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Egyptian Literature Objectives: Characterize Egyptian Literature Trace the historical background of Egyptian Literature Enumerate and identify the different forms of Egyptian Literature Discuss religious literature Find pleasure in reading their literary pieces Introduction : Introduction Egypt Official Name : Arab Republic of Egypt Capital : Cairo Population : 54.6 million (2001) Currency : Egyptian Pound Official Language :Arabic Slide 3: Occupying the northeast corner of Africa, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley which separates its arid western desert from the smaller semi-arid eastern desert. Egypt’s 1979 peace treaty with Israel brought security, the return of the Sinai, and large injections of U.S. aid. Its essentially pro-Western military-backed regime is now being challenged by an increasingly influential Islamic fundamentalist movement. Egyptian Literature : Egyptian Literature Ancient Egyptian literature is characterized by a wide diversity of types and subject matter. It dates from the old Kingdom (2755-2255 B.C) into the Greco-Roman period (after 332 B.C) Such literary devices as simile, metaphor, alliteration, and punning are found. Range of Literary Forms : Range of Literary Forms The religious literature of ancient Egypt includes hymns to the gods, mythological and magical texts, and extensive collection of mortuary texts. The range of secular literature includes stories; instructive literature, known as “wisdom text”; poems; biographical and historical texts; and scientific treatises, including mathematical and medical texts. Notable also are the many legal, administrative, and economic texts and private documents such as letters, although not actually literature. Slide 6: The individual authors of several compositions dating from the Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom were revered in later periods. They came from the educated class of upper-level government officials, and their audience was largely educated people like themselves. Historical Background : Historical Background A. Old Kingdom- Very few literary texts survived from the Old Kingdom. Among the most important works of the period were: Pyramid texts which include nonliterary and highly poetic spells; Cannibal texts , a vivid bits of poetry representing the dead King attaining power in the afterlife by devouring the gods; and the Proverbs of Ptahotep, a book of sound but worldly advice. Slide 8: B. Middle Kingdom- This is the classic age of Egyptian literature which saw the flourishing of works which became popular for hundreds of years. Among these are: Tale of Senuhe, which relates the flight of a refugee courtier, Sinuhe, from Egypt to Syria for political reasons, his life in exile and his homecoming; the Shipwrecked Sailor, a simple folk tale of a sailor who meets an old fatherly serpent on an island; and King Cheops and the Magicians, several folk tales given in a frame work story. Slide 9: C. New Kingdom- During this period, the style of writing changed and the language of the day was used, which brought forth a more natural manner of writing, replacing the artificialities of the Middle Kingdom. Among the famous writings of this period were: The Story of King Apohis and Sekenenre, which concerns war expelling the Hykos; Voyage of Wenamon, a tale of an official sent to Lebanon for cedar wood; The Tale of the Two Brothers; The Enchanted Prince; Hymn to the Sun, to name a few. The new Kingdom saw increased concern over the dangers after death and many spells and rituals were composed for use of the dead. Slide 10: D. Late Period- The literature of the late period differs greatly from that of the earlier times because it was written in demotic, the simplified egyptian language of that time. Works like The Lamentations of Isis and Nephtys and Setna and The Magic Book were popular during this period. Types of Egyptian Literature : Types of Egyptian Literature Most of the Egyptian writings fall into one of the five types: Wisdom literature, religious literature, tales, love lyrics, and pessimistic literature. Religious Literature : Religious Literature Religious literature predominates in Egypt. This is always the case when the priest are the only persons who can write and make records and it is rare that any secular literature survives from an early period. In Egypt, the earliest body of texts that can be called literature is entirely religious and comprises a series of hymns and spells sculptured on the walls of the burial chambers in the pyramids of the five kings of the sixth dynasty. Slide 13: These are known as the pyramid text. They have clearly been copied and recopied so many times that often the language is too corrupt to be comprehensible. It is however, possible to translate the greater part of the inscription though many of the allusions are baffling. The Pyramid Texts consist of hymns and spells for the benefit of the dead, and as they are the earliest literary liturgy and exposition of religion in the world, they throw a great light on the primitive beliefs and official creeds. Slide 