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Premium member Presentation Transcript Communication Arts 2: Communication Arts 2 Midterm PeriodCoverage for Midterm Period page 1: Coverage for Midterm Period page 1 The Process of Writing Choosing a Topic Limiting a Topic Outlining Rough Drafting Editing Final Draft Final PaperCoverage for Midterm Period page 2: Coverage for Midterm Period page 2 Forms of Discourse Narration Description Kinds of Description 1. Informative/Scientific/objective description 2. Artistic/Creative/Subjective description C. Argumentation 1. Proposition 2. EvidenceCoverage for Midterm Period page 3: Coverage for Midterm Period page 3 D. Exposition Exposition of a Process Exposition of an abstract term Character Sketch Essay Comment and Criticism Classification and Partition Summary Research PaperProcess of Writing: Process of Writing Choosing a Topic Limiting a Topic Outlining Rough Drafting Editing Final Draft Final PaperWhat is a Composition: What is a Composition It is an extended form of writing which is composed of paragraphs that develop a single topic. A thought that demands elaboration through a series of related paragraphs is called “ composition-thought” Factors that determine success in writing Content of your composition The organization of the material CorrectnessParts of the Composition: Parts of the Composition Introduction or Beginning/Introducer Body or discussion/Developer Conclusion or end/Terminator Introduction: The introduction must really introduce. It must limit and fix the subject. It is also concerns with the background of the subject.Suggestions on how to start writing a Composition: Suggestions on how to start writing a Composition After checking the outline, quickly write a page or two Read the opening paragraphs, cutting and adding and checking for a clear statement of the thesis and precise definitions. Write the rest of the paper, including the conclusion. Reread the introduction, checking the thesis and definitions against the materials used in the body of the paper. If necessary, rewrite the introductionHow to start writing an Introduction: How to start writing an Introduction There are many ways to write introductions as w ays to write Themes. A short, blunt beginning may be effective. The length of the introduction Is of primary consideration. A short composition should have a short introduction; a long composition can afford to have a long introduction. Long or short, the Introduction must always lead the reader to the subject.Here are a few interesting ways to begin an Introduction: Here are a few interesting ways to begin an Introduction Begin with general statement e.g. To stay alive is far more important than to survive . 2. Begin with a striking statement e.g. I died before seeing the light. 3. Begin with an analogy or a comparison e.g. He is like a thief that appears coming from nowhere. Begin with a statement of the thesis you intend to make clear or the problem you intend to discuss. e.g. Fungi are among man’s best friends and worst enemies.PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Begin with an anecdote or story and show its application to some significant phase or your subject . e.g. “The hold that custom has over us is illustrated by the story of the tenant farmer who moved so often that on the last day of each month his chickens would run up to him and lie on their backs, holding up their legs to be tied” 6. Begin by stating your attitude or point of view. e.g. “ I come here to speak on behalf of my father” 7. Begin by telling how you became interested in the subject. A beginning of this sort has the merit of suggesting a like interest in your reader’s mind.PowerPoint Presentation: e.g. “ Like some other boys from the rockless prairies, I first became interested in rock hunting when as a G.I. on leave I picked up some agates on the beach near Newport, Oregon” 8. Begin with a quotation or comment on your subject. Agree with it or opposed it. e.g. “The visiting professor said “ I do not know your traditions, but from what I can learn I should say that for students who like the kind of traditions you have, they are just the kind of traditions such as students like.” He was gracefully avoiding expressing the thought that traditions grow, like trees, and like trees need some judicious pruning.”PowerPoint Presentation: 9. Begin the first or earliest known reference to your subject, It . If it is significant in showing contrast, change, or development. e.g. “ More than five centuries ago, the fine ladies of the courts of Europe drooled over the story of the Patient Griseda , a love story so drippy with mawkish devotion that no modern love story magazine would dare publish it” 10. Begin with a plain statement of the divisions into which your subject naturally arranges itself and which you indent to use in your discussion. e.g.” When I look upon the distinguished insignificance of my home town, I realize that in three aspects it is part of the American traditions: It is typically small it is typically middle western, and it is typically American”Avoid these Errors in writing Introduction: Avoid these Errors in writing Introduction Writing a vague or ambiguous introduction, leaving the thesis of the paper unclear. Failing to define terms that the reader is not familiar with; some terms should be defined if you are using them in a special sense. Writing an introduction that is too long; for most short papers, it is a mistake to