Introductoion to Literature 2011

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Literature:

Literature What is it? TIPQC English Dept.College of Education

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Literature is literally "acquaintance with letters" (from the Latin littera meaning "an individual written character (letter)"). The term has generally come to identify a collection of texts or work of art, which in Western culture are mainly prose , both fiction and non- fiction , drama and poetry .

ELEMENTS OF LITERATURE:

ELEMENTS OF LITERATURE Written works having excellence in: Form Expression Ideas Widespread and Lasting Interest

The Major Genres :

The Major Genres Prose Poetry Drama Literature

PROSE:

PROSE Prose is writing that is organized in sentences and paragraphs. It imitates the spoken language.

Prose:

Prose FICTION NON-FICTION Short Stories Biographies Fairy Tales Letters Novels Memoirs Historical Essays Reports Prose Poetry Drama Literature

Non-Fiction-Prose:

Non-Fiction-Prose What is an Essay ? Essays are brief, non-fiction compositions that describe, clarify, argue, or analyze a subject. Students might encounter essay assignments in any school subject and at any level of school, from a personal experience "vacation" essay in middle school to a complex analysis of a scientific process in graduate school.

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Components of an essay include an introduction , thesis statement , body , and conclusion .

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A definition essay attempts to define a specific term. It could try to pin down the meaning of a specific word, or define an abstract concept. The analysis goes deeper than a simple dictionary definition; it should attempt to explain why the term is defined as such.

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It could define the term directly, giving no information other than the explanation of the term. Or, it could imply the definition of the term, telling a story that requires the reader to infer the meaning.

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Types of Essay The compare/contrast essay discusses the similarities and differences between two things, people, concepts, places, etc. The essay could be an unbiased discussion, or an attempt to convince the reader of the benefits of one thing, person, or concept.

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It could also be written simply to entertain the reader, or to arrive at an insight into human nature. The essay could discuss both similarities and differences, or it could just focus on one or the other. A comparison essay usually discusses the similarities between two things, while the contrast essay discusses the differences.

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The cause/effect essay explains why or how some event happened, and what resulted from the event. This essay is a study of the relationship between two or more events or experiences. The essay could discuss both causes and effects, or it could simply address one or the other.

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A cause essay usually discusses the reasons why something happened. An effect essay discusses what happens after a specific event or circumstance. The below example shows a cause essay, one that would explain how and why an event happened.

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If this cause essay were about a volcanic eruption, it might go something like: "Pressure and heat built up beneath the earth's surface; the effect of this was an enormous volcanic eruption."

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If this effect essay were about a volcanic eruption again, it might go something like: "The eruption caused many terrible things to happen; it destroyed homes, forests, and polluted the atmosphere."

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The narrative essay tells a story. It can also be called a "short story." Generally the narrative essay is conversational in style, and tells of a personal experience. It is most commonly written in the first person (uses I ). This essay could tell of a single, life- shaping event, or simply a mundane daily experience.

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A process essay describes how something is done. It generally explains actions that should be performed in a series. It can explain in detail how to accomplish a specific task, or it can show how an individual came to a certain personal awareness. The essay could be in the form of step-by-step instructions, or in story form, with the instructions/explanations subtly given along the way.

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An argumentative essay is one that attempts to persuade the reader to the writer's point of view. The writer can either be serious or funny, but always tries to convince the reader of the validity of his or her opinion. The essay may argue openly, or it may attempt to subtly persuade the reader by using irony or sarcasm.

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A critical essay analyzes the strengths, weaknesses and methods of someone else's work. Generally these essays begin with a brief overview of the main points of the text, movie, or piece of art, followed by an analysis of the work's meaning.

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It should then discuss how well the author/creator accomplishes his/her goals and makes his/her points. A critical essay can be written about another essay, story, book, poem, movie, or work of art.

