South America

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SOUTH AMERICA:

SOUTH AMERICA

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South America can be divided into 5 physiographic divisions. The Andes Brazilian Highlands Guiana Highlands The Amazon basin The Deserts

The Andes MOUNTAINS:

The Andes MOUNTAINS Run from NW Venezuela to the southern tip of Tierra Del Fuego. The mountain was formed by the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath South American plate. It is the world’s longest and second highest mountain range.

Andes Mountains:

Andes Mountains it stretches 4,500 miles from north to south, along the west coast. The longest continental mountain range in the world,

Farming in the Andes is made possible by cutting terraces into the sides of mountains.:

Farming in the Andes is made possible by cutting terraces into the sides of mountains. The rocks used to create the terraces also absorb heat and help keep the crops from freezing. Coffee and potatoes are two crops grown here. The work is hard, and produces a small yield.

Coca Farming :

Coca Farming Coca is much easier to grow than other crops. It is refined and then smuggled out of the area. Smugglers even use submarines to carry drugs.

Animals of the Andes: Alpaca, Andean Condor, Chinchilla, Llama :

Animals of the Andes: Alpaca, Andean Condor, Chinchilla, Llama

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The highest point of the mountain range is Mt. Aconcagua, which is 6962 m high. The Andes is divided into three sub regions. They are: Northern – Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador Central – Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia (altiplano) Southern – defines the border between Chile & Argentina (South of Santiago the mountains are lower) There are several important cities situated within the Andean region. They are Bogota, Santiago, Cusco, La Paz, Merida & Quito.

Lake Titicaca:

L ake Titicaca Lake Titicaca is a mountainous lake found on the border of Peru & Bolivia. By volume it is the largest lake on the continent. It is the highest commercially navigable lake in the world. There are 42 islands in the lake, some of which are densely populated.

Lake Titicaca:

Lake Titicaca 10/13/2012

The Brazilian Highlands:

The Brazilian Highlands One of the most important physiographical region of the continent, occupying an area of about 2 million sq. miles. Also know as Brazilian Plateau, it is made up of basaltic lava.

Guiana Highlands:

Guiana Highlands Occupies the area of Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana, with parts in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil. The region is very sparsely populated. Angel Falls can be found here.

Angel Falls:

Angel Falls The tallest waterfall in the world. Located in Venezuela. Over 3,000 feet tall.

Llanos:

Llanos A tropical grassland situated in between the northern Andes and Guiana Highland. Occupies a few million square km of Venezuela and Colombia. This region is characterized by seasonal flooding, which can be as high as a meter. The principal river draining this region is the Orinoco. The people working here as cowboys are locally known as Llaneros. The grasslands are being cleared for agricultural purposes.

Amazon River Basin :

Amazon River Basin The 2 nd longest river in the world, the largest by volume.

The width of the Amazon River varies from 1 mile wide to 130 miles wide and floods during the rainy season.:

The width of the Amazon River varies from 1 mile wide to 130 miles wide and floods during the rainy season.

The Amazon Rainforest:

The Amazon Rainforest 1.4 billion acres in 9 countries, the largest part in Brazil. Deforestation is threatening many species.

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Some of the best bird-watching opportunities in the world

About 20% of earth's oxygen is produced by the Amazon rainforest.:

About 20% of earth's oxygen is produced by the Amazon rainforest.

VENEZUELA:

VENEZUELA About 2 times the size of California Climate: tropical, hot, humid Population: 28 million Ethnic groups: Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people Languages: Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects Religion: 96% Roman Catholic Literacy rate: 93% Education: average of 14 years

Caracas – Venezuela’s capital and largest city located near the coast, separated by the Cordillera de la Costa. The metropolitan area has a population of more than 4 million.:

Caracas – Venezuela’s capital and largest city located near the coast, separated by the Cordillera de la Costa. The metropolitan area has a population of more than 4 million.

They often go to war with other villages and 40% of adult males have killed someone. Women marry at a young age to males who are chosen for them. Brazilian gold miners have raided the villages and killed up to 80 Indians in an attack.:

They often go to war with other villages and 40% of adult males have killed someone. Women marry at a young age to males who are chosen for them. Brazilian gold miners have raided the villages and killed up to 80 Indians in an attack. The Yanomami live in the rain forests of Venezuela and northern Brazil, population: 30,000. Yanomami means “human beings.”