write more than a one-paragraph( or, at most, a two-Paragraph) introduction.The Body or the Discussion: The Body or the Discussion The body or the discussion should not fall short of the promise of the introduction. It should really develop the introduction. If the body does fall short of the introduction but seems good itself, then you must go back and rewrite the introduction. The two things must be geared together. To link ideas, sentences, and paragraphs together in the body, the writer must use transitional devices. The word transition , refers to those words, phrases, and paragraphs that point forward and backward. They are the reader’s signposts: without them he might easily get lost. To fill up gaps of thoughts, transitional words are used.Example of Transitional Devices: Example of Transitional Devices and, or, nor, but, for …… these are common markers To explain Ideas For instance, for example, such as, specifically, in particular, to illustrate, thus. To count or separate ideas First, second, third (but not firstly, secondly, thirdly) moreover, in addition , another, furthermore, also, again, finally. To compare ideas Likewise, similarly, in the same way. To contrast or qualify ideas However. On the other hand, on the contrary, but. To show cause or Effect As a result, consequently, therefore, thus. Example of the body refer to pages 60 -63 of your bookThe Conclusion: The Conclusion The conclusion gives you your last chance to get a favorable reaction from your reader. If you fail there, you have failed in the whole composition. Occasionally, a formal conclusion is necessary, especially in short pieces where the reader can easily carry the whole matter in his head. When there is to be no conclusion, it is usually a good idea to place the climax or the most important idea at the end of the discussion so that it remains fresh in the mind of the reader as the composition comes to an end.Conclusion: Conclusion An Effective conclusion rounds off the paper. A conclusion often “Matches” its introduction by referring to a restating the writer’s thesis or interest-statement. If the rest of the paper has been carefully planned, conclusions often seem to write themselves. Ways to make a good Conclusion: Summary Conclusion- This is the logical type of conclusion. It is suitable for a formal treatment of the subject matter or if the subject matter is inherently difficult. Leaving a question the mind of the reader- This ending is effective because the words linger in the mind of the reader long after he has read them. Indulge in Prophesy- This form is suitable for impassioned or inspired works. Reaffirm Beginning- This is suitable if the purpose of the composition is conviction .PowerPoint Presentation: Quotation- as a concluding sentence, a quotation is both attractive and may even be impressive. In Making conclusion, avoid the following: Failing to fill out conclusion, leaving the reader hanging. Adding irrelevant or unnecessary details. Adding an undeveloped idea; the conclusion is not the place to develop or introduce ideas. Examples of Conclusion pls. see pages 64-66 of your bookQualities of a good Title of Composition: Qualities of a good Title of Composition Brevity- means the title must be short Appropriateness- When matters of facts are to be presented, avoid vague, general or fanciful titles. Attractiveness- A title that is attractive stimulates people to read further .PowerPoint Presentation: Four Types of DiscourseA. Narration: A. Narration It is a type of discourse that aims to tell a story, either true or imaginative or a combination of both. It presents a world of experience in action. Elements of Narration Setting- where the story happens Characters- they give life to the story Plot- series of events in the story Point of view- vantage point from which the story is told Diction/style/tone- refers to the use of language to suggest emotion Theme-the Theme is Significant Human Experience (SHE) of the story Dialogue- lines spoken by the characters Devices for Narration Time Flashback actionPowerPoint Presentation: Climax Rising Incidents Falling Incidents Conflicts Arise Conflicts are resolved Beginning Denouement Structure of NarrationA. Description: A. Description It is a form of discourse which attempts to present in words a picture of some object or person or scene. It appeals first place to the senses and principally to the sense of sight . Observation in its broadest meaning is implied by description- observations that brings the sense of touch, taste, smell, and hearing to enrich and supplement the sense of sight. Second, description appeals to the feeling and imagination. It does not only picture persons and scenes and things as they are or as they appear to the writer or speaker, but it does so with such vividness as to the understanding, as an aid to exposition.PowerPoint Presentation: Sensory experiences like what we see, hear, touch, taste, and smell call up sensory images. They are particularly effective in description. Examples of Sensory experiences by James M. Crimmon Touch: Chill, clammy, cold, corrugated, grainy, gritty, harsh, jarring, knobby, moist, nubby, plushy, rough, sanity, slimy, slithering, smooth, sting, tingle, tickly, velvety Taste: bland, biting, bitter, brackish, briny, metallic, minty, nutty, peppery, salty, sour, spicy, sweet, tainted, yeasty, vinegary Smell: acrid, fetid, greasy, mouldy , musky, musty, pungent, putrid, rancid, rank, reek, stench, suphurous , woodsyPowerPoint Presentation: D. Sound: bellow, blare, buzz, chatter, chime, clang, clatter, clink, crackle, crash, creak, gurgle, hiss, hum, murmur, pop, purr, rattle, rustle, screech, snap, splash, squeak swish, tinkle, whine, whisper. E. Sight: Blaze, bleary, bloody, burnished, chalky, dappled, ebony, flame, glitter, flash, flicker, florid, foggy, gaudy, glare, glossy, glow, golden, grimy, haze, inky, leaden, lurid, muddy, railed, sallow, shadow, smudged, spark, streak, tawny, turbid.Example of Description: Example of Description It was a cold wild night, and the trees shuddered in the wind. The rain had been thick and heavy all day, and with little intermission for many days. None was falling just then, however. The sky had partly cleared but was very gloomy-even above us, where a few stars were shining. In the north and north-west where the sun had been three hours before, there was a pale dead light both beautiful and awful; and into it long sullen lines of cloud waved up, like a sea stricken immovable as it was heaving. Towards London, a lurid glare overhung the whole dark waste, and the contrast between these two lights, and the fancy which the redder light engendered of an unearthly fire, gleaming on all the unseen buildings of the city, and on all the faces of its many thousands of wondering inhabitants was a solemn as might be.PowerPoint Presentation: It was Saturday night; and most of the people belonging to the place where we were going, were drinking elsewhere. We found it quieter than I had previously seen it, Though quite as miserable. The kilns were burning and the stiffing vapour set towards us with pale-blue glare. We came to the cottage where there was a feeble candle in the patched window. We tapped at the door and went in. The mother of the little child who had died, was sitting in a chair on one side of the poor fire by the bed and opposite to her a wretched boy, supported by the chimney-piece was cowering on the floor. He held under his arm, like a little bundle, a fragment of a fur cap; and as he tried to warm himself, he shook until the crazy door and window shook. The place was closer than before, and had an un healthy, and a very peculiar smell. “Bleak House” by: Charles DickenDescription aims to build pictures through appealing to various senses: Description aims to build pictures through appealing to various senses SIGHT: She was a sight to behold. She entered the hall amidst the aura of dignity and composure. The train of her shimmering crimson gown trailed behind her as she took the few steps toward the center of the hall. Her long jet-black hair cascaded like waterfall on her white smooth shoulders. One look at this beatific vision was enough for it to linger in one’s memory forever.PowerPoint Presentation: SOUND: The storm was in all its fury. It began with the loud crack of the lightning zigzagging in the dark clouds like the sword of Zeus. It was followed by the howling of the wind whipping the old willow branches against the windowpanes. The open door closed with a deafening bang which startled everyone. Then huge droplets of heavy rain began to strike on the rooftops like tiny rocks before it turned into torrents like heaven opening its floodgates. Several men rushed to the door to close it with a bang which caused the house to shake to its rafters. Directions were given at the top of their voices in order to be heard. Undoubtedly, it was a night when even the dead were awaken from their slumber.PowerPoint Presentation: TOUCH: He dreamt that sharp pointed objects were piercing cruelly the lower portion of his left cheek. They seemed to bore right through hid face until they punctured deeply in to his gums. He woke up from the nightmare only to find out that everything he felt was a painful reality. It was the worst toothache he ever felt. The horrible ache seemed to pull the roots of the hair from his scalp before shooting down his temples and jaw and the back of his neck. Tiny needles of intolerable pain rose and ebbed and each time this happened, it left him weak and tired.PowerPoint Presentation: TASTE: Mom is the best cook in the world. Whatever she dishes out in the kitchen it is surely mouth-watering and certainly a miracle of culinary art. Take for example the chocolate cake she baked last Sunday. From its aroma alone we could not help but be lured to where its source came from. Mom finally gave us a slice each just to prevent us from crowding her kitchen. We savored the chocolate as though it last forever. It left a sweetened heavenly flavor on the palate which was not easily forgotten.PowerPoint Presentation: SMELL: Jim knew something was terribly wrong. He could hardly breathe. He was awakened by the strong burnt-wood smoke that stung his nostrils. At first he thought it was simply the log he left smoking in the fireplace. But the sharp Smokey odor continued to permeate the air. Soon the night became heavy with the cloud of black, sooty smoke and he could hardly see the things around him. He knew that his lungs were now filled with cloudy smoke that soon blocked the air in his breathing passage. He gasped for breath and found it was to difficult. He groped blindly in the dark before dropping heavily on the floor.Types of Description: Types of Description Objective or Scientific Description- It is used for the purpose of giving technical or legal description. e.g. The robber was describe as young, between 18 to 23 years old, 5’2 to 5’4 tall and 180 lbs. He has