Chapter 11 PowerPoint General Psychology

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Psychology in Action (8e)by Karen Huffman : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e)by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 11: Gender and Human Sexuality Karen Huffman, Palomar College

Lecture Overview : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Lecture Overview Sex and Gender The Study of Human Sexuality Sexual Behavior Sexual Problems

Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms Sex: biological maleness or femaleness including chromosomal sex; also, sexual behaviors of intercourse/masturbation Gender: psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological sex

Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) Gender Identity: self-identification as either a man or a woman Gender Role: societal expectations for normal and appropriate male and female behavior

Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) Sexual Orientation: primary erotic attraction toward members of same sex (homosexual, gay, or lesbian), both sexes (bisexual), or other sex (heterosexual)

Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) Transsexual: gender identity does not match gonads, genitals, or internal accessory organs Transvestite: individuals who cross-dress for emotional and/or sexual gratification; from Latin trans, meaning “to change,” and vestire, meaning “clothing”

Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) Androgyny: combining characteristics typically male (assertive, athletic) with those considered typically female (yielding, nurturing); from Greek andro, meaning “male,” and gyn, meaning “female”

Dimensions of Sex and Gender : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Dimensions of Sex and Gender Sex Dimensions Male Female 1. Chromosomes 2. Gonads 3. Hormones 4. External genitals 5. Internal accessory organs 6. Secondary sex characteristics 7. Sexual orientation XY XX Testes Ovaries Androgens Estrogens Penis, scrotum Labia, clitoris, vaginal opening Prostate, seminal Vagina, uterus, vesicles, fallopian tubes, vas deferens cervix Beard, low voice, Breasts, sperm emission menstruation Heterosexual, gay, Heterosexual, bisexual lesbian, bisexual

Male and Female Internal and External Sex Organs : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Male and Female Internal and External Sex Organs

Dimensions of Sex and Gender (Continued) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Dimensions of Sex and Gender (Continued)

Gender Role Development : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Gender Role Development Social-learning theory--suggests gender roles develop as children: receive rewards/punishments for gender role behaviors and attitudes. watch and imitate the behaviors and attitudes of others.

Gender Role Development : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Gender Role Development Cognitive-developmental theory--suggests children form gender schemas (mental images) of correct behaviors for boys versus girls.

Sex Differences : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sex Differences Physical anatomy (height, weight, body build, reproductive organs) Functional and structural brain differences: Hypothalamus Corpus callosum Cerebral hemispheres

Slide 14: 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Gender Differences : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Gender Differences Cognitive abilities Women score higher on verbal skills. Men score higher on math and visuospatial skills. Aggression Men exhibit greater physical aggressiveness. Women supposedly higher on relational aggression, but no clear differences.

The Study of Human Sexuality : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) The Study of Human Sexuality Havelock Ellis--among the first physicians to scientifically study human sexuality. He: found that nocturnal emissions were not dangerous. emphasized reliable and accurate sex information.

The Study of Human Sexuality : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) The Study of Human Sexuality Alfred Kinsey--among the first to use surveys and interviews to study sexual practices and beliefs. Masters and Johnson--among the first to use laboratory experimentation and observation to study the sexual response cycle.

The Study of Human Sexuality—Gender and Cultural Diversity : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) The Study of Human Sexuality—Gender and Cultural Diversity

Sexual Behavior: Sexual Arousal and Response : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Behavior: Sexual Arousal and Response Masters and Johnson’s Sexual Response Cycle Excitement (increasing levels of arousal and engorgement) Plateau (leveling off of high arousal) Orgasm (pleasurable release of tension) Resolution (return to nonaroused state)

Sexual Behavior—Sexual Response Cycle : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Behavior—Sexual Response Cycle

Sexual Behavior—Gender and Cultural Diversity (Two Theories) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Behavior—Gender and Cultural Diversity (Two Theories) Why are men commonly believed to have greater sexual drive, interest, and activity than women? Two theories: 1. Evolutionary Perspective: Provides adaptive value. Men with multiple partners maximize their genes’ chances for survival, and a woman’s genes’ chances for survival increase with a good protector and provider.

Sexual Behavior—Gender and Cultural Diversity (Two Theories Cont.) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Behavior—Gender and Cultural Diversity (Two Theories Cont.) 2. Social Role Approach: Sex differences reflect cultural roles and division of labor. Men are protectors and providers, women are child bearers and homemakers. Note: Social role perspective fits better in cultures where women have less reproductive freedom and educational equality.

Sexual Behavior—Sexual Orientation : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Behavior—Sexual Orientation Myths of Homosexuality: Seduction theory: gays and lesbians seduced in childhood by adults of same sex. “By default” theory: gays and lesbians unable to attract partners of opposite sex. Poor parenting: gay men = domineering mothers, weak fathers’ lesbian women = weak or absent mothers . Modeling theory: children imitate gay or lesbian parents.

Sexual Behavior—Sexual Orientation : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Behavior—Sexual Orientation Current Research on Homosexuality: Genetics: twin studies suggest genetic influence on sexual orientation. Prenatal hormones: affect fetal brain development and sexual orientation. Note: Ultimate causes of sexual orientation unknown, but genetics and biology are believed to play dominant roles.

Sexual Problems: Biological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Problems: Biological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions Sexual behavior = arousal of peripheral sex organs, spinal cord, and brain. Factors that modulate activity within these areas may impair sexual function. Sexual arousal = activation within parasympathetic nervous system, which allows blood flow to sex organs. Sexual orgasm = activation of the sympathetic nervous system.

Sexual Problems: Psychological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Problems: Psychological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions Negative gender role training (men aggressive and independent, women passive and dependent) Double standard (male sexuality encouraged and female’s discouraged) Unrealistic sexual scripts (socially dictated “appropriate” behaviors limit sexual relations) Performance anxiety (fear of not meeting partner’s sex expectations)

Sexual Dysfunctions : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Dysfunctions Male Sexual Problems Erectile dysfunction (impotence--inability to maintain an erection firm enough for intercourse) Premature ejaculation (rapid ejaculation beyond the man’s control)

Sexual Dysfunctions : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Dysfunctions Female Sexual Problems Orgasmic dysfunction (inability or difficulty in reaching orgasm) Vaginismus (painful contraction of the vaginal muscles)

Sexual Dysfunctions (Continued) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Dysfunctions (Continued) Both Male and Female Sexual Problems Dyspareunia (painful intercourse) Inhibited sexual desire (apathetic or disinterested in sex) Sexual aversion (avoids sex due to overwhelming fear or anxiety)

Sexual Problems—Sex Therapy : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Problems—Sex Therapy Masters and Johnson’s sex therapy program founded on four principles: Relationship focus Integration of physiological and psychosocial factors Emphasis on cognitive factors Practice with specific behavioral techniques

Sexual Problems: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Problems: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Sexual Problems--AIDS : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sexual Problems--AIDS HIV Positive: being infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): HIV destroys immune system’s ability to fight disease Note: Although AIDS is transmitted only through sexual contact or exposure to infected bodily fluids, many people have irrational fears of contagion.

Psychology in Action (8e)by Karen Huffman : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e)by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation End of Chapter 11: Gender and Human Sexuality Karen Huffman, Palomar College

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