AFRICA

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

AFRICA:

AFRICA

AFRICA The 2nd largest continent 3 huge deserts, including the largest in the world Lake Victoria is the world’s largest lake Population is 849 million and rapidly growing Only 60% of Africans have access to safe water Suffering from civil wars, droughts, famines, and poverty :

AFRICA The 2 nd largest continent 3 huge deserts, including the largest in the world Lake Victoria is the world’s largest lake Population is 849 million and rapidly growing Only 60% of Africans have access to safe water Suffering from civil wars, droughts, famines, and poverty

PowerPoint Presentation:

Africa has 3 main regions: The north is dominated by the Sahara Desert The central region is rain forests and tropical grasslands The southern region is desert and mountain ranges The continent may be dividing along the Great Rift Valley according to evidence of tectonic activity

PowerPoint Presentation:

North Africa is divided further into sub-regions: the Maghrib , Arabic meaning “where the sun sets” (the western sub region that includes Morocco/Western Sahara, Algeria, and Tunisia) and the Mashriq meaning “where the sun rises” (the eastern sub region including Libya and Egypt), while at other times, Egypt and the Arab Middle Eastern countries are combined into the Mashriq while Libya and Mauritania are linked with the Maghrib .

The largest populations are located where soil is fertile, along the Nile River and in the Rift Valley. Many people also live in coastal trading centers.:

The largest populations are located where soil is fertile, along the Nile River and in the Rift Valley. Many people also live in coastal trading centers.

Map of African Tribes Many of the country borders were drawn in the colonial times. The people were not taken into consideration, and many tribes were split between countries. This has made unifying countries and national identities a challenge.:

Map of African Tribes Many of the country borders were drawn in the colonial times. The people were not taken into consideration, and many tribes were split between countries. This has made unifying countries and national identities a challenge.

Each year, Africa’s population increases, but the amount of natural resources with which to sustain them, to improve the quality of lives and to eliminate poverty remain finite, increasing the challenge of sustainable development.:

Each year, Africa’s population increases, but the amount of natural resources with which to sustain them, to improve the quality of lives and to eliminate poverty remain finite, increasing the challenge of sustainable development.

About 80% of Africans live in rural areas and sustain themselves by farming. Education on improved farming techniques and marketing can improve the productivity of each farm and provide a pathway out of poverty for millions of people. :

About 80% of Africans live in rural areas and sustain themselves by farming. Education on improved farming techniques and marketing can improve the productivity of each farm and provide a pathway out of poverty for millions of people.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In urban areas you will see a mix of traditional and western clothing. New immigrants will live in over-crowded housing on the edges of cities until they find jobs.

PowerPoint Presentation:

ECONOMY Africa’s economy depends heavily on exports: Cash crops: coffee, cacao, peanuts, palm oil Minerals: gold, platinum, gemstones, diamonds Manufacturing is very limited.

Poverty in Africa:

Poverty in Africa Poverty is multidimensional: it is more than just the lack of access to financial resources – even though income is the most commonly used indicator of poverty – and material resources. It includes the lack of capabilities that enable a person to make choices to live a life that she or he values. This includes access to income, health care, education, social inclusion, and human rights.

Sub-Saharan Africa is home to over 70% of the total world’s HIV-positive population. In the southernmost region we find countries with HIV prevalence rates of over 30%, the highest in the world.:

Sub-Saharan Africa is home to over 70% of the total world’s HIV-positive population. In the southernmost region we find countries with HIV prevalence rates of over 30%, the highest in the world. More than 10 million children In Africa have been orphaned by Aids. HIV-Aids in Africa

Religions in Africa:

Religions in Africa Northern Africa has heavy Muslim influence, and is predominantly Islamic. Southern Africa has more Western influence and has more Christians. Indigenous religions are practiced in many areas.

