What is Reading

Category: Education

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Midterm period: January – February 2010:

Midterm period: January – February 2010 HAPPY NEW Year TO BOTH OF YOU!!!

Teaching Strategies: Reading:

Teaching Strategies: Reading Some teachers often ask these questions: What is the difference between a method and an approach ? Are they similar to technique ? When do we call it a strategy ?

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Approach according to some experts refers to one’s viewpoint toward teaching. Method on the other hand, is a series of related and progressive acts performed by a teacher and students to achieve the objectives of the lesson. Technique refers to the personal art and style of a teacher in carrying out the procedures of the teaching. Strategy consists of a set of decisions to achieve an objective that results in plan and its wise implementation.

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Teaching strategies in reading are based on the philosophy and theories regarding the meaning, nature, and structure of reading. They are also based on the important foundation disciplines such as physiology, psychology, linguistics, and sociology.

What is Reading? Old and new views:

What is Reading? Old and new views Reading a subtle and complex process that involves sensation, perception, comprehension, application, and integration. Is the magic key to the world of enlightenment and enjoyment. It is the basic tool for learning in all the subject areas.

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It is the process of making and getting meaning from the printed words and symbols. It is not a process of making conventionalized noises associated with these symbols. Efficient reading is an active dialogue between author and reader. The efficient reader is ready to evaluate, challenge, and criticize reading materials. The man who reads well is the man who leads.

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Reading can be one of man’s deepest pleasures. It extends his experiences, giving him a glimpse of the world’s excitement, pleasures, and wisdom (Virgil Howes ). Reading enables man to ponder the mysteries of the world, explore accumulated knowledge, and contemplate the unknown. From this search, he begins to uncover some answers to questions He is stimulated to raise more questions, and to continue his pursuit for deeper understanding. It ca be one of ma’s ingredients for blending his inner psychological world with the outer social world, and emerging into a new world of thought, imagination and reality.

Modern trends in reading emphasize the following views as shown in the diagram:

Modern trends in reading emphasize the following views as shown in the diagram

What is Reading Comprehension:

What is Reading Comprehension Is the process of understanding , assimilating and assigning meaning to the printed symbols.



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The schema theory states that schema are the knowledge stored in our memory. Schemata are organized summaries of past experiences which we involved in interpreting new information. Without prior knowledge or familiarity with a topic, it will be difficult to understand a new idea, make guesses, inferences, and draw conclusions.

Levels of comprehension:

Levels of comprehension Literal level means reading the lines, getting the information drift, answering questions on knowledge; who, what, where, and when. Interpretive level or reading between the lines, combining information and making inferences and comprehending them: hoe, and why questions Applied level or reading beyond the lines, using information to express opinion and forms ideas, involves application, analysis, synthesis, e.g If you were _____, what would you do? etc. Evaluative level or evaluation of characters, plot, and style; answers to open ended questions regarding the behavior of a major and minor characters and style of the presentation.

Three Models of Reading Strategies:

Three Models of Reading Strategies Bottom-Up Top-Down Interactive Text-based- reading begins with letters on a page that the reader must distinguish and organize as words, sentences, and meaningful paragraphs. Reader-based- reading begins with the reader’s mind set to hypothesize and predict from paragraphs, stories, and poems to read, based on past experiences with language and the world. Reader reads back and forth/simultaneously, attends to both what is in his mind and what’s on the page and attends to specific letters and words. Readers use text features and background knowledge to understand print.

Useful Aids to Comprehension: Note: the Globe stands for reading tools:

Useful Aids to Comprehension: Note: the Globe stands for reading tools

Vocabulary Building using the following::

Vocabulary Building using the following: A. Contextual clues- clues are words used in a sentence which help in understanding the specific meaning of the new unfamiliar word. Definition clue- the author gives the meaning of the word. e.g. Cerilles is an ecologist , a scientist who specializes in the relationship between living things and their environment. Synonym - the meaning of the unknown word is understood because the idea is repeated in familiar words.

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e.g. In his complete uniform and with his shining sword, the man appeared bellicose or warlike . Appositive or double comma clues- an appositive is a descriptive word or phrase placed beside the unknown word and is often enclosed or set off by commas. e.g. Many eleemosynary , or philanthropic agencies, are helping the poor and disadvantaged people.

