Chapter 2

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Chapter 2 : 

Chapter 2 Visual Communication

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What are the technical properties used to create art? The media, tools and equipment used to make the work of art. For example: ceramics, oil paint, bronze, charcoal, tempera paint, wood, marble, plaster, gold and acrylic.

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Pencil Saint Paul Rending His Garments by Raphael

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Fresco The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo

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Oil on Canvas Still Life with Lobster by Jan de Heem

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Watercolor A Wall, Nassau by Homer Winslow

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What are the sensory elements of art? Line Color Value Shape Texture Space & Form

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Elements of Art 1. Line Thick or thin Short or long Straight or curved Outlines shapes Implies direction & movement

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Classical Line Death of Socrates by Jacques Louis David

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Expressive Line Starry Night by Vincent Van Gogh

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2. Color

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3. Value refers to the light or dark quality of a color.

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4. Shape Shape is an area that is contained within an implied line, or is seen and identified because of color or value changes. Shapes have two dimensions, length and width, and can be geometric or free-form (organic).

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Pablo Picasso

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5. Texture refers to the surface quality, both simulated and actual, of artwork.

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6. Space is a three-dimensional volume that can be empty or filled with objects. It has height, width, & depth. Space that appears three-dimensional in a painting is an illusion that creates a feeling of actual depth.

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Form describes volume and mass, or the three- dimensional aspects of objects that take up space. Space can be felt in de Zurbaran's painting because of the overlapping of forms (two of the vessels and the saucers they sit on, and the table under all of them.) Shading creates three-dimensional forms out of shapes.

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What are the principles of art? Unity Balance Contrast Rhythm Pattern Emphasis Movement

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Unity Relates to the sense of oneness or wholeness in a work of art.

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2. Balance refers to the concept of how an artist creates interest through the arrangement of objects or elements in a composition. He can manipulate the placement of elements in a particular way or use color, texture, or weight to create either a sense of symmetry and equilibrium or disequilibrium. The artist can divide a composition in half with a vertical axis or a horizontal axis and place objects of equal weight or interest on both sides of the axis. The artist can create interest in a composition depending on how they choose to use balance.

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Symmetrical Balance The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci

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Asymmetrical Balance Boston Common at Twilight by Childe Hassam

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Radial Balance Rose Window National Cathedral, Washington DC

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3. Contrast Contrast refers to differences in values, colors, textures, shapes, and other elements. Contrasts create visual excitement, and add interest to the work.

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4. Rhythm represents the easy movement of the viewer's eyes following a regular arrangement or reproduction of elements in the art work.

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5. Pattern Pattern uses the art elements in planned or random repetitions to enhance surfaces of paintings or sculptures. Pattern increases visual excitement by enriching surface interest.

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6. Emphasis is used to draw the viewer’s attention to one area of the work. Common ways to do this are to use light and color.

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7. Movement Visual movement is used by artists to direct viewers through their work, often to a focal area. Such movements can be directed along lines, edges, shapes, and colors within the works, but moves the eye most easily on paths of equal value.

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Diego Rivera - Liberation of the Peon

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Ways to Create Depth Overlap objects to show that one object is in front of the other. Use aerial / atmospheric perspective – darker, brighter colors and sharper details are in the foreground while lighter, less intense colors and less distinct details are in the distance. Linear perspective – parallel lines run toward invisible vanishing points resulting in the appearance of smaller spaces and objects in the distance.

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More about Color Hue – the name of the color Value – the dark or light quality of a color Intensity – the brightness or saturation of a color ------------------------------------------------------------------- Primary colors - RED YELLOW BLUE Secondary colors - GREEN VIOLET ORANGE

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Sculpture Additive – Parts are put together, as in welding steel, or gluing wood. Clay is molded, bronze and plaster are cast. Subtractive – Material is cut away as in carving wood or marble.

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Washington Crosses the Delaware – Emanuel Leutze, 1851

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Saint Martin and the Beggar El Greco Oil on canvas 1598 Mannerism