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Psychology in Action (8e)by Karen Huffman : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e)by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 9: Life Span Development I Karen Huffman, Palomar College

Lecture Overview : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Lecture Overview Studying Development Physical Development Cognitive Development Social-Emotional Development

Slide 3: 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Developmental Psychology (studies age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death)

Slide 4: 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Studying Development– Key Theoretical Debates : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Studying Development– Key Theoretical Debates Nature vs. Nurture- heredity vs. environment. Continuity vs. Stages- continuous and gradual vs. periods of abrupt change and then periods of little change. Stability vs. Change- characteristics maintained vs. characteristics different.

Studying Development (Continued) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Studying Development (Continued) Social What position on these debates is correct? The interactionist perspective, which recently evolved into the biopsychosocial model. Psychological Biological

Studying Development—Research Methods : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Studying Development—Research Methods

Studying Development—Research Methods : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Studying Development—Research Methods

Studying Development—Cultural Guidelines for Developmental Research : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Studying Development—Cultural Guidelines for Developmental Research Culture may be the most important determinant. Development cannot be studied outside its sociocultural context. Each culture’s ethnotheories are important determinants. Culture is largely invisible to participants.

Physical Development—Three Stages of Prenatal Development : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development—Three Stages of Prenatal Development Germinal Period (conception to implantation in the uterus) Embryonic Period (uterine implantation through the eighth week) Fetal Period (eighth week until birth)

Physical Development—Three Stages of Prenatal Development : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development—Three Stages of Prenatal Development

Physical Development—Hazards to Prenatal Development : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development—Hazards to Prenatal Development Teratogens (environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal development by crossing the placenta barrier) Categories of teratogens include: Legal and illegal drugs Diseases and malnutrition Exposure to X-rays and stress exposure

Physical Development—Hazards to Prenatal Development : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development—Hazards to Prenatal Development

Physical Development—Early Childhood : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development—Early Childhood Three key areas of change in early childhood: Brain Motor Sensory/perceptual development

Slide 15: 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development- Prenatal Brain Development

Physical Development—Brain Development : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development—Brain Development As child grows, neurons grow in size and the number of dendrites and axons increase.

Physical Development- Lifespan Changes in Body Proportions : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development- Lifespan Changes in Body Proportions

Physical Development—Early Childhood : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development—Early Childhood Milestones in motor development

Physical Development—Sensory and Perceptual Development : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development—Sensory and Perceptual Development Senses of smell, taste, touch and hearing are quite developed at birth. Sense of vision is poorly developed at birth.

Physical Development—Adolescence and Puberty : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development—Adolescence and Puberty

Physical Development- Adulthood : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Physical Development- Adulthood Middle Age: For women menopause is an important life milestone. For men male climacteric occurs. Late Adulthood: Primary aging— gradual, inevitable changes versus changes due to disease, disuse, or neglect.

Cognitive Development : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive Development Jean Piaget believed infants begin at a cognitively “primitive” level and progress in distinct stages. Piaget’s schemas are the most basic unit of intellect, which act as patterns that organize interactions with the environment.

Cognitive Development (Continued) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive Development (Continued) Schemas grow and change due to: Assimilation (absorbing new information into existing schemas) Accommodation (adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with new information)

Cognitive Development (Continued) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive Development (Continued) Can you draw this “impossible figure” drawing without tracing it? If so, it’s because you have developed the required artistic schema.

Cognitive Development—Piaget’s Four Stages : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive Development—Piaget’s Four Stages Sensorimotor: birth to 2 years Preoperational: 2 to 7 years Concrete Operational: 7 to 11 years Formal Operational: 11 years and up

Slide 26: 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Slide 27: 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Social-Emotional Development : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Social-Emotional Development Social Development Attachment (strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time) Attachment and Harlow’s work with monkeys--feeding or contact comfort?

Social-Emotional Development—Three Levels of Attachment : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Social-Emotional Development—Three Levels of Attachment Ainsworth’s strange situation procedure identified three types of attachment in children: 1. Securely attached: child stays close to mother, shows moderate distress when separated, and is happy when mother returns.

Social-Emotional Development—Three Levels of Attachment (Continued) : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) 2. Avoidant: child treats mother and stranger the same and rarely cries when mother leaves. 3. Anxious/Ambivalent: child is upset as mother leaves. When mother returns, child seeks closeness, but also squirms away. Social-Emotional Development—Three Levels of Attachment (Continued)

Social-Emotional Development—Romantic Love and Infant Attachment : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Social-Emotional Development—Romantic Love and Infant Attachment Research suggests that early infant to caregiver attachment patterns may carry over into adult romantic relationships.

Social-Emotional Development—Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Social-Emotional Development—Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles 1. Permissive Permissive indifferent parents set few limits and give little attention or support. Permissive indulgent parents are highly involved but set few demands or controls.

Social-Emotional Development—Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Social-Emotional Development—Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles 2. Authoritarian parents are rigid and punitive. 3. Authoritative parents are tender and caring. Study Tip: To avoid confusion, note: Two “Rs” in AuthoRitaRian = “Rigid Ruler!” Two “Ts” in AuthoriTaTive = “Tender Teacher!”

Psychology in Action (8e)by Karen Huffman : 

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e)by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation End of Chapter 9: Life Span Development I Karen Huffman, Palomar College

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