kinky hair and a mole under his left eye. He was wearing black denim pants, dirty white T-shirt and old, worn tennis shoes when last seen.PowerPoint Presentation: B . Subjective or artistic description This appeals directly to the reader’s imagination, especially to his aesthetic sense. The writer’s work includes his personality because what he describes is usually based from his observations, his feelings and emotions. This type of description is easily recognized in literary works. e.g. Describer #1(male) Tom is that big ugly guy over there with his feet on the sofa talking one word a minute which is about top speed for his undersized brain to handle. His hair is dirty blond, as you can see, and you’ll notice that he has shifty, bead eyes and hands like overcured hams.PowerPoint Presentation: Describer #2 (female) Which one is tom? Oh he’s that tall barrel-chested, muscular man on the sofa. Isn’t he dreamy? He has a distinctive face, a straight nose and alert, penetrating eyes. He has such masculine features, from his crew-cut light brown hair to his strong hands. And he speaks with the slow, deliberate drawl of one who think before he speaks.Methods of Organization: Methods of Organization Spatial- Clarifies the writer’s point of view, his physical position or mental attitude in relation to his subject. It may also tell the physical order of objects within a framework(either near to far or far to near, top to bottom or bottom to top, etc.) e.g. I started down the steep slope digging my heels deep into the loose soil. The soil began to move under my feet, in the beginnings of a landslide. I grabbed for a flange of white rock, as it swept on, holdings it, till I dropped it in disgust. It was crumbling between my fingers. It frightened me, how rotten the rock was.PowerPoint Presentation: By Encounter- Describes the subject according to how the writer encounters it, telling what is perceived first and continuing to describe the progress of the experience. e.g. She watched the darkness widening as the doo came down inch by inch. Saw the top of the head. A grizzled head of thick hair stop a sun-browned brow, then the bluest, keenest eyes she’s seen, staring out at her, unblinking as a mariner’s scouring the horizon for land.PowerPoint Presentation: C. Towards Climax- Arranges details from the least to the most significant or dominant. e.g. …he entered himself-so large, so pompous, and so dignified that he was the embodiment of self-possession and solidity. And yet his first section, when the door had closed behind him, was to stagger against the table, whence he slipped down upon the floor, and there was that majestic figure prostate and insensible upon our bearskin hearthrug.PowerPoint Presentation: D. Through Support- It the opposite of organization towards climax. It focuses first on the most outstanding feature of the subject mentioning other details that support the main feature. E.g. It was a picture of complete disorder. Chairs were scattered in various directions and throw pillows in practically four corners of the room. An upturned sofa was slashed across the middle. Curtains were hanging in tattered ribbons. Books were thrown everywhere their torn pages covering half the floor.PowerPoint Presentation: E. By Association- It follows the writer’s train of association, progressing from one aspect of the subject to the next by suggestion. The writer describes a feature suggested by or associated with another. E.g. Marky lay on the narrow metal table, his body eternally still. He looked as though he was peacefully asleep, his handsome young face filled with secret, far-off dreams. His mother had seen that expression a thousand times as Marky had snuggled into his warm bed while his mother had sat at his table, studying the face of her young son, filled with a love that was so strong it choked her. And how many times had she gently tucked his blanket around him to protect him from cold of the night. Now the cold was deep inside Marky’s body. He would never be warm again. Those bright eyes would never open again and look at her, and she would never see the smile on his lips, or hear his voice, or feel his smell, strong arms around her when coming home after a dance rehearsal.C. Argumentation: C. Argumentation It is a form of discourse by means of which the purpose is either to persuade or to convince. The writer sees to it that he presents relevant data to change the mental attitude of his readers in order to see a particular thing from his own point of view. Argumentation appeals to the understanding. You must make a person understand before you can entertain the hope of having him agree with you.Proposition: Proposition Is a statement that can be believed, doubted, or denied, A proposition represents a judgment. In a formal debate, the proposition is stated in a form of resolution : “Resolved, That Education in the Philippines must be free.” The proposition should be single , clear , and unprejudiced . - A proposition is single if it expresses only one idea for argument. A proposition is clear when it contains accepted terms which are understood in a simple sense for the purpose of that argument. A proposition is unprejudiced if the speaker does not include any word into the proposition which implies a foregone conclusion to the argument.Proof: Proof After the proposition has been decided upon and clearly stated, you are now ready to gather material or assemble proof. Proof is the name for every kind of