14: The knowledge of them was handed down undoubtedly by words of mouth till the time of the 12th dynasty when many of the texts appear on the printed and sculptured coffins of the period. These we now call the Coffin Texts. The early spells occur in the interesting compilation to which the misleading title of the Book of the Dead was given by early Egyptologists. Some of the Surviving Literary Pieces of the Egyptians : Some of the Surviving Literary Pieces of the Egyptians The Book of the Dead (religious) Hymn to the Sun-God Ra (Religious) Hymn to Osiris (religious) The Tale of Two Brothers (Tale) Maxims and Instructions (Wisdom Lit.) The Teaching of Amenomopet (Wisdom Lit.) The Story of the Eloquent Peasant (Tale) Dialogue of a Pessimist with His Soul (Pessimistic Lit.) Admonition of an Egyptian Sage ( Pessimistic Lit.) Bridal Songs ( Love Songs) To Whom Should I Speak Today?By: T. Eric Peet : To Whom Should I Speak Today?By: T. Eric Peet To whom should I speak today? Brothers are evil; The friends of today love not. To whom should I speak today? Hearts are covetous Every man plundereth the goods of his fellow. To whom should I speak today? The peaceful man is in evil case; Good is cast aside everywhere. To whom should I speak today? Yesterday is forgatten; Men do not as they were done by nowadays. Slide 17: T o whom should I speak today? The righteous are no more; The land is given over to evil-doers. To whom should I speak today? There is lack of confidants; Men have recourse to a stranger to tell their troubles. To whom should I speak today? I am laden with misery. And am without a comforter. Guide Questions for the poem : Guide Questions for the poem Enumerate the reasons why the poet distrusts his fellowmen? Today, do we have to trust or distrust our fellowmen? Support your answer. Cite instances/practical situations why our brothers are considered evil? Can we still rectify these problems in human relations? How? Dramatize/role play some evils of our society and the corresponding remedy or remedies to those maladies. Egyptian“The Book of the Dead” : Egyptian“The Book of the Dead” Slide 20: Book of the Dead is the common name for ancient Egyptian funerary texts known as The Book of Coming or Going Forth By Day. The name "Book of the Dead" was the invention of the German Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius, who published a selection of some texts in 1842. Slide 21: The Books were text initially carved on the exterior of the deceased person's sarcophagus, but was later written on papyrus now known as scrolls and buried inside the sarcophagus with the deceased, presumably so that it would be both portable and close at hand. Other texts often accompanied the primary texts including the hypocephalus (meaning 'under the head') which was a primer version of the full text. Slide 22: Books of the Dead constituted as a collection of spells, charms, passwords, numbers and magical formulas for the use of the deceased in the afterlife. This described many of the basic tenets of Egyptian mythology. Slide 23: They were intended to guide the dead through the various trials that they would encounter before reaching the underworld. Knowledge of the appropriate spells was considered essential to achieving happiness after death. Spells or enchantments vary in distinctive ways between the texts of differing "mummies" or sarcophagi, depending on the prominence and other class factors of the deceased. Slide 24: Books of the Dead were usually illustrated with pictures showing the tests to which the deceased would be subjected. The most important was the weighing of the heart of the dead person against Ma'at, or Truth (carried out by Anubis). The heart of the dead was weighed against a feather, and if the heart was not weighed down with sin (if it was lighter than the feather) he was allowed to go on. The god Thoth would record the results and the monster Ammit would wait nearby to eat the heart should it prove unworthy. Slide 25: The earliest known versions date from the 16th century BC during the 18th Dynasty (ca. 1580 BC1350 BC). It partly incorporated two previous collections of Egyptian religious literature, known as the Coffin Texts (ca. 2000 BC) and the Pyramid Texts (ca. 2600 BC-2300 BC), both of which were eventually superseded by the Book of the Dead Slide 26: The text was often individualized for the deceased person - so no two copies contain the same text - however, "book" versions are generally categorized into four main divisions - the Heliopolitan version, which was edited by the priests of the college of Annu (used from the 5th to the 11th dynasty and on walls of tombs until about 200); the Theban version, which contained hieroglyphics only (20th to the 28th dynasty); a hieroglyphic and hieratic character version, closely related to the Theban version, which had no fixed order of chapters (used mainly in the 20th dynasty); and the Saite version which has strict order (used after the 26th dynasty). Slide 27: It is notable, that the Book of the Dead for Scribe Ani, the Papyrus of Ani, was originally 78 Ft, and was separated into 37 sheets at