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Slide 4: This also led to an increase in the Arab slave trade that would culminate in the 19th century. Pre-colonial African history focuses on the time between the early 16th century with the forced transport of African peoples and cultures to the New World in the Atlantic slave trade up to the beginning of the European scramble for Africa. Slide 5: Africa's colonial period lasted from the late 1800s until the advent of African independence movements in 1951 when Libya became the first former colony to become independent. Modern African history has been rife with revolutions and wars as well as the growth of modern African economies and democratization across the continent. The Prehistory : The Prehistory According to the latest paleontological and archaeological evidence, hominids were already in existence at least five million years ago. Their skull anatomy was similar to their close cousins, the great African apes, but they had adopted a bipedal form of locomotion, giving them a crucial advantage, as this enabled them to live in both forested areas and on the open savanna at a time when Africa was drying up, with savanna encroaching on forested areas. Ancient cultures : Ancient cultures The international phenomenon known as the Beaker culture began to affect western North Africa. Named for the distinctively shaped ceramics found in graves, the Beaker culture is associated with the emergence of a warrior mentality. North African rock art of this period depict animals but also places a new emphasis on the human figure, equipped with weapons and adornments. People from the Great Lakes Region settled along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea to become the proto-Canaanites who dominated the lowlands between the Jordan River, the Mediterranean and the Sinai Desert. North Africa : North Africa Neolithic rock engravings, or ' petroglyphs' and the megaliths in the Sahara desert of Libya attest to early hunter-gatherer culture in the dry grasslands of North Africa during the glacial age. The region of the present Sahara was an early site for the practice of agriculture (in the second stage of the culture characterized by the so-called "wavy-line ceramics" ca. 4000 BCE.). Slide 9: However, after the desertification of the Sahara, settlement in North Africa became concentrated in the valley of the Nile, where the pre-literate Nomes of Egypt laid a base for the culture of ancient Egypt. Archeological findings show that primitive tribes lived along the Nile long before the dynastic history of the pharaohs began. By 6000 B.C., organized agriculture had appeared. African Countries : African Countries 1 Algeria 2 Angola 3 Benin 4 Botswana 5 Burkina Faso 6 Burundi 7 Cameroon Slide 11: 8 Cape Verde 9 Central African Republic 10 Chad 11 Congo (Brazzaville) 12 Congo (Democratic Republic)– formerly Zaïre 13 Cote d'Ivoire 14 Djibouti 15 Egypt 16 Equatorial Guinea 17 Eritrea 18 Ethiopia 19 Gabon 20 The Gambia 21 Ghana 22 Guinea 23 Guinea-Bissau 24 Kenya 25 Lesotho 26 Liberia 27 Libya Slide 12: 28 Madagascar 29 Malawi 30 Mali 31 Mauritania 32 Mauritius 33 Morocco 34 Mozambique 35 Namibia 36 Niger 37 Nigeria 38 Rwanda 39 São Tomé and Príncipe 40 Senegal 41 Sierra Leone 42 Somalia 43 South Africa 44 Sudan 45 Tanzania 46 Togo 47 Tunisia 48 Uganda 49 Western Sahara 50 Zambia African PoetryToris Okotie (The African Poet) NY : African PoetryToris Okotie (The African Poet) NY My African ChildSo young in heart He cried for milk So poor and helpless Mama weeps in pain His eyes so red A week he cried A month ago, To the world he came Mama so young Papa has run Under the bridge They lay their heads In storm and rain They search for food Through man and sex Mama fed him well Slide 14: The days went by Mama health decreased Only five months old Mama said goodbye In rain and cold He cried so loud In sun and heat He wept and wept Three days gone by Since mama left And now he sleeps To meet with mama ACHOLI LAND!Okema Leonard, Uganda : ACHOLI LAND!Okema Leonard, Uganda Acholiland oh acholiland,The once happy mother of proud warriors,To you we wail,For redemption from the fangs of terror,The terror that bleeds us white,The terror that siphons your blood that runs in our veins,Lambs without a shepherd we remain,Driven away from you into the darkness,Mama we yearn for an end to our misgivings,Oh! Acholiland, Slide 16: Do you hear us when we call out to you?When our cries run our voices frail,When wantons hunt us, your children down,The harmony you taught us is no more,Your children have learnt the little art of unleashing terror,Unfortunately on your very siblings,Pain is all we feel and grim is what we see,Blood is what we pay for being your children,Oh! Mother, spread your wings and redeem us, to rise and shine again. AFRICAN POEMS WITH AFRICAN FOLKLORE INTRODUCTION : AFRICAN POEMS WITH AFRICAN FOLKLORE INTRODUCTION Introduction to 'New Moon'Before western civilization and the Roman calendar, Africans relied on the moon and market days as their guide to calculate their days, ages, and duration of time. The moon usually start- Poems Of Life- 2nd Editioned in a crescent and went to full moon in what was considered the traditional month. So it was that in addition to using the moon for calculation purposes, whenever an individual looked up at the sky and saw a fresh crescent for the first time, he... You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.