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Simile- the word as and like are used to show comparison, hence suggesting the meaning of the word to be learned. e.g. The child’s eyes glistened like the bright stars in the sky. Note: Comparison without using as and like is called metaphor. e.g. She was a phantom of delight. Mood clues or Summary clues e.g. First he lost his girlfriend. Then he lost his scholarship. Finally, he lost all his special privileges in college. He became totally depressed.

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Inference- the process of drawing reasonable conclusions from facts or bits of evidence. e.g. Rene gave his fake ID card to the guard and held his breath. The guard was busy talking to a friend and gave it a perfunctory glance, so Rene breathed normally again. Perfunctory means something done quickly as a routine. Structural Analysis- Direct clues to the meaning are taken from analysis of the word parts (roots, prefixes, suffixes, compound, and syllables). e.g. dehydration: hydro-water (root word), de-down, flow, tion-act of e.g. act of drying up.

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e.g. Prolonged fever made the child suffer from dehydration . Antonym- The opposite meaning of a word showing contrast in a sentence with the use of but. e.g. Maricel was very talkative, but Rico remained taciturn . Taciturn means silent or quiet, the opposite of talkative.

B. Words with Multiple Meanings:

B. Words with Multiple Meanings Frequently used words like scale, bill, power, cream, range, etc. have multiple meanings. Example the word SCALE Science/ Biology Math/Social Studies Music Literature Covering of fish, snakes, and other reptiles Used in weighing, measuring, or drawing, e.g. a map to scale Musical scale Do-re-mi- fa -so-la- ti =do Scale the mountain to a great heights (emotion)

Other words with Multiple Meanings are::

Other words with Multiple Meanings are: Head Part Land Mean Pass Bow Court Spread Plot Etc.

Sample Class activity: Vocabulary on Feelings: Affective Domain:

Sample Class activity: Vocabulary on Feelings: Affective Domain Prepare a word map for each word. Write situations when these feelings occur. e.g. Note: Teachers can provide various activities In a very creative way depending on the needs of the students.

What are the Skills that Reading Requires?:

What are the Skills that Reading Requires? Skills related to eye movement Abilities related to visual discrimination Association Skills Interpretation Skills

Reading Strategies for Specific Purposes:

Reading Strategies for Specific Purposes Skimming Scanning Intensive Reading Extensive Reading

Strategies for Various Reading Programs:

Strategies for Various Reading Programs Developmental Reading Functional Reading Recreatory reading Corrective or Remedial Reading

Some Quick Tips To Improve Your Reading Comprehension :

Some Quick Tips To Improve Your Reading Comprehension 1. Read early in the day : This will allow you to concentrate and retain more information than studying later at night when you may be tired.  When tired, your concentration and comprehension will decrease.

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2. Read for short bursts : Try to read for 35 to 40 minutes at a time and then take a short break.  If you have this as your reading goal it can serve as a motivator in trying to really focus on the material at hand.  Try to make these “bursts” quality reading time.

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3. Find a quiet location : Try to avoid your residence hall room on campus as well as the lounge.  There are too many distractions there that are not conducive for quality reading.

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4. Monitor your comprehension : Ask yourself every once in a while, “What have I learned?”  If you are having trouble answering this, then re-read the material, ask a classmate, or ask the professor for some clarification.

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Try skimming the chapter first : Take a look at the title page, preface, subtitles, the introduction and the chapter summary before reading the entire chapter.

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Remember: College Textbooks are designed to help you by providing… MAJOR HEADINGS Italicized / Bold Words List of Main Points Repetition of information/facts Summaries

What Type Of Reader Are You? Are you a passive reader who likes to use a highlighter? :

What Type Of Reader Are You? Are you a passive reader who likes to use a highlighter? Result: Reading passively delays learning because you are continually re-reading the material highlighted and you may have the tendency to become lazy and highlight most of your reading.  Ask yourself this question, “did I retain most of the material I highlighted?”

Are You Reading The Material For Hours At A Time Just To Get It Done? :

Are You Reading The Material For Hours At A Time Just To Get It Done? Result: You become a lazy reader (you develop a lower retention of the material read as well) and you do not really focus your attention on the critical points; i.e., you “zone out.”


