2 Intro to Philippine Literature 1st sem

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Intro to Philippine Literature and Literary Genres

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Suggested Format of (2 )Course Papers ( to be submitted 1 week b4 the final exam) I. Abstract II. Key words III. Body 1. Literature Review a. Brief account of the author of the text b. Brief account of the text c. Previous studies on the text 2. Research question 3. Research procedures 4. Linguistic description a. Lexical features b. Syntactic features c. Phonological features d. Semantic features/figures of speech 5. Relation between Linguistics Features and the Theme IV. Reference

This Semester I wish you all to have::

This Semester I wish you all to have: Clarity of Thought Clarity of Speech Clarity of Action A happy Heart A Happy Mind A Happy Soul May you have:

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“Literature is about human beings in human affairs whose struggles and triumphs affect other human beings” - Cirilo F. Bautista-

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“Literature raises life to a new level of meaning and understanding, and in the process restores sanity and justice in an insane and unjust world” - Cirilo F. Bautista-

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“A culture-based method of teaching literature places a literary work within its explicit and implicit societal environment. Because it is a discourse embedded in a specific time and space, it contains cultural realities particular to that setting”

Literature and its importance:

Literature and its importance Studying literature is like looking at the mirror of life where man’s experiences, his innermost feelings and thoughts are reflected. Through literature, we learn the culture of people across time and space.

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We understand not only the past life of a nation but also its present. Moreover, we become familiar not only with the culture of neighboring countries but also with that of others living very far from us.

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Perhaps what makes literature a more delightful and enriching study than the rest that deal with the past is its potential of making readers identify with what they read through values learned. –JF Loria-

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According to her, “when one reads literature, life unreels itself in its many dimensions-belief, emotions, pains, joys, anguish, glories and the like that make up the litany of earthly endeavors. The all too familiar words heard everyday come back in deeper meanings and newer light”

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And as these are hashed and hashed in wonderful packages, the elemental values in them are relived and reviewed for all their delightful assurance that the world is always beautiful with them intact, even with occasional ugly spites of life.

Classifications of literature:

Classifications of literature According to Form Oral Written B. According to Appeal Universal Limited

Roles of literature to our life:

Roles of literature to our life Transmitter of values Preserver of ideals, customs and traditions Mirror of culture Agent of change Source of pleasure

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1.ARTISTRY - this is a quality which appeals to our sense of beauty. 2.INTELLECTUAL VALUE - a literary work stimulates thought. It enriches our mental life by making us realize fundamental truths about life and human nature. 3.SUGGESTIVENESS - this is the quality associated w/the emotional power of literature. 4.SPIRITUAL VALUE - Literature elevates the spirit by bringing out moral values which make us better persons.

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5.PERMANENCE - a great work of literature endures. 6.UNIVERSALITY - great literature is timeless and timely. 7.STYLE - this is the peculiar way in which a writer sees life, forms his ideas and expresses them.

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As we have learned in Philippine history, apart from superior arms to subdue the true revolutionaries who waged a continuing war against colonial rule, the Americans used education, propagated the English language and lifestyle. In effect, this changed the milieu of literary production as the English language became the standard for what is canon.

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Many important things can be learned in the study of Philippine literature in English. Studying Philippine literature in English is important because these are reflections of history. Works of art and literature are not separate from history.

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In fact, these are intricately intertwined along with the contradictions in the society in a given point in time. Works of art and literature do not stand by themselves.

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Writers and artists are not creators who fashion words and works. These texts and pieces of art are products of the political institutions and ideological stance of the writers which are shaped by the social conditions .

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In essence, the study of Philippine literature in English aids us in historicizing texts. Furthermore, it also allows us to think of the extent of American influence through the use of their language. Obviously, our willing appropriation of their language during the time of the American colonial period affects the present generation and the formulation of the canon of Philippine literature in English.

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Even the past generations of literati together with the current prominent writers bring along with them the English language and its ideology. However, it is also wrong to discount the writers and intellectuals who use the English language in order to subvert the ideology it carries.

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Studying Philippine literature in English gives us a brief and fleeting landscape of the literary milieu since after the World War II. We should also consider those writers who went against American domination in education. These writers carry with them an ideology that is anti-colonial and therefore, an assertion of genuine nationalism.

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Nationalism has different manifestations in different periods in history. The true affirmation of nationalism during the American colonial period is the seeking of genuine freedom and democracy .

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The assertion of nationalism depends on the ideology of the class, group or person who is voicing it out. Many times, our people have always been deceived by the ruling class since they limit the assertion of nationalism through emotional and subjective means.

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Putting one’s hand over the heart and singing the National Anthem with tears is not enough if one doesn’t do anything to alleviate the poorest of the poor who comprise the majority of our population. These are reflected in works that may or may not be written in the English language.

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These are in texts whose authors’ names we hardly know but nonetheless, these writers knew where they stood, and that is for the broad masses.

2 Main Divisions of Literature:

2 Main Divisions of Literature Poetry Prose


Poetry Poetry is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through meaning, sound, and rhythmic language choices so as to evoke an emotional response. Poetry has been known to employ meter and rhyme, but this is by no means necessary. Poetry is an ancient form that has gone through numerous and drastic reinvention over time. The very nature of poetry as an authentic and individual mode of expression makes it nearly impossible to define.

