Exposure

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

PHOTOGRAPHY:

PHOTOGRAPHY EXPOSURE

Photography:

Photography The word photography is derived from two Latin words: phos – means “light” graphos – means “to write” So, photography means “to write with light”

PowerPoint Presentation:

TYPES OF CAMERAS & THEIR FUNCTIONS SINGLE LENS REFLEX

Types of Digital Cameras:

Types of Digital Cameras 3 Main classifications - Point and Shoot - Prosumer* - Digital SLR

Point and Shoot digital Cameras ‏:

Point and Shoot digital Cameras ‏ - Commonly referred to as “consumer” digital cameras. - Represent probably 90% of all digital cameras on the market - Typically small, compact and lightweight - Targeted at general public - Typically very user-friendly - Image quality has improved drastically

Prosumer Digital Cameras:

Prosumer Digital Cameras -Not technically its own specification - Common term used to describe advanced models of P&S (now also used to describe many entry level DSLR's) ‏ - Similar in shape and appearance to Digital SLR's - Typically have extended zoom range (8-12X Optical Equiv) ‏ - Typically combine user friendly P&S features with more advanced manual features.

Digital SLR (DSLR)‏:

Digital SLR (DSLR) ‏ SLR Stands for Single Lens Reflex - Have larger sensors, resulting in greater image quality - Tend to favor manual control, lacking many automatic settings found on P&S - Much larger and heavier - Ability to interchange system lenses

PowerPoint Presentation:

So What is the REAL difference between a digital SLR and a point and shoot camera?

The short answer is.....Image Quality:

The short answer is.....Image Quality Because Size Matters!

Term to know: Pixel:

Term to know: Pixel Abbreviation for "picture element", a pixel is a small square of colored light that forms a digital image. It is the smallest unit in a digital image. Think of a pixel as a single small tile in a large mosaic.

How the digital sensor works:

How the digital sensor works Each digital image is made from millions of tiny squares, known as pixels.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The path that light travels when passing from a subject to the sensor

Term to know: Exposure:

Term to know: Exposure Exposure is the total amount of light striking the sensor of a camera.

Exposure:

Exposure A “correct” or “good” exposure occurs when you maintain as much detail as possible in both the very bright parts (highlights) as well as the very dark parts (shadows) of an image. How much of a range in which you can capture detail from light to dark is referred to as the Dynamic Range

Exposure:

Exposure Determined by: Aperture Shutter speed ISO

Exposure:

Exposure Underexposed Overexposed

Term to know: Shutter:

Term to know: Shutter a mechanical device in a camera that allows light to enter by opening and closing an aperture

Types of shutters:

Types of shutters

Term to know: Shutter speed:

Term to know: Shutter speed The amount of time that a camera's shutter remains open. Shutter speed controls the duration of an exposure - the faster the shutter speed, the shorter the exposure time, and the less light is let into the camera.

PowerPoint Presentation:

SHUTTER SPEEDS 1/8 1/10 1/13 1/15 1/20 1/25 1/30 1/40 1/50 1/60 1/80 1/100 1/125 1/160 1/200 1/250 1/320 1/400 1/500 1/640 1/800 1/1000

Shutter speed: General Rules and tips:

Shutter speed : General Rules and tips To capture sharp "action" photographs (e.g. Sports), you need to make sure the camera is using a high shutter speed, e.g.1/125th of a second or faster. Less light gets through to the imager as shutter speed is increased, thus it is difficult to use higher shutter speeds in lower light situations . Alternatives: Allow more light to pass through the lens ( larger aperture setting ), the other is to increase the ISO

PowerPoint Presentation:

Shutter Speed Using extremely slow shutter speeds such as 1 to 5 seconds can create special effects such as blurring water.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Shutter Speed Another waterfall, this time taken with a faster shutter speed . The water is frozen, not blurred.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Water coming out of a faucet. Shutter speed – 1/1000 Shutter Speed

PowerPoint Presentation:

Shutter Speed Action shots are not effective at slow shutter speeds. This image was taken with a shutter speed of 1/25 of a second.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Shutter Speed In this shot, most of the body is sharp and frozen, but the blurring of the arms and legs help to imply action. This image was taken with a shutter speed of 1/60 of a second.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Shutter Speed In this last shot, the action if effectively frozen. This image was taken with a shutter speed of 1/160 of a second.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Shutter Speed A hummingbird, frozen in mid-flight.