Mining in Venezuela:

Mining in Venezuela Iron ore and gold are mined in Venezuela. Irresponsible mining has caused damage to the rain forests and flooding. Acid runoff from mines poisons streams.

Oil – Venezuela has the biggest oil reserves outside of the Middle East. Oil was discovered under Lake Maracaibo in 1917. They have come to depend too heavily on their oil production and the economy is greatly affected by the rise and fall of oil prices.:

Oil – Venezuela has the biggest oil reserves outside of the Middle East. Oil was discovered under Lake Maracaibo in 1917. They have come to depend too heavily on their oil production and the economy is greatly affected by the rise and fall of oil prices.

COLOMBIA:

COLOMBIA Twice the size of Texas The only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14% Language: Spanish Religion: 90% Catholic Literacy: 90% Education: average of 14 years

Colombian agriculture is very diverse due to the extremes of climate zones.:

Colombian agriculture is very diverse due to the extremes of climate zones. Coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables, and forest products are some of the crops grown. Colombia is the world’s 2 nd largest exporter of flowers with over 1 billion annually. Over 75% of these are sent to the U.S.

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The Andes Mountains divide the country. This physical division isolates people, creating conflict about how they should be governed. A glacier in the Andes Mountains

Violence in Colombia:

Violence in Colombia A four-decade long conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups, heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and violence has been decreasing since about 2002. However, insurgents continue attacks against civilians and large areas of the countryside are under guerrilla influence or are contested by security forces.

Bogotá – capital of Colombia:

Bogotá – capital of Colombia 10/13/2012 33 With a population of about 8.8 million people, Bogota sits approximately 8,660 feet above sea level in the Colombian Andes. Mexico City and New York City are the only North American cities larger than Bogotá .

ECUADOR:

ECUADOR Area : 110,000 sq. miles Population : 15 million Frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity, floods 60,000 mi 2 of rain forest 18% of Ecuador is protected 4 World Heritage Sites Currency : US $ Dollar Language : Spanish Ethnic groups : mestizo 65%, Amerindian 25%, European 7% Religion: 95% Catholic High literacy rate and education

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Cotopaxi in the Andes of Ecuador is the highest active volcano in the world

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Farms in Ecuador grow bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, tapioca, and sugarcane.

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Women of Ecuador weaving Panama Hats

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Panama Hats aren’t made in Panama…. They’re made in Ecuador!

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Q U I T O

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Local crafts for sale in the mark et

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The art of Ecuador is filled with bright colors.

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Clothing made in Ecuador is highly decorated.

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The Famous Monument that marks the Equator The Equator was located in the 1700’s. 30 min north of Quito Dry weather

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Straddling the Equator 600 miles due west of the Ecuador coastline The Galapagos Archipelago ...

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The convergence of three major oceanic currents brings an incredible mix of marine life to Galapagos

Geography of the Galapagos:

Geography of the Galapagos Location: 620 miles (1,000 Km) West off Ecuador Longitude 90°W; Latitude 0° 00’’ Area 7,882 km 2 land; 45,000 km 2 water (30,000 mi 2 ) 53,000 km 2 total; Length: 430 Km Island Distribution 13 major, 6 minor, 42 islets, 256 rocks National Park since 1959 Marine Reserve since 1986 Populated Islands: Baltra , Santa Cruz, San Cristóbal , Isabela and Floreana (approx. 23,000 inhabitants)

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Galápagos is not that small

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Formed by volcanic activity

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Marine Iguanas – the only ones in the world

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Darwin’s Finches

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Land Iguanas

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Giant Tortoises

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Greater Flamingo

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The Boobies

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Sea Turtles

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Hammerhead Sharks

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Surgeon Fishes

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Hieroglyphic Hawk Fish

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Blue-chin Parrot Fish

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The Galapagos Marine Reserve

PERU:

PERU Size: slightly smaller than Alaska Climate: tropical coastal, dry desert, frigid mountain The source of the Amazon River is here. Population: 30 million Amerindian 45%, Mestizo 37%, white 15% Language: Spanish Religion: 94% Christian Very high risk of infectious disease High literacy rate and years of education

