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Nouvelle-France The French in America to 1760


Introduction 15 th century navigation- pioneer sailing routes to Asia and America Looking for exotic products from the Far East. In 1492, Columbus landed and was disappointed as he thought it was the shores of China(main interest) The “New World” was not ideal as they wanted to find away around this massive land.

Who Came to the New World:

Who Came to the New World Britain Spain Portugal France-feared they would be left behind for world trade.



The Vikings:

The Vikings The Vikings were the first people to come to Canada. They landed at L’anse aux Meadows around 1000 AD and encountered Beothuk people. They did not make a permanent settlement.


Introduction 15 th century navigation- pioneer sailing routes to Asia and America Looking for exotic products from the Far East. In 1492, Columbus landed and was disappointed as he thought it was the shores of China (main interest) The “New World” was not ideal as they wanted to find away around this massive land.

Land Ho!:

Land Ho! Britain: wealth and indentured labourers Spain: passage for spices Portugal: spices, territory, organized slave trade France-feared they would be left behind for world trade. Settlement necessary to ensure imperial supremcy.

John Cabot:

John Cabot John Cabot came to Canada for England in 1497 to look for the Northwest passage. Instead he found vast amounts of cod off the coast of Newfoundland. He reported back to England of this discovery, and over the next 100 years many countries would be fishing off the Grand Banks.

France and Cartier:

France and Cartier France sent an expedition in 1534. John Cartier headed this expedition Cartier headed 3 voyages from 1534-1542 and penetrated from the St. Lawrence river to Montreal He also established a settlement in Quebec

Jacques Cartier:

Jacques Cartier He encountered Aboriginal people at Hochelaga (present day Montreal) and Stadacona. Cartier and his men brought Aboriginal people back to France to demonstrate the quality of slaves they would make. They died of European disease on the way back to France.

Henry Hudson:

Henry Hudson Henry Hudson looking for the Northwest passage. The Northwest Passage would be a faster trade route to China. The spice trade was very profitable at this time. Eventually made it to Hudson’s Bay ( Hudson’s Bay Company)

John Guy:

John Guy John Guy looking for the Northwest Passage. Hit Baffin Island instead.

Life in Nouvelle-France:

Life in Nouvelle-France 1608-1763

Early Life in Quebec:

Early Life in Quebec Climate was sever “The Great River,” or the St. Lawrence never lead to the East as Cartier hoped France abandoned colonization for 65 years. In the summer France came to NFLD to fish and then trading began with the First Nations. The fish and furs forced France back to the New World.

New France: An Overview of Life:

New France: An Overview of Life Geography Economy of New France Church of New France Royal Government and Soldiers Life on the farm Transportation Marriage and the family The 13 colonies

Geography of Nouvelle-France:

Geography of Nouvelle-France Population was very small By 1740, the territory of New France went all the way to the Gulf of Mexico ( La Salle and Cavelier) This Southern region was called Louisana Draw on board pg. 75

Geography: 2 schools of thought:

Geography: 2 schools of thought Exploration Wanted to force the British out past the mountains and expand territory. “We must arm and support them against those who are in the English interest and force the latter back beyond the mountains” Exploration won but was a bad move as the territory became to large to support Settlement Colbert wanted to settle and form the area into towns and villages so they could defend themselves. France should have listened to Colbert.

The Economy of Nouvelle-France:

The Economy of Nouvelle-France New France was a colony which meant it was not an independent entity. It belonged to the mother country A colony’s main job is to support the the mother country and provided it with riches.

Economy cont’d:

Economy cont’d 2 main goals : 1. Fur trade provided new raw materials 2. Provide useful markets for goods produced in the mother country eg. Cloth, hardware.

Economy cont’d:

Economy cont’d What is mercantilism ? New France provided France with the raw materials and then sent them to France where they became manufactured goods. France then sold the manufactured goods back to the colony. This system made the colonies a profitable economic enterprise.

Advantages and Disadvantages to Mercantilism:

Advantages and Disadvantages to Mercantilism Advantage : -produced wealth and consumed goods for the mother country Disadvantage: - the development of the colony was always in the interest of the mother country and not the colony. Trade with other places was forbidden

Economy: Fur Trade :

Economy: Fur Trade Fur trade: main economic trade of New France. Furs only important export of colony Quest for furs forced France further into the continent causing alliances with First Nation Groups and competition with other European countries. First Nations valued metal wear (summer trading)

Fur trade: Warfare:

Fur trade: Warfare Fur trade caused warfare as First Nation groups were fighting against each other to be the main trading partner with Europeans. Europeans were fighting against each other to control the trading routes Huron were the main partners of the French (Champlain)

Fur trade: Warfare:

Fur trade: Warfare Iroquois fought against the Huron. France was fighting with the Iroquois for over 100 years. In 1649, the Iroquois destroyed Huronia driving the inhabitants into exile. They threatened to drive the French out. However in 1666, King Louis XIV sent an army to attack the Iroquois and peace was made.