Africa has both monotheistic and polytheistic religions. The belief in the existence of other spiritual beings besides God is widespread. They were created by God and are subject to God. They can be considered in two categories: those associated with nature and those that are remnants of human beings after death. Nature spirits are personifications of heavenly or earthly objects and phenomena: the stars, the sun, thunder, rain and storms, mountains, earthquakes, lakes, waterfalls:

Africa has both monotheistic and polytheistic religions. The belief in the existence of other spiritual beings besides God is widespread. They were created by God and are subject to God. They can be considered in two categories: those associated with nature and those that are remnants of human beings after death. Nature spirits are personifications of heavenly or earthly objects and phenomena: the stars, the sun, thunder, rain and storms, mountains, earthquakes, lakes, waterfalls A stone sculpture representing magic Kudu spirits

There is a deeply rooted belief in a mystical power or force in the universe that derives from God. People use this power in medical practice, divination, exorcism, protecting persons and property, where to find lost articles, and foretelling the outcome of an undertaking. :

There is a deeply rooted belief in a mystical power or force in the universe that derives from God. People use this power in medical practice, divination, exorcism, protecting persons and property, where to find lost articles, and foretelling the outcome of an undertaking. For fear of witchcraft and formal curse, people may refrain from stealing, speaking rudely, committing taboos against incest or doing harm to people like women, children, the helpless, and strangers. This mystical power plays a major role in regulating ethical relations in the community. A Zulu medicine man

African Wildlife Many animal species are at risk as they lose their natural habitats to logging and agriculture. Many countries have created protected areas that allow the animals to live peacefully in their natural environment. Tourists who travel to Africa on safari to see the animals provide a source of income for these poor countries. :

African Wildlife Many animal species are at risk as they lose their natural habitats to logging and agriculture. Many countries have created protected areas that allow the animals to live peacefully in their natural environment. Tourists who travel to Africa on safari to see the animals provide a source of income for these poor countries.

Threatened species in Africa:

Threatened species in Africa

PowerPoint Presentation:

THE SAHARA DESERT The world’s largest desert (not counting Antarctica) Temperatures can reach 136 degrees F during the day, but drops to freezing at night.

Average rainfall is 3 inches per year, but some areas can go for years without any rain. :

Average rainfall is 3 inches per year, but some areas can go for years without any rain. The sand dune known as the Libyan Erg is as big as France.

Salt from a mine in Algeria is one of the products transported by caravan. Caravans often travel in the early morning or at night to avoid the scorching heat.:

Salt from a mine in Algeria is one of the products transported by caravan. Caravans often travel in the early morning or at night to avoid the scorching heat.

A Berber guide consults a cracked, WWII-era compass amid the sands of the Sahara desert. To navigate the 500-mile salt trade caravan route between Taudeni and Timbuktu, Mali, guides use more time-honored pathfinding methods: reading the stars, wind patterns, sand dune formations, even the color of the sand.:

A Berber guide consults a cracked, WWII-era compass amid the sands of the Sahara desert. To navigate the 500-mile salt trade caravan route between Taudeni and Timbuktu, Mali, guides use more time-honored pathfinding methods: reading the stars, wind patterns, sand dune formations, even the color of the sand.

Without an oasis, traveling the Sahara would be almost impossible. The tiniest miscalculation of direction could result in almost certain death if the oasis is passed.:

Without an oasis, traveling the Sahara would be almost impossible. The tiniest miscalculation of direction could result in almost certain death if the oasis is passed.

THE NILE RIVER The longest river in the world, 4,238 miles long, it runs through 9 countries. It provides irrigation, is a source of drinking water, and a transportation route. :

THE NILE RIVER The longest river in the world, 4,238 miles long, it runs through 9 countries. It provides irrigation, is a source of drinking water, and a transportation route.

Every Spring, the Nile floods, depositing fertile, black soil on the fields. The fertile soil has enabled civilizations to thrive here back to ancient times.:

Every Spring, the Nile floods, depositing fertile, black soil on the fields. The fertile soil has enabled civilizations to thrive here back to ancient times.

Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa, and the 2nd largest in the world. It is located in Tanzania and Uganda with a small part extending into Kenya.:

Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa, and the 2 nd largest in the world. It is located in Tanzania and Uganda with a small part extending into Kenya. Its many species of fish are a great source of food.

Victoria Falls - Zimbabwe:

Victoria Falls - Zimbabwe

Music is integral part of African life. Song and dance commemorate life events, recount history, and impart political information. The musical experience is a unifying one: songs for work, drinking, and love not only entertain, but bond the participants.:

Music is integral part of African life. Song and dance commemorate life events, recount history, and impart political information. The musical experience is a unifying one: songs for work, drinking, and love not only entertain, but bond the participants.

The mbira is played at religious ceremonies and social gatherings. Songs have been passed down, some are 700 years old.:

The mbira is played at religious ceremonies and social gatherings. Songs have been passed down, some are 700 years old.

