Data Collection: Data Collection The Heart of Research How Important it is?: How Important it is? Data collection is an extremely important part of any research because the conclusions of a study are based on what the data reveal. There are several ways of collecting data. The choice of procedures usually depends on the objectives and design of the study and the availability of time, money and personnel. Objectives of this Lesson:: Objectives of this Lesson: Define what data means Distinguish quantitative from qualitative data, primary from secondary data Describe the different techniques in collecting quantitative data with the use of interview, administration of questionnaires, testing, and use of service statistics Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using self-administered questionnaires and interview PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Describe and illustrate when and how in-depth interviews, focus group discussion and direct observation used 6. Prepare a questionnaire/interview schedule What are data?: What are data? The term data refers to any kind of information researchers obtain on the subjects, respondents or participants of the study. In research, data are collected and used to answer the research questions or objectives of the study. Examples of data: Examples of data Demographic information such as age, sex, household size, civil status or religion. Social and economic information such as educational attainment, health status, extent of participants in social organizations, occupation, income, housing condition and the like. Scores in exams, grades, etc. Types of Research Data: Types of Research Data Research data are generally classified either as quantitative or qualitative. Based on their source, data fall under two categories namely: A. Primary Secondary Quantitative and Qualitative Data: Quantitative and Qualitative Data A study may be intended to generate precise quantitative findings or to produce qualitative descriptive information or both. Quantitative Data- are information which can be counted or expressed in numerical values. Ex: age, grades, income, test score, number of children, level of satisfaction, amount of sales, length of service, etc. Qualitative Data: Qualitative Data These are descriptive information which has no numerical values. Ex: attitude or perception towards something, process used in accomplishing an activity, a person’s experiences, one’s idea about certain concepts, situation, or phenomenon like drug abuse , family planning, brgy. Justice system, etc. Primary and Secondary data: Primary and Secondary data According to source, data may also be classified as Primary or secondary. Two important questions to be considered are: Who will provide that data? Where will the data be collected? Primary Data: Primary Data These are information collected directly from the subjects being studied, such are people, areas, or objects Secondary Data: Secondary Data These are information collected from other available sources, like recent censuses, or data collected by large scale national or world wide surveys, such as agriculture and industry surveys, demographic and health surveys, data of completed studies. Techniques of Collecting Quantitative Data: Techniques of Collecting Quantitative Data The choice of the best way to collect data depends largely on the type of data to be collected and the source of data. Before starting to collect data, a researcher should decide: A. What data to collect, B. Where or from whom the data will be obtain, C. What instrument/s or device/s to use in collecting the data. PowerPoint Presentation: The two most common means of collecting quantitative information are the self-administered questionnaire and the structured interview. Quantitative information may also be collected from secondary sources and service statistics (Fisher, et.al.,1991) PowerPoint Presentation: Studies which obtain data by interview people or by administering questionnaires are called surveys. When the people interviewed or asked to respond to questionnaires are representative sample of a large population, such studies are called sample surveys. Feature of a self-administered questionnaire: Feature of a self-administered questionnaire Questionnaires are given to the respondents who are asked to read and answer the questions themselves. Questions and instructions are addressed to the respondents. Instructions on how to accomplish the questionnaire are clearly specified in the instrument. Advantages of using self administered questionnaire: Advantages of using self administered questionnaire A self administered questionnaire is less expensive per respondent than an interview. A questionnaire require less time and less skills for data-gathering and processing. External influence is avoided. Respondents have time to think before answering because they are not under pressure to give an answer immediately. Disadvantages of a self- administered questionnaire: Disadvantages of a self- administered questionnaire The per respondent cost of self-administered questionnaires may be low, but return rate is also generally low, usually less than 50%. Many respondents do not return accomplished questionnaire. Respondents included in the sample may not be representative of the population being studied. No one will answer or clarify questions that may arise. Questionnaires cannot be used on illiterate respondents. Structured Interview: Structured Interview It involves a face to face interaction