Chapter 12 PowerPoint General Psychology

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Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 12: Motivation and Emotion Karen Huffman, Palomar College

Lecture Overview:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Lecture Overview Theories and Concepts of Motivation Motivation and Behavior Theories and Concepts of Emotion Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion

Important Definitions:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Important Definitions Motivation: set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward some goal Emotion: subjective feeling including arousal, cognitions, and expressions

Theories and Concepts of Motivation :

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Motivation

Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation):

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation) Biological Theories : Instinct --inborn, unlearned behaviors universal to species explain motivation Drive-Reduction --internal tensions “push” toward satisfying basic needs Arousal --motivated toward optimal level of arousal

Drive-Reduction Theory:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Drive-Reduction Theory

Arousal Theory:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Arousal Theory People seek an optimal level of arousal that maximizes their performance.

Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation Cont.):

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation Cont.) Psychosocial Theories : Incentive - motivation results from the “pull” of external environmental stimuli Cognitive - motivation affected by attributions and expectations.

Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation Cont.):

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Biopsychosocial Theory: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: interaction of biological, psychological, and social needs; lower motives (physiological and safety) must be met before higher needs (belonging, self-esteem) Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation Cont.)

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs :

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Motivation and Behavior— Hunger and Eating :

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Motivation and Behavior— Hunger and Eating Biological factors: stomach, biochemistry, the brain Note the size difference in the rats. The rat on the left had the ventromedial area of its hypothalamus destroyed.

Motivation and Behavior— Hunger and Eating :

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Motivation and Behavior— Hunger and Eating Psychological factors: visual cues, cultural conditioning Obesity is common for Pima Indians in U.S., but not for those in nearby Mexico with traditional diet.

Hunger and Eating--Eating Disorders:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Hunger and Eating--Eating Disorders Obesity appears to result from numerous biological and psychosocial factors Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are both characterized by an overwhelming fear of becoming obese and explained by multiple biological and psychosocial factors

Hunger and Eating--Eating Disorders:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Hunger and Eating--Eating Disorders

Motivation and Behavior—Achievement:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Motivation and Behavior—Achievement Characteristics of a high need for achievement (nAch) : Prefers moderately difficult tasks Prefers clear goals with competent feedback Competitive Prefers responsibility Persistent More accomplished

Theories and Concepts of Emotion:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Emotion Three Components of Emotion Physiological- arousal comes from brain (particularly the limbic system) and autonomic nervous system (ANS)

Physiological Component and the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS):

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physiological Component and the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Theories and Concepts of Emotion:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Three Components of Emotion (Continued) Cognitive -thoughts, values and expectations Behavioral - expressions, gestures, and body positions Theories and Concepts of Emotion

Theories and Concepts of Emotion:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Emotion Can you identify the social smile versus the genuine, “Duchenne” smile? Real smiles involve muscles around both the eyes and cheeks.

Theories and Concepts of Emotion-- Four Theories of Emotion:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Emotion-- Four Theories of Emotion James-Lange (emotions occur after arousal) Cannon-Bard (arousal and emotion occur simultaneously) Facial-Feedback (facial movements elicit arousal and specific emotions) Schachter’s Two-Factor (arousal leads to search for label and then emotion occurs)

PowerPoint Presentation:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Emotion: Overview of Four Theories of Emotion

Can You Explain Why Pleasant Feelings Increase When Teeth Show? :

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Can You Explain Why Pleasant Feelings Increase When Teeth Show?

What Theory of Emotion is Portrayed in this Figure? :

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) What Theory of Emotion is Portrayed in this Figure?

Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation - extrinsic rewards may lower interest and motivation.

Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion—Intrinsic Vs. Extrinsic:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion—Intrinsic Vs. Extrinsic

Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion— The Polygraph:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion— The Polygraph Polygraph (measures changes in emotional arousal, which in turn supposedly reflects lying versus truthfulness)

Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion- The Polygraph:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion- The Polygraph The subject’s response on the GSR does rise in response to the second question. But remember that error rates on the polygraph range from 25% to 75%.

Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion— Emotional Intelligence (EI):

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion— Emotional Intelligence (EI) Emotional intelligence (EI) (ability to know and manage one’s emotions, empathize, and maintain satisfying relationships)

Culture, Evolution, and Emotion:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Culture, Evolution, and Emotion Cultural similarities and differences : 7 to10 culturally universal emotions, but each culture has its own display rules governing how, when, and where to express emotions. Role of evolution : Strong biological, evolutionary basis for emotional expression and decoding.

Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions

Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman:

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation End of Chapter 12: Motivation and Emotion Karen Huffman, Palomar College