African dances are an important mode of communication. Dancers use gestures, masks, costumes, body paint, and a host of visual aids.:

African dances are an important mode of communication. Dancers use gestures, masks, costumes, body paint, and a host of visual aids.

This masked dance was recorded in Mali in western Africa.:

This masked dance was recorded in Mali in western Africa.

Masquerades perform in rituals and ceremonies that regulate the social life of the community while assuring abundant harvests and general fertility. Regarded as the "face" of the spirit, a mask is but one part of a larger masquerade costume.:

Masquerades perform in rituals and ceremonies that regulate the social life of the community while assuring abundant harvests and general fertility. Regarded as the "face" of the spirit, a mask is but one part of a larger masquerade costume. Religious beliefs and cultural ideals are given expression in masquerades. They were primarily created for ceremonial and ritual occasions, in recent years also for entertainment. In west and central Africa, masquerades give tangible form to an ancestral or nature spirit entity.

African Languages:

African Languages There are an estimated 1500-2000 indigenous African languages. Of these languages four main groupings can be distinguished: Afro-Asiatic – ( appoximately 200 languages) covering nearly all of Northern Africa Nilo-Saharian gathering appoximately 140 languages with some eleven millions speakers scattered in Central and Eastern Africa. Niger- Saharian - (Niger-Congo) covering the two third of Africa with as a principal branch the Niger-Congo which gathers more than 1000 languages with some 200 millions speakers. Khoisan - about thirty languages in Western part of Southern Africa.

As Africa was once colonized by England, France, and Portugal, those languages are still used in many countries, especially in cities. English is primarily used in business and commercial situations. The more rural the area, the more likely the language will be an indigenous one. :

As Africa was once colonized by England, France, and Portugal, those languages are still used in many countries, especially in cities. English is primarily used in business and commercial situations. The more rural the area, the more likely the language will be an indigenous one.

Northwestern Africa:

Northwestern Africa Arabs invaded this area in the 7 th & 8 th centuries, and many people who now live there are their descendents. They established their language, Arabic, and their religion, Islam, which are both still predominant today. Arabic influence can also be seen in architecture and other areas of culture.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Most people and cities in northwestern Africa are found along the coast. Many people have moved to the cities to look for work, causing overcrowding. Rich supplies of oil and gas have helped this area to achieve a “middle income” status. Much of the land inland is covered by the Sahara Desert.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Atlas Mountains stretch from the Atlantic coast of Morocco all the way to Tunisia, and form a high barrier that virtually wrings water from the clouds. This rain creates rivers and streams that run through the mountain villages and water the valley farms.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Atlas Mtns . Rise to over 13.000 feet and provide rainfall to create streams and provide water for irrigation, increasing the diversity of crops that can be grown. They create a rain shadow, an area that cannot be accessed by humid air masses, and therefore receives no precipitation.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Berbers are a tribe that live in villages in the Atlas Mountains. Although most Berbers converted to Islam, they have held on closely to their Berber heritage and culture. They raise sheep and cattle. They have a unique language that is rarely seen in written form.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Morocco’s warm climate and sandy beaches make it a popular tourist spot. Tourists shop for Berber rugs and crafts in the markets. MOROCCO

PowerPoint Presentation:

ALGERIA The economy is dependent on its oil and gas reserves in the Sahara. About ¼ of the people farm crops including date palms. Thousands have been killed in recent years as Islamic fundamentalists have revolted against Algeria’s government.

PowerPoint Presentation:

TUNISIA The lifestyle of the people ranges from nomadic and subsistence farming to a wealthy upper class. Crops must be irrigated due to lack of rainfall and include olive oil, cereals, and citrus fruits. Tunisia manufactures calcium phosphates, used to make fertilizers. The government is encouraging the building of new hotels to attract more tourists to the important tourist industry.

PowerPoint Presentation:

LIBYA 90% OF Libya is covered by the Sahara Desert. Farming is only possible along the coast. Formerly part of the Roman Empire, it boasts Roman ruins. Many people work as sheep or goat herders and live in large family clans. The discovery of oil in 1959 transformed Libya from poor and wealthy. Libya has often clashed with Western countries because of the regime of dictator Moammar Gadhafi , who supported terrorism. He was killed in 2011 by revolutionaries and a new form of government has been initiated.