Lima…Capital of Peru:

Lima…Capital of Peru Located at sea level , Lima is the international air entrance to Peru City of museums Rich in colonial architecture

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Lima

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A Spanish building in Arequipa – Peru’s 2nd largest city

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Colca Canyon -home of the Andean Condor

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Cusco: center of the Inca culture Land of the Incas and archaeological capital of America

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Cusco

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Train arriving at Aguas Calientes, 4 miles from Machu Picchu

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Zig-Zag Road from Aguas Calientes to Machu Picchu

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Machu Picchu – “City of the Incas , a Pre- Columbian Inca site 8,000 above sea level

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The Uros people live on Lake Titicaca on 44 man-made islands made from floating reeds.

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Uros People

BOLIVIA:

BOLIVIA Size: about 3 times the size of Montana Population: 10 million Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Mestizo 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15% Languages: Spanish (official) 61%, Quechua (official) 21%, Aymara (official) 15% Religion: 100% Christian Literacy rate: 86%

Bolivian Economy:

Bolivian Economy Bolivia is one of the poorest and least developed countries in Latin America. 51% live below the poverty line.

La Paz – the capital of Bolivia and is prone to earthquakes.:

La Paz – the capital of Bolivia and is prone to earthquakes. 10/13/2012

La Luna Valley – a unique phenomenon caused by the erosion of most of a clay mountain, less than 10 miles from La Paz.:

La Luna Valley – a unique phenomenon caused by the erosion of most of a clay mountain, less than 10 miles from La Paz. 10/13/2012 94

The North Yungas Road connects La Paz to the Bolivian jungle. It is called death road and is considered the most dangerous road in the world.:

The North Yungas Road connects La Paz to the Bolivian jungle. It is called death road and is considered the most dangerous road in the world.

The world’s largest salt flat is in Bolivia. It is 4,000 square miles in area. It contains 50 to 70% of the world's lithium reserves.:

The world’s largest salt flat is in Bolivia. It is 4,000 square miles in area. It contains 50 to 70% of the world's lithium reserves.

Coca farming in Bolivia:

Coca farming in Bolivia 10/13/2012

BRAZIL:

BRAZIL The Flag : The green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth; The blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; The number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)

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Brazil is the largest country in South America. It is the 5 th largest county in the world, and only slightly smaller than the U.S. The Amazon Rain Forest covers about 1/3 of South America and is the largest rain forest in the world.

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Population: approximately 200 million (5 th highest in the world) Ethnic Groups: White 53.7%, Mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, Black 6.2% About 25% of Brazilians are farmers. About 80% live in cities Official language: Portuguese Religion: 90% Christian Literacy rate: 89% Average education: 14 years People of Brazil

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Brazil is believed to have the largest populations of indigenous people living in isolation from the outside world.

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Some of them have no knowledge whatsoever of life outside of their villages. Others are being pushed out of their native lands by illegal logging.

The Belo Monte Dam is the most controversial of dozens of dams planned in the Amazon region and it threatens the lives and livelihoods of thousands of Amazonian people, plants, and animals. The dam is set to flood roughly 150 square miles of already-stressed rainforest and deprive an estimated 20,000 people of their homes and incomes. When completed, it will be the 3rd-largest dam in the world.:

The Belo Monte Dam is the most controversial of dozens of dams planned in the Amazon region and it threatens the lives and livelihoods of thousands of Amazonian people, plants, and animals. The dam is set to flood roughly 150 square miles of already-stressed rainforest and deprive an estimated 20,000 people of their homes and incomes. When completed, it will be the 3 rd -largest dam in the world.

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When they are exposed to outsiders, many of them die of diseases such as measles, to which they have no immunity.

Iguazu Falls lies on the border between Brazil and Argentina.:

Iguazu Falls lies on the border between Brazil and Argentina.

Brasília – Capital city of Brazil A government project to encourage people to move inland. Modeled after the shape of an airplane:

Brasília – Capital city of Brazil A government project to encourage people to move inland. Modeled after the shape of an airplane Government buildings are located in the nose of the plane. The wings are residential areas.