Other examples of Non-fIction :

Other examples of Non-fIction Biographical/autobiography Nature Essay Periodical Essay Didactic essay Letter/diaries/journals Legal Documents Book Reviews Literary Criticisms Scientific and current publications

Fiction:

Fiction The Prose Allegory is a prose form in which there is a long implied comparison between unlike things. It is therefore a metaphor expanded to a considerable length. The greatest prose allegory in the literature of the world is Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress published in 1678.

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The characters in this work are depicted vividly and the experiences seem very real. A child enjoys the story as such, but an older person is interested in the allegory which lies beneath. Pilgrim's Progress, because of its realism as well as its strong appeal to the imagination, had a great influence on the development of the modern novel although the latter did not appear until the following century.

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Another prose allegory which is especially popular with children because of its wealth of imagination is Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift published in 1726. Most of the prose allegories are classed under other types as well. Thus The Vision of Mirza and Burden of Mankind by Addison are not only allegories but essays. Many of our dramas novels and short stories are also allegories.

Examples of Prose Allegory :

Examples of Prose Allegory Fable is a short, pithy animal tale, most often told or written with a moral tagged on in the form of a proverb. Thus to convey a moral is the aim of most fables, and the tale is the vehicle by which this is done, providing both an illustration of and compelling argument for the moral.

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As a specific development in form and content of the animal tale, the fable is comparatively sophisticated and does not originate as a folktale, though it may make use of folk material, and once composed may be absorbed into a culture and exchanged as traditional oral folklore.

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The oldest known fables are either Aesopic(Greek) in origin, or from Asian (Indian and/or possibly Semitic) roots — both dating back several centuries B.C.E. Example: 'The Hare and the Tortoise' by Aesop

2. Myth:

2. Myth is a story that is passed along through time from person to person. Myths are not just any old stories, but a stories with a purpose or lesson . Most often we hear the word “myth” in connection to the Greeks or Greek Mythology, although lots of other cultures traditionally use myths to help explain the world.

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In ancient Greece, over 2,500 years ago, people didn't know how to explain things in the world, like why are there stars in sky or why does the sky turn pretty colors when the sun sets? Today, science helps us to understand many of these issues, but before modern science, people created myths to help them understand.

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These stories were sometimes involving religion, the relationship between the Greek Gods and people on earth or simply stories to teach about right and wrong. But all myths have a purpose or bigger meaning than just the words, and they often include important symbols.

3. Legend:

3. Legend A legend is a narrative that people tell as a true story. Sometimes the details are difficult to confirm, but usually the story names people and identifies locations. The person telling the story usually does not claim to be an eyewitness to the events, but heard it from someone who knows someone who heard it from someone who was really there

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... Legends often contain a moral or a lesson and are told to uphold the values of the community. They often involve supernatural or religious elements.

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An important source for French-Canadian legends of the Detroit River region is a book published in English in 1884. Very little is known about its author, Marie Caroline Watson Hamlin . She was born in Detroit in 1850 and was married there to William Butler Yates in 1878. Through her mother, she was related to several old Detroit French families, like the Godfroys, the Navarres and the Gaudets, dit Marentette.

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Like many other people in Detroit in the 19th century, Marie Caroline was bilingual. She was interested in the city’s French history and wrote an article on old French customs for the Report of the Pioneer Society of Michigan in 1883. The following year, she published her major work, Legends of le Détroit , a collection of 31 stories based on French-Canadian oral traditions from both sides of the river.

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The book was written for an English-speaking American audience, and was composed in the flowery, romantic style of the period. The legends are presented in chronological order, from 1669 to 1815, covering Detroit’s evolution from the French colonial period to the coming of the American Republic.

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They include Native legends and the entire cast of otherworly French-Canadian beings: the loup-garou , or were-wolf, the feu-follet or will o’ the wisp, the chasse-galerie or flying canoe, not to mention numerous sorcerers and ghosts. But there are many local manifestations as well: the famous Nain rouge or Red Dwarf of Detroit, Sans-Souci , the enchanted mare, the Jesuit pear tree.