Northeastern Africa:

Northeastern Africa The Nile River runs through this area and is a major tourist attraction. An area that has suffered from famine caused by drought, warfare, and rapid population growth. This brought attention to the area along with international aid. There has been conflict between the Arabic Muslims in the north and the African non-Muslims in the south.

PowerPoint Presentation:

EGYPT The Suez Canal runs from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It is a shortcut from Europe to India. It is one of the world’s most important waterways and is a source of income for Egypt.

PowerPoint Presentation:

99 % of Egyptians live in the Nile River Valley or near the delta. In Cairo, centuries of sedimentation has created a delta 22,000 square kilometers large (roughly the size of the state of Massachusetts). Both the flood plain and the delta are losing fertility as the mineral sediments usually carried and deposited by the Nile are building up behind the many dams constructed along the length of the river.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Aswan Dam controls the Nile River. Before this dam was built, the Nile flooded yearly, depositing the fertile soils carried from Ethiopia and Sudan across the Egyptian flood plain. Now that the flooding is controlled, the Nile irrigates farms all along the former flood plain.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Deadly sandstorms called Khamsin carry large amounts of dust and sand and occur from February to June.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Nile adds humidity to the Egyptian climate, but most of the country is still a desert. The delta provides much of the arable land of the country and there farmers grow corn, rice, wheat and many other subsistence and cash crops. This area provides much of the food for the country as well at its exports.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Cairo is the largest city in Africa. It faces a serious housing shortage, and some people are living in slums or on rooftops. The architecture shows the Arabic influence. The ancient sites in Egypt are 4,000 years old. The pyramids are the only of the 7 wonders of the ancient world still standing.

PowerPoint Presentation:

SUDAN The largest country in Africa, with more than 500 tribes speaking over 100 languages. It is one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The Nubians in the north are Muslim and live in sun-dried brick rectangular houses with flat roofs. Nubian children are taught in Arabic, not their native language. Nubians view themselves as a distinct ethnicity, neither Arab nor strictly black African, and they take pride in being one of Africa’s oldest civilizations.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Darfur Conflict was a guerilla conflict or civil war centered on the Darfur region of Sudan. It began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement/ Arvy (SLM/A) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) groups took up arms, accusing the government of oppressing non-Arab Sudanese in favor of Sudanese Arabs. It is also known as the Darfur Genocide . Over 300,000 people were killed and 400 villages destroyed.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In 2011, Southern Sudan voted almost unanimously to secede from Sudan. The government in the north was run by Arab Muslims and the people are the south are mostly black Christians. The 2 groups have been fighting for 2 decades, and 2 million people have been killed. Since most of the people are illiterate, the ballots had 2 pictures from which to choose.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Juba seems an unlikely place to be a world capital city. Unemployment is at 90%, roads are dirt, and many buildings are mud huts.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Ethiopia Located in the horn of Africa The first country in Africa to adopt Christianity. The birthplace of coffee One of only two countries in Africa not to be colonized by a European power in the late 19th century

PowerPoint Presentation:

Great Rift Valley a geological feature that runs through countries from Syria to Mozambique was caused by rifting (pulling apart) of the earth’s tectonic plates h home to seven salt lakes and many hot springs home to many great anthropological findings

PowerPoint Presentation:

Lake T’ana - the source of the Blue Nile. It is the largest lake in Ethiopia.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Blue Nile Falls is one of Ethiopia’s most famous tourist attractions

PowerPoint Presentation:

Ethiopia is both the birthplace and largest coffee producer in Africa. Coffee “crisis” is having devastating effects of farmers in Ethiopia.

PowerPoint Presentation:

SOMALIA Since 1991, Somalia has been torn apart by civil war. Up to 1 million have fled the country or moved into relief camps to obtain food, safety, and shelter. The danger has somewhat diminished, and some have returned.

West Africa:

West Africa The northern region is mostly Islamic, while the southern region is Christian or indigenous religion. The climate varies from desert to tropical forest. Farming consists of small farms which grow cereal, cocoa or oil palms. Other farmers are nomadic cattle herders who wander in search of good grazing grounds.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Many Africans who practice indigenous religions tend to be very superstitious and have little faith in modern medicine. They believe that illness can be brought on by various means such as witchcraft, inappropriate behavior, or anger toward others. Health will return only when certain rituals have been performed. The Akan tribe of Ghana and the Ivory Coast number 7 million. They are a polygamist society. They believe in witchcraft and life after death and will place food and gifts near the deceased body to provide them with what they will need in the spirit world.