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Major Classes of Poetry


Lyric Song Sonnet Elegy Ode Simple Lyric

Narrative Poetry:

Narrative Poetry Ballad Metrical Tale Metrical Romance Epic


Prose Short story Novel Essay Oration Drama

Drama may also be grouped into::

Drama may also be grouped into: Melodrama Farce Burlesque Dramatic Monologue


Melodrama The most popular form of the 19th Century. melodrama is a sort of literary mongrel. Elements of melodrama had existed in 18th Century forms like sentimental comedy, domestic tragedy, neoclassic tragedy and even pantomime. They were brought together and formalized by August Friedrich Ferdinand von Kotzebue (1716-1819) and Rene Charles Guilbert de Pixérécourt (1773-1844).

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The most important characteristic of melodrama was the strict observance of poetic justice in conformance with the morals of the day: good was always rewarded and evil always punished (note the rather crude influence of Neoclassicism). The world of melodrama is one in which deeds and characters are separated by clear-cut distinctions. The characters are not so much archetypes in the Neoclassic sense as stock characters. Originally a play embellished with music. Melodrama followed a fairly narrow contextual scheme


Farce The word farce derives from old French, meaning ‘stuff’ or ‘stuffing’ and may have originated in the comic interludes of medieval French religious plays serving as light-hearted stuffing in between more serious drama. Historically, the term meant a literary or artistic production of little merit.

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Farce is a type of comedy that uses absurd and highly improbable events in the plot. Situations are humorous because of their ludicrous and often ridiculous nature. The choice of setting is a key factor in farce, as the protagonist is sometimes at odds with the environment. Often the central character in a farce does not (or should not) belong in the place of the action. The audience will only accept the situation if they follow the conventions previously established. But characters in a farce can also quite logically belong in the setting they are placed in.


Burlesque Burlesque derives from the Italian word ‘burla’ and means a joke or to ridicule. In this sense, burlesque shows were similar to satirical performances in that they were send-ups mocking people and events.

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Originating in England in the late 17th Century, burlesque began as dramas parodying social events. It was not until this type of comedy was introduced in the United States in the second half of the 20th Century, that it began to achieve notoriety for being a bawdy variety performance involving women wearing risqué costumes performing to a mostly male audience.

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Not surprisingly, the demise of burlesque coincided in the 1960’s with the large-scale commercial success of strip clubs in America, which effectively replaced this one-time theatrical genre with a broader form of entertainment.

Dramatic monologue:

Dramatic monologue Dramatic monologue in poetry, also known as a persona poem, shares many characteristics with a theatrical monologue: an audience is implied; there is no dialogue; and the poet speaks through an assumed voice—a character, a fictional identity, or a persona. Because a dramatic monologue is by definition one person’s speech, it is offered without overt analysis or commentary, placing emphasis on subjective qualities that are left to the audience to interpret.

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Though the technique is evident in many ancient Greek dramas, the dramatic monologue as a poetic form achieved its first era of distinction in the work of Victorian poet Robert Browning. Browning’s poems "My Last Duchess" and "Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister," though considered largely inscrutable by Victorian readers, have become models of the form.

Realistic Fiction:

Realistic Fiction Realistic fiction is made up of stories that could really happen. Contemporary realistic fiction is realistic fiction that is set in modern times .

Examples of Realistic Fiction:

Examples of Realistic Fiction Because of Winn Dixie Crash Owl Moon Summer of the Swans Babysitter Club series The Story of Corazon Aquino Maalala Story Gagamba

Historical Fiction:

Historical Fiction Historical fiction is made up of stories that take place in a certain time and place in the past. Real historical figures and settings may be included in a fiction story .

Examples of Historical Fiction:

Examples of Historical Fiction A Boy at War Across Five Aprils Ben and Me The Butterfly EDSA Sign of the Beaver Titanic Crossing Dear America Series Rizal


Folklore Folklore includes stories, myths, and fables that people told one another over the years. Later the stories were written down.

Examples of Folklore:

Examples of Folklore Aesop’s Fables Beauty and the Beast Cinderella John Henry The Talking Eggs The Tortoise and the Hare The Origin of Pineapple The Origin of the World


Fantasy Fantasy is fiction that has elements that are not real. Sometimes this includes talking animals or characters with magical powers. There’s usually a conflict between good and evil.

Examples of Fantasy:

Examples of Fantasy Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland Charlotte’s Web The Wreck of the Zephyr Lion, Witch, and the Wardrobe Lord of the Rings Harry Potter Series Darna Dyesebel Panday Pedro Pinduko


Mystery Mysteries are stories that have a real setting and a problem to be solved that includes clues, distractions, and an answer to the problem.

Examples of Mystery:

Examples of Mystery The House of Dies Drear Never Say Die The Tree house Mystery Mystery of the Midnight Message Encyclopedia Brown Series Boxcar Children Mysteries

Science Fiction:

Science Fiction Science Fiction is made up of stories that blend fact and fiction with futuristic technology.

Examples of Science Fiction:

Examples of Science Fiction Aliens for Breakfast A Wrinkle in Time My Best Friend is Invisible Star Wars The Time Machine


Poetry Poetry is verse written to inspire thoughts and feelings in the reader. It often uses rhyme and rhythm, or it can be written in free verse.

Examples of Poetry:

Examples of Poetry Where the Sidewalk Ends New Kid on the Block Chocolate Dreams: Poems Mammalabilia A Pizza the Size of the Sun Love That Dog


Informational Informational books are nonfiction books that give true facts on a variety of subjects.

Examples of Informational Writing:

Examples of Informational Writing Dirt Bikes Flying Animals Danger! Earthquakes Newspapers Encyclopedias


Biography A biography is the true story of a real person’s life from the past or present.

Examples of Biography:

Examples of Biography Tiger Woods: An American Master The HomerunKings: BabeRuth and Henry Aaron Clara Barton, a Red Cross Pioneer Mother Theresa

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