appropriate chapter and topical divisions. Slide 28: This is a beautiful color version of the Papyrus of Ani, one of the books of the dead which were often buried with the dead person who could afford to have one written, to ease his/her way into eternal life. Above is a picture from the book. Ani (man with his wife bowing to the gods), while Anubis weighs his heart against Maat's feather of truth, and Thoth records the event, and Ammit the devourer waits patiently. Slide 29: There are several books by E. W. Budge about this papyrus. But Faulkner's version is better and more beautiful. And, considering the page after page of beautiful color pictures, this paperback version is amazingly inexpensive. You may find yourself just sitting and marveling at it for hours and hours, maybe years and years. Slide 30: The Book of the Dead, the ceremonies, rituals and magic were all done in the hopes that one could reach the Land of the West and a happy afterlife, filled with good things. To live forever with the gods. To, once more, come forth by day as a living man would awaken with the sun. Slide 31: Documentary film Showing of “The Book of The Dead” End of Part 2 Part 3. Asian Literature : Part 3. Asian Literature Objectives: To recognize Asia as a unique continent of the world Identify and enumerate the outstanding characteristics of Asian Literature Find pleasure in reading Asian Literary masterpieces. Introduction to Asia : Introduction to Asia A. Land Area : 44,444,100 sq.km( 17,159,995 sq. miles); 33% of the world’s land area Elevation : Highest- Mt. Everest 8, 848 m. or 29,028 ft) Lowest- Dead Sea, shore 395 m 1296 ft below sea level B. People Population : 3,392,300,000 including European Turkey and excluding Asian Russia Largest City : Tokyo Populous Country: People’s Republic of China Busiest Ports : Singapore, Hong kong, Yokohama, Bombay Government : Government Political Divisions: 49 entire countries; part of Russia; part of Turkey; part of Egypt. The nations of Asia are usually grouped into five main geographical and political-cultural subdivisions: 1. Southwest Asia- Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen plus Asian Turkey and Egypt east of Suez Canal Slide 35: 2. South Asia- Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka 3. East Asia- China, North Korea, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. 4. Southeast Asia- Brunei, Burma, Indonesia, Kampuchea, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. 5. Central and North Asia- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan plus Asian Russia(Siberia) and three of the five autonomous regions of China. Racial and Ethnic Groups : Racial and Ethnic Groups Asia has a great diversity of ethnic groups, with two-thirds of all Asian peoples belonging to the Mongoloid group. The Largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute about 94% of the total population of China and dominate the eastern half of that nation. Languages : Languages Chinese, spoken by more than 1 billion people in China, Southeast Asia, and other parts of the continent, is the language most widely spoken in Asia: It includes Mandarin Chinese, and many distinctive dialects including Cantonese, Wu, Min and Hakka. Hindi, spoken by more than 215 million people, is the second most widely used language; it is spoken mainly in Southwest Asia, is the third major language and Russian, widely spoken and used as a second language in former Soviet Asia, is the fourth. Religion : Religion The principal Asian religions are Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism. Hinduism has a following of about 520 million and is the main religion of India. Islam, with an estimated 430 million adherents in Asia, is the principal religion in Southwest Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Slide 39: Large Muslim minorities exist in India, the Philippines, and Central Asia. Buddhism ,which developed in India is no longer important in that country but has a following of about 250 million in other regions of Asia and constitutes the principal religion in Burma. Kathy Song (1955) Contemporary Writer : Kathy Song (1955) Contemporary Writer Poet Cathy Song, a Hawaii native and daughter of a Chinese orphan, draws not only on her rich Korean and Chinese ancestry but on her experiences as a woman born and raised an American in verses that have been compared by critics to the muted tints of watercolor paintings. Slide 41: Song has consistently maintained that the rich world she creates within her narrative poetry transcends her own ethnic and regional background, and resists classification as an "Asian American" or "Hawaiian" writer, calling herself "a poet who happens to be Asian American." Her first volume of poems, Picture Bride, earned Song the 1983 Yale Series of Younger Poets Award and was also nominated for that year's National Book Critics Circle Award. The volume's success carried the young poet to national recognition, and other awards followed. Slide 42: Encouraged to write even during her childhood, Song left Hawaii to attend college in New England. It was in Boston that she met her husband, a