EUROPE part 2

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EUROPE:

EUROPE Part 2

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Spain and Portugal form the Iberian Peninsula

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Spain major industrial nation large agricultural center booming tourist trade

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The Spanish lifestyle is more relaxed than other European countries. Most businesses close for an afternoon siesta.

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The dry Meseta Plain requires dry farming and drought-resistant crops.

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Spain went from the rule of Franco, a dictator, to a democracy under Juan Carlos I in 1975.

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Madrid – beautiful and laid back

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The festival of Semana Santa – Holy Week

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Pamplona

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The festival of La Tomatina – the world’s biggest food fight

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Flamenco dancing and guitar playing are pure Spanish culture.

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Andalusia & Costa del Sol

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Paella

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Portugal One of the poorest countries in Western Europe Tourism is very important to the economy. Suffered a severe setback with the destruction of Lisbon in the 1755 earthquake

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Lisbon, Portugal

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The Tower of Belem. Vasco de Gama set sail from here for his trip around the world.

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Portugal is the world’s leading exporter of cork.

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The island of Madeira, just of Portugal’s coast

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Italy Also includes the islands of Sardinia and Sicily The Alps form the northern border, and the Apennine Mountains run down the center of the “boot” into Sicily. The northern region is industrialized and wealthy, while the southern region is more agricultural and poorer.

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The Colosseum’s stone was pilfered for other building projects.

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Vatican City, the headquarters of the Catholic Church, is located within the city of Rome and is the world’s smallest independent state.

1400 – 1500 - Italy recovers from the Middle Ages - Florence becomes the cultural center “new Athens” - Italians want to bring back the glory of ancient Rome - They study math, science, and the human body - Oil painting becomes widespread in the 15th century:

1400 – 1500 - Italy recovers from the Middle Ages - Florence becomes the cultural center “new Athens” - Italians want to bring back the glory of ancient Rome - They study math, science, and the human body - Oil painting becomes widespread in the 15 th century

Cosimo de Medici Palazzo Medici Lorenzo de Medici:

Cosimo de Medici Palazzo Medici Lorenzo de Medici The Medici family, wealthy bankers were the most powerful family in Florence. They used their wealth as patrons of the arts. Cosimo de Medici was the patriarch. Lorenzo the Magnificent took over after Cosimo’s death. Artwork was also commissioned by the church, royals, aristocrats, and other wealthy families.

1500 – 1520 :

1500 – 1520 Widely viewed as the greatest explosion of creative genius in history Rome becomes the art center of Europe The Pope commissions many great works of art from great artists throughout Europe The notion of artist as genius is born Venetian artists make dramatic innovations in painting The three greatest artists of the High Renaissance were da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael

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Florence, the birthplace of the Renaissance

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The Florence Cathedral and its famous dome.

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Michelangelo – the Sistine Chapel ceiling, La Pieta, and David

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Da Vinci’s Last Supper

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Raphael’s Sistine Madonna and School of Athens

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Fashion is important to Italians.

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Switzerland Home of the world’s highest mountains, the Alps Known for remaining neutral in political conflicts

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The capital city of Switzerland, Bern

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Geneva is the home of the Red Cross and the World Health Organization

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Zurich is a world financial center.

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Austria Language: German

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Picture the panoramic views from the Sound of Music

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On old-fashioned farms, the animals lived in the same house as the people.

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dirndle lederhosen

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Vienna, a world center for music, and Austria’s capital.

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Apple strudel

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The Baltic States – Belarus Estonia Lithuania Latvia

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The Brest Fortress Memorial honors Russian frontier guards from WWII

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Forests and lakes cover a vast amount of the countryside

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There are 2,800 lakes in Lithuania alone, many of them glacial

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Citizens of the Baltic States formed a human chain that stretched across all 3 countries to fight for independence from the USSR.

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Central Europe Poland Czech Republic Slovakia Hungary Moldova Caucasian Republic Georgia Azerbaijan Armenia Ukraine Many of these countries lie on the north European Plain. The flat terrain makes it easy to invade, and the political boundaries have been redrawn many times.

