THE DIVINE COMEDY_Sir Jorge

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

By: sirdasal (89 month(s) ago)

sir jimbo hope u will me use ur ppt presentation d.aveto@yahoo.com a great help for a beginner like me

Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation:

BY: DANTE ALIGHIERI

Dante Alighieri Biography :

Dante Alighieri Biography Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), Italian poet, prose writer, literary theorist, moral philosopher, and political thinker and one of the great figures of world literature, who was admired for the depth of his spiritual vision and for the range of his intellectual accomplishment .

EARLY YEARS:

EARLY YEARS Dante was born in Florence between late May and early June 1265, into a family of the lower nobility. His mother died in his childhood, his father when Dante was 18 years old. The most significant event of his youth, according to his own account, was his meeting in 1274 with Beatrice, the woman whom he loved

PowerPoint Presentation:

and whom he exalted as the symbol of divine grace, first in La vita nuova (The New Life) and later in his greatest work La divina commedia (The Divine Comedy). Scholars have identified Beatrice with the Florentine noblewoman Beatrice Portinari, who died in 1290 aged barely 20. Dante caught sight of her on three occasions, but never spoke to her.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dante's first important literary work, La vita nuova, was written not long after the death of Beatrice. It is composed of sonnets and canzoni woven together with a prose commentary. The work narrates the course of Dante's love for Beatrice, his premonition of her death in a dream, her actual death, and his ultimate resolve to write a work that would be a worthy monument to her memory.

PowerPoint Presentation:

La vita nuova clearly exhibits the influence of the love poetry of the Proven�al troubadours and represents the finest work of the dolce stil nuovo (�sweet new style�) of contemporary Florentine vernacular poetry. It transcends the Proven�al tradition in that it not only describes the poet's love in terms of a lofty idealism but suggests a spiritual significance in the object of his adoration. La vita nuova, in its sustained intensity of feeling, is one of the greatest verse sequences in European literature.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dante's epic masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, was probably begun around 1307; it was completed shortly before his death. The work is an allegorical narrative, in verse of great precision and dramatic force, of the poet's imaginary journey through hell, purgatory, and heaven. It is divided into three sections, correspondingly named L'inferno, Il purgatorio, and Il paradiso. In each of these three realms the poet meets with mythological, historical, and contemporary personages.

SS:

SS Each character is symbolic of a particular fault or virtue, either religious or political; and the punishment or rewards meted out to the characters further illustrate the larger meaning of their actions in the universal scheme. Dante is guided through hell and purgatory by Virgil, who is, to Dante, the symbol of reason. Beatrice, whom he regards as both a manifestation and an instrument of the divine will, is his guide through paradise.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy , next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino 's fresco.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Divine Comedy ( Italian : Commedia , later christened " Divina " by Giovanni Boccaccio ), written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321 , is widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature , and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature . The poem's imaginative vision of the Christian afterlife is a culmination of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church . It helped establish the Tuscan dialect in which it is written as the Italian standard.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Gustave Doré engravings illustrated the Divine Comedy (1861-1868); here Dante is lost in Canto 1.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Divine Comedy is composed of three canticas (Ital. pl. "cantiche") — Inferno ( Hell ), Purgatorio ( Purgatory ), and Paradiso ( Paradise ) — composed each of 33 cantos (Ital. pl. "canti"). An initial canto serves as an introduction to the poem and is generally not considered to be part of the first cantica , bringing the total number of cantos to 100. The number 3 is prominent in the work, represented here by the length of each cantica . The verse scheme used, terza rima , is hendecasyllabic (line of eleven syllables), with the lines composing tercets according to the rhyme scheme ABA, BCB, CDC ... DED .

PowerPoint Presentation:

The poem is written in the first person, and tells of Dante's journey through the three realms of the dead, lasting during the Easter Triduum in the spring of 1300 . The Roman poet Virgil guides him through Hell and Purgatory; Beatrice , Dante's ideal woman, guides him through Heaven. Beatrice was a Florentine woman whom he had met in childhood and admired from afar in the mode of the then-fashionable courtly love tradition which is highlighted in Dante's earlier work La Vita Nuova .

