20th Century Architecture

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20th Century Architecture:

20 th Century Architecture Chapter 16

Slide 2:

Modernism in Architecture Based on the use of new technology and the new man-made materials, steel and metal-frame construction. This, along with the invention of the elevator helped America to invent the skyscraper. Modern architects used steel, concrete and glass to create functional buildings with clean lines and without decoration. A group of architects called the Bauhaus developed the International Style of architecture.

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Seagram Building Mies van der Rohe New York, 1954-58 Among the most daring of the International Style architects was Ludwig Mies van der Rohe . His sophisticated style of “less is more” and “form follows function ” inspired new achievements in building engineering. Here you can see the simple aesthetic element in which he balances the proportion of the raised level at the bottom with the dark glass in four stories at the top.

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Van der Rohe is best known for his Lakeshore Drive Apartments in Chicago. He used dark colors for the metal parts. Every 4 th metal division between windows is wider, giving rhythm to the design.

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Frank Lloyd Wright - perhaps the most famous American architect. Designed both public buildings and private homes. He believed a building should be designed from the inside out, and should tie in to its environment. Falling Water

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Guggenheim Museum Frank Lloyd Wright New York City, 1957-59 However, some reacted against the strict geometry of the International Style. Instead, they provided a more personal and natural alternative. Using cast concrete , they created organically shaped structures.

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Frank Lloyd Wright, Guggenheim Museum interior views, New York City, 1957-59

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Interior of the Johnson Wax Headquarters Racine, WI F.L. Wright …organic feel of lily pads

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The Bauhaus – a group of European artists and architects committed to creating “the building of the future.” Their workshops were laboratories for experiments in glass, metal, and furniture design that emphasized purity of form and function.

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Le Corbusier was a Bauhaus architect who helped to develop the International Style of architecture, based on steel, concrete, and large glass walls.

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Eero Saarinen – famous for his innovative airline terminals. He added curves and expression to the International Style and was interested in his buildings appearing to be huge sculptures. Dulles International Airport, Washington, DC

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TWA Terminal, New York Eero Saarinen

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R. Buckminster Fuller designed the geodesic dome. He believed architecture could solve the world’s problems. United States Pavilion, 1967 World’s Fair, Montreal

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Post-Modernist Architecture Post- Modernist architects grew tired of the impersonality and rigid geometric shapes of the International Style. They embraced an endless variety of symbolism, history, and ornamentation. There were no rules for this style. Each architect was free to express his own individual vision.

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Michael Graves – credited with designing the 1 st Post-Modernist building . Public Services Building, Portland, Oregon

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The Swan Hotel, Walt Disney World Michael Graves

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Helmut Jahn - designed many important buildings in Chicago. State Street Village (dormitory) 2003

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O’Hare International Airport, United Airlines Terminal Helmut Jahn

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Spanish architects have contributed many amazing buildings.

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Santiago Calatrava’s Turning Torso Residential Tower, Sweden

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Central China Television Headquarters The Olympics have inspired many architects to create landmark buildings. This one was built for the Beijing Olympics in 2008.

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The Agbar Tower, Barcelona, Spain, is lit by 1,000’s of LED light controlled by a computer. Glass louvres are tilted at the perfect angles to deflect the direct sunlight.

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