medical student at Tufts University who was originally from New Mexico. The couple moved to Denver, Colorado, in 1984 while he completed his residency at Denver General Hospital, and there Song wrote Frameless Windows, Squares of Light and began a family. In 1987 they returned to Honolulu, where she now combines her writing with teaching creative writing to students at several universities. Slide 43: Ikebana by Cathy Song To prepare the body, aim for the translucent perfection you find in the sliced shavings of a pickled turnip. In order for this to happen, you must avoid the sun, protect the face under a paper parasol until it is bruised white like the skin of lilies. Use white soap from a blue porcelain dish for this. Slide 44: Restrict yourself. Eat the whites of things: tender bamboo shoots, the veins of the young iris, the clouded eye of a fish. Then wrap the body, as if it were a perfumed gift, in pieces of silk held together with invisible threads like a kite, weighing no more than a handful of crushed chrysanthemums. Light enough to float in the wind. You want the effect of koi moving through water. Slide 45: When the light leaves the room, twist lilacs into the lacquered hair piled high like a complicated shrine. There should be tiny bells inserted somewhere in the web of hair to imitate crickets singing in a hidden grove. Slide 46: Reveal the nape of the neck, your beauty spot. Hold the arrangement. If your spine slacks and you feel faint, remember the hand-picked flower set in the front alcove, which, just this morning, you so skillfully wired into place. How poised it is! Petal and leaf curving like a fan, the stem snipped and wedged into the metal base— to appear like a spontaneous accident. Kathy Song 1983 Some Asian Writers : Some Asian Writers ABRAHAM VARGHESE (1955-....) Sex : Male Place of Birth: Ethiopia Works: 1) My Own Country Name : AMITAV GHOSH (1956-....) Sex : Male Place of Birth: Calcutta, India Works: 1) The Shadow Lines 2) The Circle of Reason 3) In An Antique Land 4) The Calcutta Chromosome Slide 48: Name : AMIT CHAUDRI (1962-....) Sex : Male Place of Birth: Calcutta, India Works: 1) A Strange Sublime Address 2) Afternoon Raag Slide 49: Name : ANITA DESAI (1938-....) Sex : Female Place of Birth: Calcutta,India Works: 1) Cry the Peacock 2) In Custody 3) Fire on the Mountain 4) Where Shall We Go This Summer 5) Voices in the City 6) Bye, Bye Blackbird 7) A Village By the Sea 8) Baugmarten's Bombay 9) Clear Light of Day 10) Games at Twilight and Other Stories 11) Journey To Ithaca Slide 50: Name : AUBREY MENEN(1912-1989) Sex : Male Place of Birth : Born in London of Indian and Irish parents Works: 1) The Prevalence of Witches 2) The Stumbling Stone 3) The Backward Bride 4) The Duke of Gallodoro 5) The Abode of Love 6) SheLa- a satire 7) A Conspiracy of Women 8) The Space Within the Heart: An Autobiography 9) Four Days of Naples 10) The Ramayana, as told by Aubrey Menen 11) The Fig Tree 12) The Great Cities (Time Life Series) 13) The Baroque and Mr) Waugh 14) Dead Man in the Silver Market 15) Fonthill; a comedy 16) The Mystics 17) Presenting Robert Cormier 18) Upon this rock Slide 51: Name : Catherine Lim (1942-....) Sex : Female Place of Birth: Penang Life : She moved to Singapore to persue her doctoral degree. The former project director at the Curriculum Development Institute of Singapore, she has also worked at the SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. Works: 1) Little Ironies: Stories of Singapore 2) Or Else, the Lightning God and Other Stories 3) The Shadow of a Shadow of a Dream - Love Stories of Singapore 4) Deadline for Love & Other Stories 5) O Singapore! Slide 52: Name : M. G. VASSANJI (1950-....) Sex : Male Place of Birth: Nairobi, Africa Works: 1) The Gunny Sack 2) No New Land 3) Uhuru Street 4) The Book of Secrets Slide 53: Name : MICHAEL ONDAATJE (1943-....) Sex : Male Place of Birth: Sri Lanka (lives in Canada and the Caribbean) Works: 1) The English Patient 2) The Cinnamon Peeler 3) Secular Love 4) There's a Trick with a Knife I'm Learning to Do 5) Elimination Dance 6) Rat Jelly 7) The Collected Works of Billy the Kid 8) The Man with 7 Toes 9) The Dainty Monsters Prominent Filipino Writers : Prominent Filipino Writers JOSE GARCIA VILLA with Dame Edith Sitwell and Others (11/9/48) (Villa is seated in the back, coat open, showing a vest) Slide 55: BIENVENIDO. N. SANTOS Nick Joaquin (Literature 1976) : Nick Joaquin (Literature 1976) Part 4. Arabian Literature : Part 4. Arabian Literature Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. The area is an important part of the Middle East and plays a critically important geopolitical role because of its vast reserves of oil and natural gas. Slide 59: The coasts of the peninsula land, on the west, the Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba; on the southeast, the Arabian Sea (part of the Indian Ocean); and on the northeast, the Gulf of Oman, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Persian Gulf. Slide 60: Its northern limit is defined by the Zagros collision zone, a mountainous uplift where a continental collision between the Arabian