PowerPoint Presentation:

NIGERIA A Muslim and Christian nation, it has the highest population of any country in Africa. Like many countries in Africa, Nigeria has a strong contrast between modern life in cities and old traditional ways in the country. Many young people move to the city for a few years to study and/or earn money. When they have saved enough, they will return to the village.

Central Africa:

Central Africa Central Africa, near the equator has fertile land and features rain forests and the Congo River. Countries vary from prosperous and stable to poor and repressed.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The closer to the equator, the more it rains year-round. Farther from the equator, rain is more seasonal.

PowerPoint Presentation:

A floating market on the Congo River.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mount Kilimanjaro is Africa’s tallest mountain, and a dormant volcano.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Savannahs in Central East Africa are covered in tall grasses that can grow up to 13 feet tall. Animals of the savannah include rhinoceroses, giraffes, elephants, antelopes, and zebras. These are prey hunted by cheetahs, lions, and leopards.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Serengeti The Serengeti ecosystem is located in north Tanzania and extends to south-western Kenya. It spans 12,000 sq mi. The Serengeti hosts the largest terrestrial mammal migration in the world. The region contains Serengeti National Park and several game reserves. The word Serengeti means "Endless Plains". Approximately 70 larger mammal species are found there. There is a controversy surrounding a proposed road that is to be built through the Serengeti in Tanzania.

Southern Africa is made up of…:

Southern Africa is made up of… Plateaus in Nambia Drakensberg Mountain Range “Dragon Mountains” Southern African Plains Okavango River

PowerPoint Presentation:

~ Both the mountains and the plains play important roles in Southern Africa’s geography. ~The mountains serve as borders between neighboring countries.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Drakensberg Mountain Range are located in South Africa. “Dragon Mountains”

PowerPoint Presentation:

Inyanga Mountains are located between Zimbabwe and Mozambique.

Climate and Vegetation:

Climate and Vegetation Southern Africa also consist of: SAVANNAS and … DESERTS and … TROPICAL FORESTS

PowerPoint Presentation:

A veld is an open grassland or savanna where short trees and shrubs grow.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Not all of Southern Africa is desert, Madagascar is in fact mostly tropical forest. Deforestation is destroying many of the animals and forests in the tropical forests of Madagascar.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Kalahari Desert , meaning "thirst land" or "thirsty land") [ is a large semi-arid sandy savannah extending 350,000 sq mi. It covers much of Botswana and parts of Namibia and South Africa.

Republic of South Africa:

Republic of South Africa The Republic of South Africa is a country located at the southern tip of Africa with a 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) coastline on the Atlantic and Indian Oceans South Africa is known for a diversity in cultures, languages, and religious beliefs. Eleven official languages are recognized in the constitution . [ English , despite having a large role in public and commercial life, is only the fifth most-spoken home language. South Africa is ethnically diverse, with the largest European , Indian , and racially mixed communities in Africa. Although 79.5% of the South African population is black, the people are from a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages , nine of which have official status. [ About a quarter of the population is unemployed and lives on less than US $1.25 a day.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In South Africa, the white controlled government instituted policies to guarantee European control of politics and the economy. These policies established a system of complete separation of the races in South Africa. The over-all policy of racial segregation was called apartheid. A sign for a “whites only” beach and a telephone booth for black use.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nelson Mandela is a South African anti-apartheid activist, revolutionary and politician. He served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He spent most of his adult life in prison. He served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and is considered a savior and liberator by the South African people.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The literacy rate in South Africa is about 88%.

VOCABULARY indigenous - ethnic groups or tribes originally from Africa monotheism – the worship of one god polytheism – the worship of several gods mbira - an African musical instrument consisting of a wooden board to which staggered metal keys have been attached. polygamy – the practice of marrying more than one wife. :

VOCABULARY indigenous - ethnic groups or tribes originally from Africa monotheism – the worship of one god polytheism – the worship of several gods mbira - an African musical instrument consisting of a wooden board to which staggered metal keys have been attached. polygamy – the practice of marrying more than one wife.

authorStream Live Help