between the data collector (the interviewer), and the source of information (the respondent). The interviewer directly asks the respondent questions from a prepared instrument, which is called an Interview Schedule. Features of a Structured Interview: Features of a Structured Interview The interviewer reads each question to the respondent and record verbatim in the instrument the answers provided by the respondents. Respondents are asked the exact questions as formulated and as sequenced. Instructions for the interviewer on how questions should be asked and how answers are to be recorded are incorporated in the instrument. Advantages of Face to face Interview: Advantages of Face to face Interview The interviewer can observe the body language of the respondent. The interviewer can probe for clarification of ambiguous responses. Interview is effective for semi-literate or illiterate respondents. The expected response rate in an interview is high. Disadvantages of Face to Face Interview: Disadvantages of Face to Face Interview The cost in terms of money, time, and personnel per respondent is high, especially because of travel cost. Skilled interviewer is required. Training is needed for those who lack experience and/ or those who are not yet skilled in conducting interviews. Even skilled interviewers require briefing on features/aspects of data collection peculiar to a particular project. Others:: Others: In-depth interview To answer How and Why questions 1. Example: In a Study about domestic violence, with a victim as key informant, the interviewer may ask: “Some people believe that men have the right to discipline their wives. Do you share the same belief? (Probe) Why or why not? 2. In a study on students’ attitude towards cheating in class, with teachers as key informants, the interviewer may ask: “Why do you think student cheat? (Probe) Can you explain what you mean by “ habit” ? “Is cheating rampant in your classes? How rampant it is? (Probe) Why is it so? Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Others:: Others: Observation Participant Observation Non-Participant Observation Content Analysis Evaluation: Evaluation What does the term data mean? What are the different types of data? Describe each type. What are the different techniques in collecting quantitative data? What about qualitative data? What are the advantages of an interview over a questionnaire? What about the disadvantages of each? Group activity: Select one research topic below and do items 1, 2 and 3: Group activity: Select one research topic below and do items 1, 2 and 3 Marketing Practices of Fish Vendors in Wet Markets The Psychological and Health Needs of the Elderly PowerPoint Presentation: 1. Formulate a general objective and two specific objectives for the research topic you have chosen General Objective: ____________________________________________ Specific Objectives: _________________________________________ _________________________________________ PowerPoint Presentation: 2. Identify the specific data you need to collect to answer the objectives of the study, indicate the sources of your data and the data collection technique that will adopt. Data Requirements Data Source/s Data Collection Technique PowerPoint Presentation: 3 . If you need a qualitative data as a supplement to your quantitative data, what specific qualitative data do you need? What Technique/s do you propose to use to collect the qualitative data? Data Data Collection Technique Data Collection Workshop: Data Collection Workshop Restate the objectives of your research problem and list the specific data that you need to collect and identify the possible sources of these data. Objectives Data Requirements Sources PowerPoint Presentation: Identify the data collection technique/s that you will use in your study and explain your choice. Describe the procedures that you will follow in collecting your data. PowerPoint Presentation: THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENTATION: INSTRUMENTATION There are several kinds of instruments that can be used in data collection. Certain conditions dictate the type of instrument to use, such as the characteristics of the research subjects/respondents, availability of subjects/ respondents, and the available resources for the study. PowerPoint Presentation: Since conclusions of a study are based on what the data reveal, it is important that the instruments used to collect data are valid and reliable Objectives of this Lesson:: Objectives of this Lesson: Explain what validity and reliability of instruments mean and how these qualities are ensured in the preparation; of questionnaires/interview schedules Discuss how interview schedule and questionnaires are prepared; PowerPoint Presentation: Prepare a questionnaire/interview schedule for a research and; Discuss how questionnaires are administered and how interviews are conducted. Validity and Reliability of a Research Instrument: Validity and Reliability of a Research Instrument The quality of instrument used in research is very important, since the conclusions drawn from the findings of a study are based on the data collected. For inferences drawn from the study to be valid, the research instruments must be valid and reliable (Wallen, 1996). Validity of an Instrument: Validity of an Instrument Validity refers to the appropriateness and usefulness of inferences a researchers makes on the data they collect. A research instrument is valid when it measures what it intends to