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Most people in Central Europe are Roman Catholic, and the celebration of Saints days and religious festivals are an important part of life. Weddings and holidays are celebrated with folk music and dancing.

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The Danube River connects Slovakia and Hungary to Germany and the Rhine River in the west, and to the Black Sea in the southeast. It provides a trade route and hydroelectric power.

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Air pollution from factories is a big problem, causing high rates of asthma in children.

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Poland

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Because Poland lies on the north European Plain, it is relatively flat, making farming easier. Farms are usually small and sometimes run part-time.

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Warsaw in 1939 after an attack of German warplanes

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Warsaw today, the capital and largest city in Poland

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Czech Republic Formerly a part of Czechoslovakia, which split into the democracies of the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1990. A highly-industrialized country Farms are typically large and run by the state Language - Czech

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Prague, the capital, was not damaged during WWII, so its architecture has been preserved.

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The Czech Republic has one of the highest density of castles in the world, with the Prague Castle being the largest castle area in the world, spreading to over 18 acres.

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Prague’s Charles Bridge is one of the many monuments that were built during the reign of Charles IV.

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The fine sands found in this area are perfect for making the high-quality, delicate glass known as Bohemian glass.

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Beer is one of the best-known products manufactured in the Czech Republic.

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Slovakia A mountainous country, more rural than the Czech Republic Slovakia has cold, humid and very cloudy winters. The official language of Slovakia is Slovak. The average Slovakian woman has 1.33 children in her lifetime. This is one of the lowest rates in Europe.

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Bratislava became the capital of Slovakia in 1993. It is called the Little Big City

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Hungary

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Budapest, the capital, is actually 2 cities, separated by the Danube River. Buda is the ancient part, and Pest is the modern part.

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Budapest is famous for it baths, which are heated by the thermal springs just below the surface in the area.

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Hungarian goulash, a stew of beef and vegetables Hungarian cuisine is rich, heavy, and spicy.

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Ukraine Has fertile farmland and lots of natural resources. Formerly dominated by the USSR, it became independent in 1991. Official language is Ukrainian.

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The Chernobyl nuclear disaster that occurred in 1986 killed thousands of people, cost the USSR billions of dollars, and may have contributed to its ultimate collapse.

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Ukrainians are heavy drinkers.

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Parents are strict regarding behavior and grades in school. They are somewhat suspicious of wealth. They are very reserved in public. Gender roles are very traditional. Ukrainian Culture

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The Caucasian Republics Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia

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An apple seller. A wide variety of fruits are grown in Georgia , although arable land is limited.

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Armenia is a rugged, volcanic country with rich mineral resources. It is highly prone to earthquakes and occasional droughts. This is Mount Ararat, where some believe Noah’s Ark came to rest.

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Many Armenians are sheep or cattle farmers.

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During WWI, the Turkish government killed 1 ½ million Armenians (60% of the people who lived there), almost destroying the entire country.

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Staple foods are bread and salt. Breakfasts on nonworking days are sometimes major get-together events

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Azerbaijan is home to about one million refugees and displaced persons from other countries .

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The rich carpet-weaving tradition is a source of national pride.

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Arranged marriages are common in Azerbaijan.

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Southeast Europe Serbia Montenegro Bosnia and Herzegovina Macedonia Albania Romania Bulgaria Rugged mountains separated by deep river valleys. Formerly part of Yugoslavia

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Ethnic cleansing – the systematic removal of one ethnic or religious group by another In the early 1990’s the Serbs engaged in ethnic cleansing Against Bosnian Muslims and Croats.

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Romania

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Serious environmental problems include soil erosion and water and air pollution from unregulated industrial development

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Romania is a very poor country. Cars are rare.

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Married women cover their heads with cloths.

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Romanian orphanages were filled with abandoned children in the 80’s and 90’s.

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Several generations often live together with an average of 10 sq. meters of living space per person.

