role of nurses

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Slide 1:

1/4/2011 Group E

Group members:

1/4/2011 Group E Group members Nizar ali(T.L) Jamal hussain Sajid yasin M.Zahid M.farooq Mehwish aziz

Objectives:

1/4/2011 Group E Objectives What is nursing History Nursing as profession Role of nurse in hospital Describe and differentiate among seven different roles of the community health nurse Identify principles of nursing practice in the community

Slide 4:

1/4/2011 Group E Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health.

Slide 5:

1/4/2011 Group E Nursing work in a large variety of specialties where they work independently and as part of a team to assess, plan, implement and evaluate care. Nursing Science is a field of knowledge based on the contributions of nursing scientist through peer reviewed scholarly journals and evidenced-based practice.

History of nursing :

1/4/2011 Group E History of nursing In fifth century BC, Hippocrates was one of the first people in the world to study healthcare, During 17th century Europe, nursing care was provided by men and women serving punishment.

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1/4/2011 Group E It was not until Florence Nightingale , a well-educated woman from a middle class family, became a nurse and improved it drastically that people began to accept nursing as a respectable profession. Other aspects also helped in the acceptance of nursing.

Nursing as a profession :

1/4/2011 Group E Nursing as a profession In almost all countries, is defined and governed by law, and entrance to the profession is regulated at national or state level. The aim of the nursing community worldwide is for its professionals to ensure quality care for all, while maintaining their credentials, code of ethics, standards, and competencies, and continuing their education.

Slide 9:

1/4/2011 Group E Nurses care for individuals of all ages and cultural backgrounds who are healthy and ill in a holistic manner based on the individual's physical, emotional, psychological, intellectual, social, and spiritual needs. The profession combines physical science, social science, nursing theory, and technology in caring for those individuals.

Nursing practice :

1/4/2011 Group E Nursing practice Nursing practice is the actual provision of nursing care.

Slide 11:

1/4/2011 Group E Guidelines for Care (Continued) Confidentiality--Invasion of Privacy Documentation Incident Reports Role of Nurse as Witness Witness in Criminal Cases Expert Witness

Roles of Community Health Nurses:

1/4/2011 Group E Roles of Community Health Nurses Clinician Educator Advocate Manager Collaborator Leader Researcher

Clinician Role:

1/4/2011 Group E Clinician Role Care provider : The nurse ensures that health services are not only provided to individuals and families but also provided to groups and populations The clinician role has emphasis on holism, health promotion and skill expansion Holistic practice = considering the broad range of interacting needs that affect the “collective health” of the client as a larger system (Patterson 1998)

Clinician Role (Continued):

1/4/2011 Group E Clinician Role (Continued) Focus on promoting wellness is a major clinician’s role (Frenn 1996) Nursing service includes seeking out clients at risk for poor health to offer preventive and health promoting services rather than waiting for them to come for help after problems arise (Caraher 1995) Examples: Employees of a business are helped to live healthier and happier lives by working with a group who wants to quit smoking Lessons to discuss fathering skills with a group of men Assist several families with terminally ill patients to gain strengths through a support system of accepting death and the dying process

Clinician Role (Continued):

1/4/2011 Group E Clinician Role (Continued) Focus on promoting wellness is a major clinician’s role (Frenn 1996) Nursing service includes seeking out clients at risk for poor health to offer preventive and health promoting services rather than waiting for them to come for help after problems arise (Caraher 1995) Examples: Employees of a business are helped to live healthier and happier lives by working with a group who wants to quit smoking Lessons to discuss fathering skills with a group of men Assist several families with terminally ill patients to gain strengths through a support system of accepting death and the dying process

Educator Role:

1/4/2011 Group E Educator Role Health teacher: one of the major functions of the CHN (Breckon et.al. 1998) Important role because Community clients are NOT usually acutely ill and can absorb and act on health information A wider audience can be reached leading to a community-wide impact The public has a higher level of health consciousness Client self-education is facilitated by the nurse. Based on the concept of self-care, clients are encouraged to use appropriate health resources

Advocate Role:

1/4/2011 Group E Advocate Role Based on clients’ rights: Every patient or client has the right to receive just, equal, and humane treatment. Why Advocacy ? Current health care system offers de-personalised and fragmented services. Many clients who are poor and disadvantaged are frustrated and the nurse becomes an advocate for clients pleading their cause and acting on their behalf Goals of advocacy: Help clients gain more independence and self-determination Make the system more responsive and relevant to the needs of clients

Characteristic Actions of an Advocate:

1/4/2011 Group E Characteristic Actions of an Advocate Being assertive Taking risks Communicating and negotiating well Identifying resources and obtaining results

Manager Role:

1/4/2011 Group E Manager Role Nurse directs and administers care to meet goals by: Assessing client needs Planning and organising to meet those needs Directing and leading to achieve results Controlling and evaluating the progress to make sure that the results are met Nurse oversees client care as: A case manager Supervising ancillary staff Managing caseloads Running clinics Conducting community health needs assessment projects

Nurse as Planner:

1/4/2011 Group E Nurse as Planner Sets the goals for the organisation Sets the direction Determines the means (strategies) to achieve them It includes defining goals and objectives It may be strategic ( long-term broader goals)

Nurse as Organizer:

1/4/2011 Group E Nurse as Organizer Designing a structure for people + tasks to function to reach the desired objectives It includes assignments and scheduling It includes: Deciding what tasks to be done Who will do them How to group the tasks Who reports to whom Where decisions will be made (Robbins 1997) Questions to be addressed by the organiser Is the clinic, program providing the needed services? Are the clients satisfied? Are the services cost-effective?

Nurse as Leader:

1/4/2011 Group E Nurse as Leader The nurse directs, influences, or persuades others to make change to positively influence people’s health. Includes persuading and motivating people, directing activities, effective two-way communication, resolving conflicts and coordinating the plan Coordination : Bringing people and activities together to function in harmony to achieve desired objectives

Nurse as Controller and Evaluator:

1/4/2011 Group E Nurse as Controller and Evaluator Controller: Monitors the plan and ensures that it stays on course. Sometimes plans do not proceed as intended and need to be adjusted Monitoring, comparing and adjusting are activities of controlling Comparing performance and outcomes against set goals and standards = Evaluator role

Researcher Role = to search again:

1/4/2011 Group E Researcher Role = to search again Systematic investigation, collection, and analysis of data for solving problems and improving community health practice This role is at several levels: Agency and organisational studies for job satisfaction among public health nurses Some CHN participate in more collaborative research with other health professionals

The Research Process:

1/4/2011 Group E The Research Process Identify an area of interest Specify the research question or statement Review the literature Identify a conceptual framework Select a research design Collect and analyse data Interpret the results Communicate the findings

Settings for CHN Practice:

1/4/2011 Group E Settings for CHN Practice Homes Community health centres Schools Occupational health settings (business and industry) Residential institutions: Older age residences Parishes or charitable mosques related organisations Community at large

Role of nurse in hospital:

1/4/2011 Group E Role of nurse in hospital Bedside Care Supervisor Conduct researcher Educate Patients and Families Help Address Information

Bedside Care :

1/4/2011 Group E Bedside Care Nurses provide sufficient care for patients to make them feel comfortable while in the hospital. With this role, nurses carry out numerous procedures including patient evaluations, monitoring patients' vital signs, and managing medications.

Supervisor:

1/4/2011 Group E Supervisor A few nurses become head nurses. They assign duties to other nurses and nurse assistants, setting work shifts for each employee and making sure that each nurse under their direction is properly trained.

Conduct Research:

1/4/2011 Group E Conduct Research Nurses usually obtain research for physicians regarding a patient's medical case or history. The information attained will be used by physicians to determine patients' conditions.

Educate Patients and Families:

1/4/2011 Group E Educate Patients and Families When patients or their families are unaware of a particular health issue or concern, a nurse will be on hand to provide general information to help them understand what they are experiencing.

Help Address Information:

1/4/2011 Group E Help Address Information To help the public understand various medical conditions, nurses will promote general health by addressing information on health concerns through seminars and meetings.

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1/4/2011 Group E