PowerPoint Presentation:

In Northern Italy's political struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines , Dante was part of the Guelphs, who in general favored the Papacy over the Holy Roman Emperor . Florence's Guelphs split into factions around 1300: the White Guelphs, who opposed secular rule by Pope Boniface VIII and who wished to preserve Florence's independence, and the Black Guelphs, who favored the Pope's control of Florence. Dante was among the White Guelphs who were exiled in 1302 by the Lord-Mayor Cante de' Gabrielli di Gubbio , after troops under Charles of Valois entered the city, at the request of Boniface and in alliance with the Blacks. The Pope said if he had returned he would be burned at the stake. This exile, which lasted the rest of Dante's life, shows its influence in many parts of the Comedy, from prophecies of Dante's exile to Dante's views of politics to the eternal damnation of some of his opponents.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In Hell and Purgatory , Dante shares in the sin and the penitence respectively. The last word in each of the three parts of the Divine Comedy is " stars ".

STRUCTURE AND STORY:

STRUCTURE AND STORY The Divine Comedy is composed of over 14,000 lines that are divided into three canticas ; Inferno ( Hell ), Purgatorio ( Purgatory ), and Paradiso ( Paradise ) Each canticas consist of 33 cantos ( canti ). An initial canto serves as an introduction to the poem and is generally not considered to be part of the first cantica , bringing the total number of cantos to 100. Virgil -The Roman poet who guides Dante through Hell and Purgatory. Beatrice - Dante's ideal woman, guides him through Heaven. THE DIVINE COMEDY

INFERNO:

INFERNO

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Barque of Dante by Eugène Delacroix . Where Dante Passes through the gate of Hell

PowerPoint Presentation:

Sandro Botticelli 's Chart of Hell c. 1490

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dante's guide rebuffs Malacoda and his fiends between bolgia five and six in the Eighth Circle of Hell, Inferno , Canto 21.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dante climbs the flinty steps in bolgia seven in the Eighth Circle of Hell, Inferno , Canto 26.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Satan is trapped in the frozen central zone in the Ninth Circle of Hell, Inferno , Canto 34.

INFERNO:

INFERNO 1930 – the poem begins on the night before Good Friday, Dante was assumed 35 years old. Wood – allegorically contemplating suicide, wherein Dante starts his journey which he used in his term “lost in the dark wood”. Virgil – the poet who rescued and accompanied him in his journey to the underworld. Charon - the pilot of the ferry in which Dante and Virgil used to cross the river of Acheron to the hell. THE DIVINE COMEDY

PowerPoint Presentation:

Inferno The poem begins on Good Friday of the year 1300 , "midway in the journey of our life" ( Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita ), and so opens in medias res . Dante is thirty-five years old, half of the biblically allotted age of 70 ( Psalm 90:10), lost in a dark wood (perhaps, allegorically, contemplating suicide —as "wood" is figured in Canto XIII, and also the mention of suicide is made in Canto I of Purgatorio with "This man has not yet seen his last evening; But, through his madness, was so close to it, That there was hardly time to turn about" implying that when Virgil came to him he was on the verge of suicide or morally passing the point of no return), assailed by beasts (a lion , a leopard , and a she-wolf ; allegorical depictions of temptations towards sin) he cannot evade, and unable to find the "straight way" ( diritta via ) to salvation (symbolized by the sun behind the mountain). Conscious that he is ruining himself, that he is falling into a "deep place" ( basso loco ) where the sun is silent (' l sol tace ), Dante is at last rescued by Virgil, and the two of them begin their journey to the underworld. Each sin's punishment in Inferno is a symbolic instance of poetic justice ; for example, the fortune-tellers have to walk backwards with their heads turned around, unable to see what is ahead, because they tried to do so in life.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dante passes through the gate of hell, on which is inscribed the famous phrase " Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'intrate ", or "Abandon all hope, ye who enter here" [1] Before entering Hell completely, Dante and his guide see the Opportunists, souls of people who in life did nothing, neither for good nor evil (among these Dante recognizes either Pope Celestine V , or Pontius Pilate ; the text is ambiguous). Mixed with them are the outcasts, who took no side in the Rebellion of Angels . These souls are neither in Hell nor out of it, but reside on the shores of the Acheron , their punishment to eternally pursue a banner, and be pursued by wasps and hornets that continually sting them while maggots and other such insects drink their blood and tears. This symbolizes the sting of their conscience and the repugnance of sin. Then Dante and Virgil reach the ferry that will take them across the river Acheron and to Hell proper. The ferry is piloted by Charon , who does not want to let Dante enter, for he is a living being. Virgil forces Charon to take them, but their passage across is undescribed since Dante faints and does not awake until he is on the other side.