IMPROVE YOUR READING BY BEING A MORE "ACTIVE READER ": Method One: SQ3R Method (Cornell Method) S urvey: Look over the chapter and get an idea of what it will cover.  This will cognitively ease your way into the reading assignment.

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Q uestion: Think about, “what is this chapter about?” and “what examples support the author’s point in the chapter?”

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R ead: Go over the material carefully and if you have any questions with vocabulary or concepts write them down and review them after you finish that particular section.  Continue assessing your reading to see if you are understanding the material.

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R eview: This is an extremely important point.  Try to do this a couple of times each week.   By reviewing, you will begin to see the larger picture of the main concepts introduced.  Think of this as an athlete or a musician who continues to practice and becomes better and better during his/her performances.  The more you review the material (i.e., “practice”) the better your understanding will be of that topic because you are “exercising” your brain.

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R ecite: Practice by saying aloud the material you are reviewing.  This helps immensely because you are utilizing both hemispheres of your brain.

Method Two: Design Your Own Question Notes :

Method Two: Design Your Own Question Notes 1- Split the page so you have questions in one column and answers in the other column. 2- From the chapter headings, make study questions that you feel could be on the test (also look for and develop “cause/effect” questions from them).

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3- Look for words in bold print. These are usually definitions; make sure you can give an example for the term.  This will help because professors will sometimes give you an example of the term and not ask you specifically for the definition.  This will aid you in learning the material instead of just memorizing it. Remember: You are playing the role of the instructor.

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Practice: Please go over the reading sample on the next page and write out what you think are the important points of the material.  A sample of what your questions/notes should look like appears right after the sample.

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Remember : Writing questions and notes may be time consuming at first, but keep in mind that you are not rewriting the chapter.  Rather, you are picking out the important points and, as a result, you now have your review sheets prepared for the exam!

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THE END RESULT … A more active learner and better retention of the material since you are writing the information out!

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Building Thinking Skills® provides highly effective verbal and nonverbal reasoning activities to improve vocabulary, reading, writing, math, logic, and figural-spatial skills, as well as visual and auditory processing. This exceptional skill set provides a solid foundation for academic excellence and success on any assessment test.

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The activities are sequenced developmentally. Each skill (for example, classifying) is presented first in the semi-concrete figural-spatial form and then in the abstract verbal form. Children learn to analyze relationships between objects, between words, and between objects and words as they:

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Observe, recognize, and describe characteristics. Distinguish similarities and differences. Identify and complete sequences, classifications, and analogies.

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These processes help children develop superior thinking and communication skills that lead to deeper content learning in all subjects.

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Example Reading Activity

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The storm was in all its fury. It began with the loud crack of the lightning zigzagging in the dark clouds like the sword of Zeus. It was followed by the howling of the wind whipping the old willow branches against the windowpanes. The open door closed with a deafening bang which startled everyone. Then huge droplets of heavy rain began to strike on the rooftops like tiny rocks before it turned into torrents like heaven opening its floodgates. Several men rushed to the door to close it with a bang which caused the house to shake to its rafters. Directions were given at the top of their voices in order to be heard. Undoubtedly, it was a night when even the dead were awaken from their slumber.

Questions about the Selection::

Questions about the Selection: 1. What time of the day is it? 2. What is being describe in the selection? 3. Mention some word/s from the selection that indicate the nature of the storm. 4. Give all figures of speech that can be found from the selection. 5. Give some precautions when this phenomenon happen.

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Marky lay on the narrow metal table, his body eternally still. He looked as though he was peacefully asleep, his handsome young face filled with secret, far-off dreams. His mother had seen that expression a thousand times as Marky had snuggled into his warm bed while his mother had sat at his table, studying the face of her young son, filled with a love that was so strong it choked her. And how many times had she gently tucked his blanket around him to protect him from cold of the night. Now the cold was deep inside Marky’s body. He would never be warm again. Those bright eyes would never open again and look at her, and she would never see the smile on his lips, or hear his voice, or feel his smell, strong arms around her when coming home after a dance rehearsal and a movie shoot.

Guide Questions::

Guide Questions: What happen to Marky? Pick out some lines from the selection hat will support your answer. What emotion is suggested in the selection? Explain.

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