Plate and Asia is occurring. Geographically, it merges with the Syrian Desert with no clear line of demarcation. Slide 61: Geographically, the Arabian Peninsula includes parts of Iraq and Jordan. Politically, however, the peninsula is separated from the rest of Asia by the northern borders of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The following countries are politically considered part of the peninsula:- : The following countries are politically considered part of the peninsula:- Bahrain Kuwait Oman PalestineQatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Yemen Modern history : Modern history The oil boom in Kuwait converted Kuwait City from a small city to a financial hub.The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers the greater part of the peninsula. The majority of the population of the peninsula lives in Saudi Arabia and in Yemen. The peninsula contains the world's largest reserves of oil. Slide 64: It is home to the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina, both of which are in Saudi Arabia. The UAE and Saudi Arabia are economically the wealthiest in the region. Qatar, a small peninsula in the Persian Gulf on the larger peninsula, is home of the famous Arabic-language television station Al Jazeera and its English-language subsidiary Al Jazeera English. Slide 65: The peninsula is one of the possible original homelands of the Proto-Semitic language ancestors of all the Semitic-speaking peoples in the region — the Akkadians, Arabs, Assyrians, Hebrews, etc. Linguistically, the peninsula was the cradle of the Arabic language (spread beyond the peninsula with the Islamic religion during the expansion of Islam beginning in the 7th century AD) and still maintains tiny populations of speakers of Southern East Semitic languages such as Mehri and Shehri, remnants of the language family that was spoken in earlier historical periods to the East of the kingdoms of Sheba and Hadramout which flourished in the southern part of the peninsula (modern-day Yemen and Oman). Slide 66: The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests, began after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (pbuh). He established a new unified political polity in the Arabian peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion of Arab power well beyond the Arabian peninsula in the form of a vast Muslim Arab Empire with an area of influence that stretched from northwest India, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees. People: : People: NOt ALL ARABS ARE...ARABS! The terms "Arab", "Arabian" etc. were meant to refer to people living in the Arabian Penisula and Gulf (Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, KSA, Oman, Yemen), and with the born of the Arabic Union, Arabs became all the people who live in the Arab countries, even the African ones, French speaking, Mediterraneans ... (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros <== Africa. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, KSA, Oman, Yemen, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan and Syria.) Slide 68: To many people, the real Arab countries are still the Gulf Arab countries, because that's the "base", as many peoples can't feel themselves Arabs (e.g. Comoros people are African, so are Djibouti, Somalia....). Slide 69: Many Arabs in countries like USA, Australia, Europe.... look bad because of that, although they did nothing wrong, but before even coming they are persecuted, and actually, some other Arabs in these countries are the reason for that, we can't blame racists ;-) ) Slide 70: Nobody should feel offended by being called an Arab, if you don't like it, you may suggest we call ourselves Middle Eastern, or each by his country, but we all know the truth, and that's it! (No offence proud Arabs)... Note from the author…. Government : Government Saudi Arabia is a monarchy and the laws of Islam(Sharia) form the constitution. The king has the both executive and legislative power, although an appointed council of ministers performs some of these functions subject to royal veto. Slide 72: Almost all the key government positions are held by members of the Saud family, the large, powerful ruling clan. There are no political parties or legislators, although any citizen can submit grievances or requests for aid directly to the king at regular audiences called majalis. History of Arabian Peninsula : History of Arabian Peninsula It is believed that Arabia is the homeland of the Semites, a nomadic tribal structure that existed over Arabian Peninsula for thousands of years of which many peoples of the Middle East belong, with Arabs and Hebrews as the most known. Slide 74: 1st millenium BC: Minean kingdom in southwestern Arabia. Mineans ecohnomy was based upon nomadic lifestyles and trade of incense. Slide 75: 1st century BC: Nabatean kingdom established to the north of the Minean. The eastern parts of Arabia was dominated by Dilmun, covering parts of the mainland and the island of Bahrain. Slide 76: 5th century AD: Mecca becomes the leading city of the region. 570: Birth of Prophet Muhammd, the later Prophet of Islam. 