statement tending to produce a belief in the proposition under discussion.Evidence: Evidence Evidence is either a fact, observation, witness, documents, data etc. that helps support ones proposition. Types of Evidence : Primary/original Primary evidence comes from the original document, material, authority, or observer. Secondary/hearsay Secondary evidence is almost always discounted in courts of law.Kinds of Evidence: Kinds of Evidence A. Facts Facts are actual and true Opinion – represent our inferences about facts, our evaluation, our judgments, our beliefs. They can never be proved or disproved; they can only be accepted as probable or rejected as improbable. Examples of facts: A square consists of four equal sides. Cancer is a fatal disease. Education is expensive. Christmas is for giving and forgiving. Philippines is a third world country.PowerPoint Presentation: Examples of Opinion: PGMA is a good president. ABS-CBN is far better than GMA. Computer Engineering course is better that Computer Science. All parents are intelligent. Aaron is a diligent student .PowerPoint Presentation: B. Observation It Is how we perceive things using our senses. C. Witness Witness give testimonies that should be handled carefully. D. Authorities These are experts who have studied the facts.Evaluating Evidences: Evaluating Evidences In Evaluating Evidences consider the following Questions: Is there any evidence? What is the nature of the evidence? Is the evidence true? Is it verifiable? Is the evidence a good sample of the subject? Is the evidence significant?Evaluating Authority: Evaluating Authority In Evaluating Authority consider the following Questions: 1. Is the person an authority on the subject? 2. Is the authority unprejudiced and commonsensical? 3. Is the authority up to date on his specialty? 4. Does the authority have evidence on the question being discuss?E. Exposition: E. Exposition It is a type of discourse the main purpose of which is to explain or to make clear. Because of this purpose, its appeal is directed toward understanding. Types of Exposition : The exposition of an abstract tern or concept * The exposition of an abstract term may begin with definition. To define a word is to restrict, or to set a limit to its meaning.Kinds of Definition: Kinds of Definition Formal - defines term by its Genus and differentia . e.g. Pencil Term a writing instrument/material Genus use for writing/drawing differentia *** A pencil is a material used for writing .*** Informal - simply using or substitute the term by a synonymous term. e.g. A mango is a fruit . Mango is undoubtedly a fruit they are synonymousPowerPoint Presentation: The Term - a word to be defined The Genus- the class or concept to where the term belongs. The Differentia- is the distinct characteristics of the term. term e.g. Religion is the outward manifestation of belief in a Supreme or Superior Being . differentia Genus2. Exposition of a Process: 2. Exposition of a Process It is a process on how to do something. It usually follows a certain procedure on how something is done, or how to do something, or something works, how it is organized, and how did it happen. 3. The Comparison and Contrast Comparison means showing the likeness; contrast mean showing the differences. In the Comparison-Contrast Composition you show likeness and differences between two subject areas.4. Character Sketch: 4. Character Sketch Character sketch is the interesting form of exposition. One can tell how a person exactly look like… by telling the most distinct appearance of a person. 2 types of Character Sketch Individual- it is concern with a particular person. It more concrete and specific. Type- is concern more with the characteristics common to a group. It tends to be generalize.5. The Essay: 5. The Essay It is an exposition of an author’s thoughts or reflections on some subject of human interest. It is more deliberately composed and gives evidence of greater originality in respect both to the author’s thoughts and to his manner of expression. 2 kinds of Essay Formal Essay- It gives information and instruction. It is brief in scope, impersonal in tone and it is address primarily to the intellect. Informal Essay- It is more free in method and it does not discuss a subject exhaustively, nor does it deal with subjects that call for elaborate explanation. It is also personal in tone and point of view.6. Comment or Criticism: 6. Comment or Criticism Reviews and criticisms are form of exposition. They are usually published in newspaper and magazines and are written in a large variety of subjects such as books, plays, music, painting, sculpture, or anything that naturally evokes opinion and judgment.7. Summary Exposition: 7. Summary Exposition State and explain briefly the subject of any spoken or written composition of considerable length . The words abstract, epitome, resume, abridgment, recapitulation, and summary are practically synonymous. A summary is not a paraphrase, it is a consideration. It must contain only important ideas.8. Research Paper: 8. Research Paper *It is the presentation in a well organized discussion of the opinions, conclusions, or information derived from the extensive study and investigation of the work of others. * It is a search for knowledge. It is formal and systematic process of carrying out scientific methods of problem solving. It provides a method of getting answers to certain questions of facts. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.