Others are…:

Others are… Prose Romances Fairy Tales Folk Tales Myth Legends

Prose Satires-stories in which human devices and follies are help up to ridicule.:

Prose Satires -stories in which human devices and follies are help up to ridicule. . Example: Fabliau(Plural Fabliaux) This word comes from the Latin and means "discourse." A fabliau was a short, often satirical story in verse, very popular in France during the 13th century.

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It had a middle-class or working-class setting, unlike the aristocratic romances which we often associate with medieval literature. They were also very different from romances in style and tone; fabliaux were very down to earth, even bawdy, and usually ended in a joke. Adultery and fornication were favorite topics. Chaucer's Canterbury Tales contain fabliaux, the best known of which is the Miller's Tale.

Others are…:

Others are… Novels Short stories Novelettes Prose Drama Comedy Tragedy Melodrama Farce History Play

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Closet Drama Tragicomedy Problem Plays Comedy of Manners Comedia del l’arte

Poetry :

Poetry Poetry is language written with rhythm and is organized in lines and groups of lines called stanzas. Major Types of Poetry Lyric Poetry Narrative Poetry Concrete Poetry Prose Poetry Drama Literature

Lyric Poem:

Lyric Poem Lyric poem is a highly musical verse that expresses the observation and feelings of a single speaker .

Examples of Lyric Poetry:

Examples of Lyric Poetry Ode - it is a poem that is written for an occasion or on a particular subject. They are usually dignified and more serious as a form than other forms of poetry. It is said to be the most majestic of lyric types. It expresses enthusiasm, lofty praise of some person or thing.

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Elegy - is a mournful, melancholic or plaintive poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the dead. The Greek term elegeia originally referred to any verse written in elegiac couplets and covering a wide range of subject matter, including epitaphs for tombs.

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The Latin elegy of ancient Roman literature was most often erotic or mythological in nature. Because of its structural potential for rhetorical effects, the elegiac couplet was also used by both Greek and Roman poets for witty, humorous, and satiric subject matter.

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The Epitaph (stanza from The Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard by Thomas Gray) 120 of 128 lines 117 Here rests his head upon the lap of earth 118 A youth to fortune and to fame unknown. 119 Fair Science frowned not on his humble birth, 120 And Melancholy marked him for her own.

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Song- A short poem or other set of words set to music or meant to be sung. 1. Secular Songs have nonreligious themes (Marriage song) 2. Sacred Songs are songs in praise of GOD such as oratorios and cantatas. Cantatas - A medium-length narrative or descriptive piece of music with vocal solos and usually a chorus and orchestra Oratorios - A large-scale musical work for orchestra and voices, typically a narrative on a religious theme, performed without the use of costumes, scenery, or action.

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Simple Lyric- is a genre of poetry that expresses personal and emotional feelings. In the ancient world, lyric poems were those which were sung to the lyre. Lyric poems do not have to rhyme, and today do not need to be set to music or a beat.

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Sonnet - A poem of fourteen iambic pentameter lines and produces a single effect using any of a number of formal rhyme schemes. The lines are arranged in two waves of thought, the rising in the octave and the falling in the sestet. In English typically having ten syllables per line. Octave- A series of eight notes occupying the interval between (and including) two notes, one having twice or half the frequency of vibration of the other. Sestet- is the name given to the second division of an Italian sonnet as opposed to an English or Spenserian Sonnet), which must consist of an octave of eight lines, succeeded by a sestet, of six lines.

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The sonnet is one of several forms of lyric poetry originating in Europe. The term "sonnet" derives from the Occitan word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning "little song" or "little sound".

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Italian Sonnet- Contains an octave where the theme, problem, hope, or desire is presented and a sestet where a resolution or conclusion is reached. Its rimes are abba-abba-cdecde. Italian Sonnet was created by Giacomo da Lentini, head of the Sicilian School under Frederick II.

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Guittone d'Arezzo rediscovered it and brought it to Tuscany where he adapted it to his language when he founded the Neo-Sicilian School (1235–1294). He wrote almost 250 sonnets. Other Italian poets of the time, including Dante Alighieri (1265–1321) and Guido Cavalcanti (c. 1250–1300) wrote sonnets, but the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarca (known in English as Petrarch). Other fine examples were written by Michelangelo.