measure. PowerPoint Presentation: Researchers should make sure that any information collected through the use of an instrument serves the purpose for which it is collected. Three kinds of Validity of an Instrument: Three kinds of Validity of an Instrument Content Validity Criterion Related Validity Construct Related Validity Content Validity: Content Validity An instrument has a content-Validity if the content and format of an instrument appropriately covers the topics and variables intended to be studied and the items adequately represent the subject to be assessed. PowerPoint Presentation: The content and format of the instrument must be consistent with the operational definition of the variables. The key element in content validity is the adequacy of sampling of items that are included in the instrument. PowerPoint Presentation: Content validation is intended to determine if the items contained in an instrument comprise an adequate sample of the content which it is suppose to represent. How to determine Content-Validity: How to determine Content-Validity A common way of determining the content validity of an instrument is by having one or more individual look at the content and format of the instrument and judge whether or not they are appropriate. PowerPoint Presentation: The person/s who will be asked to look at the instrument should be able to render an intelligent judgment or an expert’s opinion on the adequacy and appropriateness of the content and format of the instrument. When two or more individuals evaluate the instrument, the process is called “ Jury Validation ” Criterion-Related Validity: Criterion-Related Validity An instrument has criterion related Validity if a score obtained by an individual using a particular instrument is significantly associated with a score he/she obtains on another instrument or another measure, known as the criterion. How to determine Criterion Related Validity: How to determine Criterion Related Validity To determine the criterion-related validity of an instrument, a researcher can compare the answers or responses of the subjects or respondents in the instrument being evaluated with their responses in the another instrument, called the Criterion . PowerPoint Presentation: For example: If one wants to measure academic performance of student, he/she can get the student’s general average in all academic subjects and compare this to his college entrance exam score, which can be the Criterion Variable. Construct –Related Validity: Construct –Related Validity It refers to specific psychological constructs or characteristics being measured by the instrument and how well these constructs explain the differences in the behavior of individuals. How to determine the Construct-related Validity: How to determine the Construct-related Validity Clearly define the variable Formulate a hypothesis based on the theory, and Testing the hypothesis both logically and empirically. Example:: Example: A researcher theorize that economic deprivation can challenge an individual to aspire for a better life. Based on this theory, the researcher might hypothesize that students from low-income families will more likely have higher aspirations than those who belong to high income families. PowerPoint Presentation: The researcher then prepares questionnaire that will generate information on family income and level of aspiration of the students. PowerPoint Presentation: After administering the questionnaire, the researcher analyze the data. If the result shows that indeed, students from low-income families have higher aspirations than those belong to high-income families, then, this can be one evidence of the construct validity of the instrument. Reliability of the Research Instrument: Reliability of the Research Instrument Reliability refers to the consistency of the response or the scores obtained by an individual in a test or research instrument administered twice. PowerPoint Presentation: For example in a test I math, a student is expected to get a high grade in the second administration if his/her score in the first is high. Reliability of this test can also be determined if two forms of the test can be prepared and the scores of the students in the two forms can be compared. Three Methods in determining the Reliability of an Instrument: Three Methods in determining the Reliability of an Instrument Test-Retest Method Equivalent-Forms Method Internal-Consistency Method 3.1.Split-half Procedure (using Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula) Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula: Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula Reliability of Scores = 2 X reliability for ½ tests On Total Tests 1 + reliability for ½ tests If the correlation between the two sets of scores is statistically significant, then the instrument is reliable. Methods of checking Validity and Reliability: Methods of checking Validity and Reliability Validity(Truthfulness) Methods Procedures Content-Related Method Criterion-Related method Construct-Related Method Expert’s judgment Relate to another measure of the same variable Assess evidence from hypothesis or prediction made from theory PowerPoint Presentation: Reliability (Consistency) Methods Procedures Test-retest Equivalent forms Equivalent forms retest Internal consistency Give identical instrument twice Give two forms of instrument Give two forms of instrument with time interval between Divide instrument into two halves, score each PowerPoint Presentation: Good Luck!