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The Metropolitan Cathedral is made of glass. The architecture of Brasilia is very modern.

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Sao Paolo is the largest city in Brazil and the largest in the Southern Hemisphere. It is the 7 th largest city in the world. The population is very diverse, with people from many European countries including Italy, Portugal, and Germany.

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In Sao Paolo, about 4 million people live in complete poverty. This photo shows 30 plus houses crammed into a small space of an area about half a block long and a third of a block deep resulting in houses stacked three high.

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Rio de Janeiro is the former capital of Brazil and is the most-visited city in South America.

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Carnival is a festive season celebrated in Catholic countries and occurs immediately before Lent in February. Carnival includes parades and street parties. People often dress in masquerade. Rio’s carnival is sometimes called the “biggest party in the world.”

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Christ the Redeemer overlooking Rio is the largest art deco statue in the world, at 130 feet tall. It is made of reinforced concrete and soapstone, and was constructed in the 1920’s.

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Economy of Brazil Characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries. In 2011, it became the 7 th largest economy in the world based on GDP. Agricultural products include: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Deserts:

Deserts Atacama Desert: Occupies the area of Chile, Argentina, Peru and Bolivia It is the driest desert of the world. Patagonian Desert: Located in southern part of Argentina and Chile. Southern South America

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Atacama Desert - the driest desert in the world - spreads across the northern part of Chile. In some areas, no rain has ever been recorded.

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10/13/2012 116 Patagonia – has some of the most dramatic landscapes on earth – and penguins! A NASA image of Patagonia in the winter

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117 Los Caracoles passes though the Andes Mountains between Chile and Argentina.

URUGUAY:

URUGUAY Population: 3.3 million Ethnic Groups: White 88%, Mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent) Languages: Spanish (official), Portunol , and Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mixes) Religion: 81% Christian, 17% atheist or agnostic Literacy: 98% Education: 16 years

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Economy of Uruguay – characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated work force, and high levels of social spending.

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120 3/4 of the country in Uruguay is grassland, ideal for raising cattle and sheep. Uruguay has more cattle than people. It is one of the world’s largest exporters of wool.

PARAGUAY:

PARAGUAY Size: Slightly smaller than California Population: 6.5 million Ethnic Groups: Mestizo 95% Languages: Spanish (official), Guarani (official) Religion: 97% Christian Literacy: 94% Education: 12 years One of the region's poorest and least-developed countries

CHILE:

CHILE Population: 17 million Ethnic Groups: White and White-Amerindian 95.4%, Mapuche 4% Languages: Spanish (official), Mapudungun, German, English Religion: 86% Christian Literacy: 96% Education: average of 15 years

Economy of Chile:

Economy of Chile a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions Chile is the world’s largest exporter of copper Fruits grow well in the central valleys, including peaches, nectarines, apples, pears, and plums. Some of the best vineyards in the world are located near Santiago.

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Mapuches make up Chile's largest ethnic group, pproximately 600,000. They have been struggling for independence for centuries. Most of them live on reservations in southern Chile.

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10/13/2012 125 Punta Arenas, Chile is the southernmost city in the world. It serves as a base for Antarctic expeditions and oil exploration. It lies under a hole in the ozone layer.

ARGENTINA:

ARGENTINA 126 Population: 42 million Ethnic Groups: White (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, Languages: Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous Religion: 94% Christian, but most of those are non-practicing Catholics Literacy: 97% Education: average of 16 years (college education is free at state universities)

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127 Economy of Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Many of the major car companies have plants in Argentina. This is GM chassis in production. Sunflowers are grown to produce sunflower oil.

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Pampas – fertile lowlands, covering almost 300,000 sq miles. High winds and wildfires are common. Gauchos are the SA version of cowboys and are a symbol of Argentinean tradition.

Tierra del Fuego – an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The islands are shared between Chile and Argentina.:

Tierra del Fuego – an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The islands are shared between Chile and Argentina.

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10/13/2012 The Falkland Islands – an archipelago of almost 800 islands about 300 miles east of South America. It is a territory of the U.K., although Argentina attempted to invade it in 1982. Only about 3,000 people live here.

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