INFERNO:

INFERNO First Circle – Here reside the unbaptized and the virtuous pagans , who, though not sinful, did not accept Christ . They are not punished in an active sense, but rather grieve only their separation from God, without hope of reconciliation. Second Circle – Those overcome by lust are punished in this circle. They are the first ones to be truly punished in Hell. These souls are blown about to and fro by a violent storm, without hope of rest. Third Circle – Cerberus guards the gluttons , forced to lie in a vile slush made by freezing rain, black snow, and hail. This symbolizes the garbage that the gluttons made of their lives on earth, slavering over food. Fourth Circle – Those whose attitude toward material goods deviated from the desired mean are punished in this circle. Fifth Circle – the wrathful fight each other on the surface, and the sullen or slothful lie gurgling beneath the swamp-like water of the river Styx . Sixth Circle – Heretics are trapped in flaming tombs . THE DIVINE COMEDY CIRCLES OF HELL

INFERNO:

INFERNO Seventh Circle - Lower Hell, inside the walls of Dis , in an illustration by Stradanus This circle houses the violent. Its entry is guarded by the Minotaur , and it is divided into three rings: Outer Ring - housing the violent against people and property, who are immersed in Phlegethon , a river of boiling blood, to a level commensurate with their sins Middle Ring - In this ring are the suicides, who are transformed into gnarled thorny bushes and trees. They are torn at by the Harpies . Inner Ring - The violent against God ( blasphemers ), the violent against nature ( sodomites ), and the violent against order ( usurers ), all reside in a desert of flaming sand with fiery flakes raining from the sky. THE DIVINE COMEDY CIRCLES OF HELL

INFERNO:

INFERNO Eight Circle - The last two circles of Hell punish sins that involve conscious fraud or treachery. The Fraudulent - those guilty of deliberate, knowing evil—are located in a circle named Malebolge . Bolgia 1 - Panderers ( pimps ) and seducers march in separate lines in opposite directions, whipped by demons Bolgia 2 - Flatterers are steeped in human excrement Bolgia 3 - Those who committed simony are placed head-first in holes in the rock, with flames burning on the soles of their feet (resembling an inverted baptism ). Bolgia 4 - Sorcerers and false prophets have their heads twisted around on their bodies backward . THE DIVINE COMEDY CIRCLES OF HELL

INFERNO:

INFERNO Bolgia 5 - Corrupt politicians ( barrators ) are immersed in a lake of boiling pitch. Bolgia 6 - Hypocrites listlessly walking along wearing gilded lead cloaks. Bolgia 7 - Thieves, guarded by the centaur . Cacus , are pursued and bitten by snakes and lizards. Bolgia 8 - Fraudulent advisors are encased in individual flames . Bolgia 9 - A sword-wielding demon hacks at the sowers of discord. As they make their rounds the wounds heal, only to have the demon tear apart their bodies again. Bolgia 10 - Here various sorts of falsifiers ( alchemists , counterfeiters , perjurers , and impersonators), who are a disease on society, are themselves afflicted with different types of diseases . THE DIVINE COMEDY CIRCLES OF HELL

INFERNO:

INFERNO Ninth Circle – This circle punished the traitors. They are being held frozen in the lake of ice known as Cocytus . The circle is divided into four concentric zones. Round 1 - Caïna, named for Cain , is home to traitors to their kindred. The souls here are immersed in the ice up to their necks. (Canto XXXII) Round 2 - Antenora is named for Antenor of Troy, who according to medieval tradition betrayed his city to the Greeks. Traitors to political entities, such as party, city, or country, are located here. Round 3 - Ptolomaea is probably named for Ptolemy, the captain of Jericho, who invited Simon Maccabaeus and his sons to a banquet and then killed them. Traitors to their guests are punished here. Round 4 - Judecca, named for Judas Iscariot , Biblical betrayer of Christ, is for traitors to their lords and benefactors. All of the sinners punished within are completely encapsulated in ice, distorted in all conceivable positions. Satan – trapped in the frozen central zone in the ninth circle of hell in the Inferno Brutus and Cassius – the sinners in the mouths of Satan, they are involved in the assassination of Julius Caesar. THE DIVINE COMEDY CIRCLES OF HELL

PURGATORIO:

PURGATORIO

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dante gazes at Mount Purgatory in an allegorical portrait by Agnolo Bronzino, painted circa 1530.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dante's meeting with Matelda, lithograph by Cairoli (1889)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dante's meeting with Beatrice, by John William Waterhouse

PURGATORIO:

PURGATORIO Casella – the lady who plays a music that attracted both Dante and Virgil in the Shores of Purgatory. Cato – a pagan who has been placed by God as the general guardian of the Purgatory Mountain. Gate of Purgatory – it is guarded by an angel who uses sword to draw the letter “P” in the forehead to anyone who enters the purgatory. Matelda – a woman of grace and beauty who prepares souls for their ascent in heaven. THE DIVINE COMEDY