Shutter Speed – special effects :

Shutter Speed – special effects Absolutely sharp images are not always the best. They can look static and dull. At slow shutter speeds the camera blurs the image of moving objects, and can create a more convincing image of movement.

Shutter Speed:

Shutter Speed Beware! As your shutter speed decreases, your chances of getting a blurry image increase because you must hold the camera steady for a longer period.

Shutter Speed Rule:

Shutter Speed Rule Never set the shutter speed slower than 1/30 of a second if you are hand-holding your camera to avoid camera shake.

Term to know: Aperture:

Term to know: Aperture A circle-shaped opening in a lens (a hole, really) through which light passes to strike the image sensor of a camera.

Aperture:

Aperture Aperture is measured in increments called f-stops. The smaller the aperture opening, the larger the f-stop number is, and vice-versa.

Aperture: General Rules and tips:

Aperture : General Rules and tips A larger lens opening (f1.8-3.5) offers the following advantages: Allows you to shoot more often with just natural lighting  helps to reduce harsh shadows and red-eye caused by flash. Allows more light to pass through, the camera will be able to choose a slightly higher shutter speed  helps to reduce motion blur. Helps to reduce "depth-of-field“ (for effect).

Aperture: General Rules and tips:

Aperture : General Rules and tips A smaller lens opening ( f8-f22) offers the following advantages: Allows you to shoot in bright light without overexposing Allows less light to pass through, the camera will be able to choose a slower shutter speed  helps with special effects such as blurring action. Helps to increase "depth-of-field“

Aperture affects depth of field:

Aperture affects depth of field When shooting a landscape, get as much of the photograph in sharp focus as possible (f11 to f22). In a portrait, shallower dof (f2.8-8) will isolate your subject from distracting backgrounds

Term to know: ISO:

Term to know: ISO The sensitivity of the camera’s sensor to light.

ISO: General Rules and tips:

ISO: General Rules and tips ISO settings are often rated at 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and even 3200 on some models Use an ISO of 100 or 200 when taking photographs outside in sunny conditions. If the sky is overcast or it is evening time, or in a darkened room, then use an ISO within the range of 400 to 800 . Night time or in cases of low light you might need to set your digital camera ISO to 1600 . If not your photo will appear too dark.

ISO Settings:

ISO Settings Always set ISO to the lowest setting possible to avoid noise (graininess) ISO measures the sensitivity of the image sensor . The lower the number the less sensitive your camera is to light and the finer the grain . ISO 100 ISO 3200

PowerPoint Presentation:

PROGRAM MODE P = program mode -the camera picks both the f/stop and shutter speed USING YOUR CAMERA EXPOSURE MODES

PowerPoint Presentation:

S or TV = SHUTTER priority mode -you pick the shutter speed and the camera picks the f/stop USING YOUR CAMERA EXPOSURE MODES

PowerPoint Presentation:

A or AV = APERTURE priority mode you pick the f/stop and the camera picks the shutter speed USING YOUR CAMERA EXPOSURE MODES

PowerPoint Presentation:

M = MANUAL mode -you pick both the f/stop & the shutter speed USING YOUR CAMERA EXPOSURE MODES

THE F/16 RULE :

THE F/16 RULE On a bright sunny day, with your subject front-lit, set the camera’s aperture to f/16. The correct shutter speed is the speed that matches the ISO setting on your camera. For example: sunny day, front lit subject, camera lens is set on f/16, camera ISO is set at 200… set your shutter speed at 1/200 th for the correct exposure.

authorStream Live Help