630: Mecca is conqured by Prophet Muhammads men, and strong expansion is started towards first the Arab peninsular, later beyond in northern direction. Slide 77: 1269: The region is subverted by the Mamelukes of Egypt. 15th century: Saud dynasty founded in the region around today's Riyadh. 1517: Control passes over to the Ottomans, when they conquer Egypt, but they hold only parts of the region under direct control. Slide 78: Mid 18th century: Time of Muhammad Ibnu Bdi l-Wahhab, a relgious leader establishing a sect that was supported by the Saudis. This movement soon established a national state in Najd, the centre of Arabia. 1802: Mecca is conquered by the Wahhabis. Slide 79: 1812: Wahhabis are driven out of Mecca by the local population. 1818: Wahhbis and Saudis found their capital in Riyadh. Slow reconquering starts from here. 1865: Civil war, the dynasty falls apart, and Arabia became divided between different clans and the Ottomans. Slide 80: 1902: Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud retakes Riyadh. 1906: The Saudis have once again control over Najd. 1913: Conquering of Hasa, the region east of Najd. 1921: Conquering of Jabal Shammar, the region northwest of Najd. 1923: Great Britian stops transferring money to both Abdul Aziz and the Hashimite king of Hijaz, the Sharif. This tilts the power balance in favour of Abdul Aziz. Slide 81: November 20: On this day, the first day in the Muslim calendar's year 1400, a group of Sunni Muslims barricaded themselves inside the Holy Mosque of Mecca. They claimed that the promised Mahdi was among them. They held out in 15 days (until December 4) and as much as 200 seems to have been killed. The true identity of the rebels is still not fully known. Slide 82: 1980: Saudi Arabia takes full control over Aramco. 1982: King Khalid dies. He is succeeded by King Fahd. 1987 July 31: 400 Iranian pilgrims are killed after clashes with Saudi security forces in Mecca. 1990 July: 1,400 pilgrims dies after a bridge and tunnel accident. August 2: The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait was dramatic to Saudi politics and security. Saudi Arabia allowed hundreds of thousands of foreign troops (mainly US) to be stationed on their own soil. Slide 83: 1992: Constitutional changes, where a consultative council, shura, is established, along with a bill of rights, and the rules of succession for the king.— Relations with Jordan deteriorates, as Jordan questions Saudi supremacy as protector of the Holy places. Arabian Literature: : Arabian Literature: Situated at the crossroads of Africa, Asia, Europe and the Mediterranean...the Arab World is not only a meeting point of cultures, but above all, with all its diversity, is a cultural representation to what we look for today in just simply having a good time. Arabian Nights in D.C(One Thousand And One Nights) : Arabian Nights in D.C(One Thousand And One Nights) What is Arabian Nights?It is a collection of Middle Eastern and South Asian stories and folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age. It is often known in English as the Arabian Nights, from the first English language edition (1706), which rendered the title as The Arabian Nights' Entertainment Slide 86: This is introduced to Europe through Antoine Galland’s French Translation but the best known English version is by the explorer Sir Richard Burton, who published the complete version. Slide 87: The original concept is most likely derived from an ancient Sassanid Persian prototype that relied partly on Indian elements, but the work as we have it was collected over many centuries by various authors, translators and scholars across the Middle East and North Africa. The tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Persian, Indian, Egyptian and Mesopotamian folklore and literature Slide 88: In particular, many tales were originally folk stories from the Caliphate era, while others, especially the frame story, are most probably drawn from the Pahlavi Persian work Hazār Afsān (Persian lit. Thousand Tales). Though the oldest Arabic manuscript dates from the 14th century, scholarship generally dates the collection's genesis to around the 9th century. Slide 89: Some of the best-known stories of The Nights, particularly "Aladdin's Wonderful Lamp", "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" and "The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor", while almost certainly genuine Middle-Eastern folk tales, were not part of The Nights in Arabic versions, but were interpolated into the collection by its early European translators Some Important masterpieces of Arabian Literature: : Some Important masterpieces of Arabian Literature: The Lady and He Five Suitors ( excerpt from Arabian Nights) The Prophet ( Poetry by: Kahlil Gibran) Simon who was called Peter ( Short Story by: Kahlil Gibran) Dates (Poetry) The Bewildered Arab (Poetry) The Food of Paradise ( short story by: Ibn Amjed) The Greedy Jackal ( short story) Count Not Your Chickens Before They Be Hatched ( Tale ) Slide 91: Film Showing of the movie… End of Part 4 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.