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Shakespearian (English) Sonnet- Iambic pentameter abab-cdcd-efef-gg. Let me not to the marriage of true minds (a) Admit impediments, love is not love (b) Which alters when it alteration finds, (a) Or bends with the remover to remove. (b) O no, it is an ever fixèd mark (c) That looks on tempests and is never shaken; (d) It is the star to every wand'ring bark, (c) Whose worth's unknown although his height be taken. (d) Love's not time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks (e) Within his bending sickle's compass come, (f) Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, (e) But bears it out even to the edge of doom: (f) If this be error and upon me proved, (g) I never writ, nor no man ever loved. (g)

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Its typical form, the sonnet presents and develops its theme in the first three quatrains and states a conclusion in the couplet, or the last two lines

Dramatic Poetry:

Dramatic Poetry Comedy Tragedy Farce Historical Plays Melodrama Masque Dramatic Monologue

Narrative Poem:

Narrative Poem Narrative Poem is a story told in verse. Narrative poems often have all the elements of short stories, including characters, conflict, and plot.

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Kinds of Narrative Poetry 1.Epic - a long narrative poem which deals of more or less fabulous adventures of a mythological hero. e.g "The Story Of Beowulf" 2.Ballad - a short narrative poem telling an actual folk story or folk-like story in verse form. e.g "Richard Cory 2.Metrical Romance -a narrative poem that tells about the stories of knights and religious pursuits. e.g "The Knight Tale"

Beowulf:

Beowulf The warrior Beowulf must fight and defeat the monster Grendel who is terrorizing towns, and later, Grendel's mother, who begins killing out of revenge. Director: Robert Zemeckis Writers: Neil Gaiman (screenplay), Roger Avary(screenplay), and 1 more credit Stars: Ray Winstone, Crispin Glover and Angelina Jolie

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Beowulf is the longest and greatest surviving Anglo-Saxon poem. The setting of the epic is the sixth century in what is now known as Denmark and southwestern Sweden.

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Beowulf is the conventional title of an Old English heroic epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative long lines, set in Scandinavia where dragons and demons existed, commonly cited as one of the most important works of Anglo-Saxon literature. It considered as the longest epic of Denmark .

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Richard Cory By:Edwin Arlington Robinson Whenever Richard Cory went down town, We people on the pavement looked at him: He was a gentleman from sole to crown, Clean-favoured and imperially slim. And he was always quietly arrayed, And he was always human when he talked; But still he fluttered pulses when he said, "Good Morning!" and he glittered when he walked. And he was rich, yes, richer than a king, And admirably schooled in every grace: In fine -- we thought that he was everything To make us wish that we were in his place. So on we worked and waited for the light, And went without the meat and cursed the bread, And Richard Cory, one calm summer night, Went home and put a bullet in his head.

The Knight’s Tale:

The Knight’s Tale After his master dies, a peasant squire, fueled by his desire for food and glory, creates a new identity for himself as a knight. Director: Brian Helgeland Writer: Brian Helgeland Stars: Heath Ledger, Mark Addy and Rufus Sewell

Concrete Poem:

Concrete Poem Concrete Poem is one with a shape that suggests its subject. The poet arranges the letters, punctuation, and lines to create an image or picture, on the page.

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Dove Sailboat

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Prose Poetry Drama Literature Drama is a story written to be performed by actors. Although a drama is meant to be performed, one can also read the script, or written version, and imagine the action. DRAMA

Folk Literature:

Folk Literature Most works of prose or poetry travel from the author’s imagination to a page. Folk literature makes a different and longer journey, from the mouths of many tellers to the ears of many listeneres. Folk literature-including myths, folk tales and legends- is shaped by a group or culture over many years before being written down. It expresses the hopes and values of the culture that creates it.

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Thank you for Listening And Enjoy Reading Literature

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