PURGATORIO:

PURGATORIO On the first three terraces of Purgatory are purified those whose sins w ere caused by perverted love directed towards actual harm of others . First Terrace - The proud are purged by carrying giant stones on their backs, unable to stand up straight. This teaches the sinner that pride puts weight on the soul and it is better to throw it off. Second Terrace - The envious are purged by having their eyes sewn shut and wearing clothing that makes the soul indistinguishable from the ground. THE DIVINE COMEDY TERRACES OF PURGATORY

PURGATORIO:

PURGATORIO Third Terrace - The wrathful are purged by walking around in acrid smoke. Souls correct themselves by learning how wrath has blinded their vision, impeding their judgment. On the fourth terrace we find sinners whose sin was that of deficient love—that is, sloth or acedia . Fourth Terrace - The slothful are purged by continually running (Cantos XVIII and XIX). Those who were slothful in life can only purge this sin by being zealous in their desire for penance. THE DIVINE COMEDY TERRACES OF PURGATORY

PURGATORIO:

PURGATORIO On the fifth through seventh terraces are those who sinned by l oving good things, but loving them in a disordered way. Fifth Terrace - The avaricious and prodigal are purged by lying face-down on the ground, unable to move. Excessive concern for earthly goods—whether in the form of greed or extravagance—is punished and purified. Sixth Terrace - The gluttonous are purged by abstaining from any food or drink. Here, the soul's desire to eat a forbidden fruit causes its shade to starve. Seventh Terrace - The lustful are purged by burning in an immense wall of flame. All of those who committed sexual sins, both heterosexual and homosexual , are purified by the fire. THE DIVINE COMEDY TERRACES OF PURGATORY

PARADISO:

PARADISO

PowerPoint Presentation:

Illustration of Dante's Paradiso , by Giovanni di Paolo , (between 1442 and c.1450)

PARADISO:

PARADISO First Sphere - The sphere of the Moon is that of souls who abandoned their vows , and so were deficient in the virtue of fortitude . Second Sphere - The sphere of Mercury is that of souls who did good out of a desire for fame, but who, being ambitious, were deficient in the virtue of justice . Third Sphere - The sphere of Venus is that of souls who did good out of love, but were deficient in the virtue of temperance . Fourth Sphere - The sphere of the Sun is that of souls of the wise, who embody prudence . THE DIVINE COMEDY THE SPHERES OF HEAVEN

PARADISO:

PARADISO Fifth Sphere - The sphere of Mars is that of souls who fought for Christianity , and who embody fortitude . Sixth Sphere - The sphere of Jupiter is that of souls who personified justice , something of great concern to Dante. Seventh Sphere - The sphere of Saturn is that of the contemplatives, who embody temperance . Eight Sphere - The sphere of fixed stars is the sphere of the Church Triumphant. Ninth Sphere - The Primum Mobile ("first moved" sphere) is the abode of angels . THE DIVINE COMEDY THE SPHERES OF HEAVEN

PowerPoint Presentation:

Beatrice leaves Dante with Saint Bernard who prays to Mary on behalf of Dante and Dante is allowed to see both Jesus and Mary. From the Primum Mobile, Dante ascends to a region beyond physical existence, called the Empyrean (Cantos XXX through XXXIII). Here he comes face-to-face with God Himself, and is granted understanding of the Divine and of human nature . His vision is improved beyond that of human comprehension. God appears as three equally large circles within each other representing the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit with the essence of each part of God, separate yet one. The book ends with Dante trying to understand how the circles fit together, how the Son is separate yet one with the Father but as Dante put it "that was not a flight for my wings" and the vision of God becomes equally inimitable and inexplicable that no word or intellectual exercise can come close to explaining what he saw. Dante's soul, through God's absolute love, experiences a unification with itself and all things "but already my desire and my will were being turned like a wheel, all at one speed by the Love that turns the sun and all the other stars."