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“Dracula’s castle” in the Transylvania region of Romania.

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Bulgaria Slightly larger than Tennessee Mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast Capital city is Sofia

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National Revival period houses in Bulgaria are brightly painted with second floors projecting out over the street.

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Perfume is made from the rose petals grown in the Valley of the Roses.

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Traditional Bulgarian dress.

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Greece

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Rich in history, Athens was one of the 1 st great civilizations Mountainous terrain Over 2,000 scattered islands 98% Orthodox Christians One of the poorest members of the European Union On the verge of defaulting on international loans, jeopardizing the European and world economies Greece

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The capital city of Athens, one of the oldest cities in Europe.

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The Parthenon at the Acropolis in Athens.

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Greece’s beauty attracts tourists from all over the world.

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Greece has very hot subtropical climate. The summer is long, hot and dry.

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Greek Orthodox churches are extremely ornate and have many rituals.

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Greece’s merchant fleet is one of the largest in the world.

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baklava Goat cheese

RUSSIA:

RUSSIA

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Population: 142 million, the 9 th most populous nation in the world.

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Russia is officially know both as Russian and the Russian Federation.

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The Ural Mountains separate the European part of Russia from the Asian part of Russia.

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Russian pine and fir tree forests can be seen everywhere throughout the vast territories.

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The same forest in the winter

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Russia is well-known for birch trees. They are a national symbol of Russia.

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Chernozem is black topsoil, one of the world’s most fertile soils. Chernozem is found in the north European plain in Ukraine and Russia.

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Permafrost is permanently frozen soil found where the ground temperature remains below 0 °C . It exists where summer heating fails to reach the base of the layer of frozen ground.

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This NASA image of the Northern Hemisphere shows the areas of permafrost — the tundra regions of Asia, Europe, and North America. permafrost or permanently frozen ground

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Buildings built on permafrost may collapse when the heat generated by the building thaws the ground. The photo above is an example of what can happen to a building built on ground that is permanently frozen. Houses in Siberia are often built on stilts so this will not happen.

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Languages

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Religion Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% note: estimates are of practicing worshipers. Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule

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Russia’s constitution guarantees a free education to all citizens and has a literacy rate of 99.4%. Entry to higher education is highly competitive. The Government allocates funding to pay the tuition fees within an established number of students for each state institution. In addition, students are paid a small stipend and provided with free housing. Education Moscow State University

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The average annual income for a Russian in 2011 was $16,700. For comparison, the average in the U.S. was $48,300.

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A kitchen in a Russian house.

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Alcohol use in Russia is among the highest in the world. Many women drink while pregnant, often causing fetal alcohol syndrome.

Moscow – capital & 14th largest city in the world:

Moscow – capital & 14 th largest city in the world

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The White House, the seat of the Russian Government

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Entrance to the Kremlin - Senate, part of the Moscow Kremlin and the working residence of the Russian president.

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Much of the architecture in Russia was influence by the Byzantine style Onion-shaped domes are a unique characteristic of some Russian architecture. St. Basil’s Cathedral is a beautiful example.

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Moscow subway

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Moscow parks

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Sheremetyevo International Airport - Moscow

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Aeroflot – the Russian airline. Planes are older and in need of repairs

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Streets, sidewalks, and public buildings are in need of maintenance.

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Many people use public transportation because they can’t afford cars.

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Health care in Russia is not equal to many other modern countries. All of the children in this orphanage are covered with sores caused by infantigo . It can be easily cured with antibiotics, but the doctor here had neither the knowledge or the money to cure them. Life expectancy in Russia is only 66 years.

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Russians are very overprotective about dressing children warmly. It was almost 70 degrees on this afternoon.

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Baby House # 2, Perm, Russia

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Over 200 meals per day were prepared in this orphanage kitchen.

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All of the children’s clothes were washed by hand and hung out to dry.

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Perm and its 1 million residents were kept a secret from the world during the Soviet era.

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The view from our hotel looking at a shopping mall across the street.

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