 606 593 2135 56.0 79.0 88.9 73.9 61.7 615 601 2181 56.5 79.3 89.1 74.4 62.2 625 608 2230 57.0 79.5 89.4 74.8 62.8 635 616 2281 57.5 79.8 89.6 75.2 63.4 645 622 2334 58.0 80.1 89.8 75.6 63.9 655 628 2390 58.5 80.3 90.0 76.1 64.5 666 634 2448 59.0 80.6 90.2 76.5 65.1 676 639 2509 59.5 80.9 90.4 76.9 65.6 687 643 2572 60.0 81.2 90.6 77.3 66.2 698 647 2639 60.5 81.4 90.8 77.7 66.8 710 650 61.0 81.7 91.0 78.1 67.3 721 61.5 82.0 91.2 78.6 67.9 733 62.0 82.2 91.4 79.0 68.4 745 62.5 82.5 91.5 79.4 69.0 757 63.0 82.8 91.7 79.8 69.5 770 63.5 83.1 91.8 80.2 70.1 782 64.0 83.3 91.9 80.6 70.6 795 64.5 83.6 92.1 81.0 71.2 809 65.0 83.9 92.2 81.3 71.7 822 65.5 84.1 836 66.0 84.4 850 66.5 84.7 865 67.0 85.0 879 67.5 85.2 894 68.0 85.5 909 15

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Table B Conversion value of hardness and strength of mild steels Hardness Rockwell Superficial Rockwell Vickers Brinell HBS HRB HR15T HR30T HV F/D 2 10 F/D 2 30 σ b /MPa HR45T Tensile strength of mild steels 60.0 80.4 56.1 30.4 105 102 375 60.5 80.5 56.4 30.9 105 102 377 61.0 80.7 56.7 31.4 106 103 379 61.5 80.8 57.1 31.9 107 103 381 62.0 80.9 57.4 32.4 108 104 382 62.5 81.1 57.7 32.9 108 104 384 63.0 81.2 58.0 33.5 109 105 386 63.5 81.4 58.3 34.0 110 105 388 64.0 81.5 58.7 34.5 110 106 390 64.5 81.6 59.0 35.0 111 106 393 65.0 81.8 59.3 35.5 112 107 395 65.5 81.9 59.6 36.1 113 107 397 66.0 82.1 59.9 36.6 114 108 399 66.5 82.2 60.3 37.1 115 108 402 67.0 82.3 60.6 37.6 115 109 404 67.5 82.5 60.9 38.1 116 110 407 68.0 82.6 61.2 38.6 117 110 409 68.5 82.7 61.5 39.2 118 111 412 69.0 82.9 61.9 39.7 119 112 415 69.5 83.0 62.2 40.2 120 112 418 70.0 83.2 62.5 40.7 121 113 421 70.5 83.3 62.8 41.2 122 114 424 71.0 83.4 63.1 41.7 123 115 427 71.5 83.6 63.5 42.3 124 115 430 72.0 83.7 63.8 42.8 125 116 433 72.5 83.9 64.1 43.3 126 117 437 73.0 84.0 64.4 43.8 128 118 440 73.5 84.1 64.7 44.3 129 119 444 74.0 84.3 65.1 44.8 130 120 447 74.5 84.4 65.4 45.4 131 121 451 75.0 84.5 65.7 45.9 132 122 455 75.5 84.7 66.0 46.4 134 123 459 76.0 84.8 66.3 46.9 135 124 463 76.5 85.0 66.6 47.4 136 125 467 16

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Hardness Rockwell Superficial Rockwell Vickers Brinell HBS HRB HR15T HR30T HR45T HV F/D 2 10 F/D 2 30 Tensile strength of mild steels σ b /MPa 77.0 85.1 67.0 47.9 138 126 471 77.5 85.2 67.3 48.5 139 127 475 78.0 85.4 67.6 49.0 140 128 480 78.5 85.5 67.9 49.5 142 129 484 79.0 85.7 68.2 50.0 143 130 489 79.5 85.8 68.6 50.5 145 132 493 80.0 85.9 68.9 51.0 146 133 498 80.5 86.1 69.2 51.6 148 134 503 81.0 86.2 69.5 52.1 149 136 508 81.5 86.3 69.8 52.6 151 137 513 82.0 86.5 70.2 53.1 152 138 518 82.5 86.6 70.5 53.6 154 140 523 83.0 86.8 70.8 54.1 156 152 529 83.5 86.9 71.1 54.7 157 154 534 84.0 87.0 71.4 55.2 159 155 540 84.5 87.2 71.8 55.7 161 156 546 85.0 87.3 72.1 56.2 163 158 551 85.5 87.5 72.4 56.7 165 159 557 86.0 87.6 72.7 57.2 166 161 563 86.5 87.7 73.0 57.8 168 163 570 87.0 87.9 73.4 58.3 170 164 576 87.5 88.0 73.7 58.8 172 166 582 88.0 88.1 74.0 59.3 174 168 589 88.5 88.3 74.3 59.8 176 170 596 89.0 88.4 74.6 60.3 178 172 603 89.5 88.6 75.0 60.9 180 174 609 90.0 88.7 75.3 61.4 183 176 617 90.5 88.8 75.6 61.9 185 178 624 91.0 89.0 75.9 62.4 187 180 631 91.5 89.1 76.2 62.9 189 182 639 92.0 89.3 76.6 63.4 191 184 646 92.5 89.4 76.9 64.0 194 187 654 93.0 89.5 77.2 64.5 196 189 662 93.5 89.7 77.5 65.0 199 192 670 17

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Hardness Rockwell Superficial Rockwell Vickers Brinell HBS HRB HR15T HR30T HR45T HV F/D 2 10 F/D 2 30 Tensile strength of mild steels σ b /MPa 94.0 89.8 77.8 65.5 201 195 678 94.5 89.9 78.2 66.0 203 197 686 95.0 90.1 78.5 66.5 206 200 695 95.5 90.2 78.8 67.1 208 203 703 96.0 90.4 79.1 67.6 211 206 712 96.5 90.5 79.4 68.1 214 209 721 97.0 90.6 79.8 68.6 216 212 730 97.5 90.8 80.1 69.1 219 215 739 98.0 90.9 80.4 69.6 222 218 749 98.5 91.1 80.7 70.2 225 222 758 99.0 91.2 81.0. 70.7 227 226 768 99.5 91.3 81.4 71.2 230 229 778 100.0 91.5 81.7 71.7 233 232 788 18

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