PowerPoint Presentation:

Earliest manuscripts

PowerPoint Presentation:

Detail of a manuscript in Milan's Biblioteca Trivulziana (MS 1080), written in 1337 by Francesco di ser Nardo da Barberino, showing the beginning of Dante's Comedy . According to the Società Dantesca Italiana, no original manuscript written by Dante has survived, though there are many manuscript copies from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (more than 825 are listed on their site [5] ). The oldest belongs to the 1330s, almost a decade after Dante's death. The most precious ones are the three full copies made by Giovanni Boccaccio (1360s), who himself did not have the original manuscript as a source.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Thematic concerns The Divine Comedy can be described simply as an allegory : Each canto, and the episodes therein, can contain many alternate meanings. Dante's allegory, however, is more complex, and, in explaining how to read the poem (see the " Letter to Can Grande della Scala "), he outlines other levels of meaning besides the allegory (the historical, the moral, the literal, and the anagogical ). The structure of the poem, likewise, is quite complex, with mathematical and numerological patterns arching throughout the work, particularly threes and nines. The poem is often lauded for its particularly human qualities: Dante's skillful delineation of the characters he encounters in Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise; his bitter denunciations of Florentine and Italian politics; and his powerful poetic imagination

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dante called the poem "Comedy" (the adjective "Divine" added later in the 14th century) because poems in the ancient world were classified as High ("Tragedy") or Low ("Comedy"). Low poems had happy endings and were of everyday or vulgar subjects, while High poems were for more serious matters. Dante was one of the first in the Middle Ages to write of a serious subject, the Redemption of man, in the low and vulgar Italian language and not the Latin language as one might expect for such a serious topic. . Dante's use of real characters, according to Dorothy Sayers in her introduction to her translation of "L'Inferno", allows Dante the freedom of not having to involve the reader in description, and allows him to "[make] room in his poem for the discussion of a great many subjects of the utmost importance, thus widening its range and increasing its variety."

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Divine Comedy and Islamic philosophy In 1919 Professor Miguel Asín Palacios , a Spanish scholar and a Catholic priest, published La Escatología musulmana en la Divina Comedia (" Islamic Eschatology in the Divine Comedy "), an account of parallels between early Islamic philosophy and the Divine Comedy . Asín Palacios argued that Dante derived many features of and episodes about the hereafter directly or indirectly from various versions of Islamic works: the Hadith and the Kitab al Miraj (translated into Latin in 1264 or shortly before [3] as Liber Scale Machometi , "The Book of Muhammad's Ladder") concerning Muhammad 's ascension to Heaven, and the spiritual writings of Ibn Arabi .

PowerPoint Presentation:

The work of Professor Asín Palacios was criticized by many groups, including nationalist Italians, the Roman Catholic clergy and other European Christians . He responded by enumerating the possible sources from which Dante could have obtained the salient features of Islamic eschatology .

PowerPoint Presentation:

The issue is still divisive. Dante lived in a Europe of growing literary and philosophical contacts with the Muslim world, encouraged by such factors as Averroism and the patronage of Alfonso X of Castile . Still, some scholars have not been satisfied with explanations of how Dante would have gained knowledge of particular Islamic texts. The twentieth century Orientalist Francesco Gabrieli, a strenuous opponent of the Arabic theory, expressed skepticism regarding some claimed similarities, and the lack of evidence of the vehicle through which Islamic descriptions of the other world could have been transmitted to Dante. Even so, while dismissing the probability of some influences posited in Palacios's work, Gabrieli recognized that it was "at least possible, if not probable, that Dante may have known the Liber scalae and have taken from it certain images and concepts of Muslim eschatology".

PowerPoint Presentation:

More recently, scholar Giorgio Battistoni has brought to light the role that commissioned Jewish translators working in European circles during the 12th century played in making Arabic texts available to Christianity. Battistoni believes this to be a clear route by which the possible sources of influence may have reached Dante. [5] Shortly before her death the Italian philologist Maria Corti pointed out that, during his stay at the court of Alfonso X , Dante's mentor Brunetto Latini met Bonaventura da Siena, a Tuscan who had translated the Liber scalae from Arabic into Latin. According to Corti, It appears likely that Brunetto played a crucial role in providing Dante with Arab sources. [6]

PowerPoint Presentation:

Literary influence in the English-speaking world The work was not always so well regarded. After being recognized as a masterpiece in the first centuries following its publication, the work was largely ignored during the Enlightenment , only to be "rediscovered" by William Blake and the romantic writers of the 19th century . Later authors such as T. S. Eliot , Ezra Pound , Samuel Beckett , and James Joyce have drawn on it for inspiration. The poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was its first American translator, and modern poets, including Seamus Heaney , Robert Pinsky , John Ciardi , and William Merwin , have also given translations of all or parts of the book.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Divine Comedy in the arts The Divine Comedy has been a source of inspiration for countless artists for almost seven centuries — as one of the most well known and greatest artistic works in the Western tradition, its influence on culture cannot be overstated.

Prepared by: :

Prepared by: Mr. Jorge L. Mayordomo

authorStream Live Help