Huron Iroquois Wars :

Huron Iroquois Wars By 1649 the Iroquois are dependant on the fur trade, but they have wiped out their own supplies. The Iroquois start to move north to trap furs near the Huron people. REMEMBER: The Iroquois have a lot of guns. They have not been exposed to as many diseases as the Huron because there are not any Europeans living among them. Only Christianized Hurons get guns. The Iroquois win a series of battles because of these reasons. They settle in the area and the fur trade starts to move west. The French need a new plan because the Iroquois are trading with the English, and the Huron people are basically non-existent.

The Great Peace (1701) Aboriginal Peace:

The Great Peace (1701) Aboriginal Peace One of the best examples of diplomacy among Aboriginal people. Over 50 Aboriginal groups meet at Quebec to establish a lasting peace between the Aboriginal groups. The Iroquois promise to be neutral in any conflict between the French and English. They also agree to be neutral for any trading relationship. Peace comes at a great price : lost their land and had to move to new territory which is not always neutral. starving and dying from disease. This is largely due to the dependence on the fur trade and disease

Fur Trade: Coureurs de Bois:

Fur Trade: Coureurs de Bois Runners of the woods They left there farms in the summer and meet the Aboriginal trappers at their hunting grounds. They were responsible for transporting the furs from the interior to the colony

Couruers de Bois:

Couruers de Bois Advantages The furs they produced enriched the colony Help secure loyalty with Aboriginals Adventured further inland. Disadvantages Authorities did not like them neglecting their farms They lead a footloose life. Officials could not enforce laws against them as they could slip into the wilderness Independent traders working for own profit not colony.

Fur Trade: Mad Hatter:

Fur Trade: Mad Hatter The beaver fur was removed from the skin and was masked together with other adhesives. The “Hatter” (the name used for a hat maker) would add mercury. The chemicals in mercury would get underneath the hatter’s finger nails and into his skin. The chemicals would make him go crazy hence they were known as a MAD HATTER!!

Fur Trade: 2 main Purposes:

Fur Trade: 2 main Purposes Economic -increase revenue to support the growth of France and to support the constant wars against Britain Military - with the help of the Aboriginals each country could expand further westward and defeat the other country

Fur Trade: Groseillers and Radisson:

Fur Trade: Groseillers and Radisson In 1660 Groseillers and Radisson learned of a “northern sea” that would save a trader a long journey They proposed the idea to the French King. In 1668, they went to the British King. They set sail on the Nonsuch and entered the Hudson Bay. In 1670, the Hudson Bay Company (HBC) was formed. The King gave the HBC a monopoly as they controlled all the land where the rivers drained into the Hudson Bay.

Fur Trade: British vs. French:

Fur Trade: British vs. French The British relied on the Aboriginals to bring the furs to them. The French went out and got the furs What would be more profitable?

Fur Trade: Development of Industry and Trade:

Fur Trade: Development of Industry and Trade Fish was another demanding resource Catholics ate a lot of fish due to religion Colonies were not intended to have industries of their own that produced goods available to the mother country from other sources.

Fur Trade: Development of Industry and Trade:

Fur Trade: Development of Industry and Trade North Atlantic Triangle New France France Antilles Africa Furs wood, Fish Manufactured goods Sugar Rum Tobacco Fish Flour Wood Manufactured Goods Sugar, rum, tobacco

After Champlain Dies:

After Champlain Dies English are settling South of the St. Lawrence in the thirteen colonies Acadia (present day Nova Scotia) is controlled by the French New France has a very low population The Recollects are already in New France trying to Christianize Algonquian people. The Iroquois are not being Christianized at this point. They are trading with the English and Dutch south of the St. Lawrence.

Church in Nouvelle-France:

Church in Nouvelle-France

The Church in Nouvelle-France :

The Church in Nouvelle-France Religious outpost Purpose to convert North Americans to Christianity Missionaries among the first colonists Jesuits arrived in 1625, most aggressive missionaries. Jesuits concentrated on the Huron and lived with them by 1634

The Jesuits :

The Jesuits The Jesuits were French Missionaries sent to New France to spread Christianity to Aboriginal People after the Recollects fail. They wanted to “humanize” the “savages” to make them suitable citizens for New France. They did this by isolating Aboriginal People from their groups, and removing them from Aboriginal way of life (spirituality and nomadic lifestyle.) They formally educate the Hurons. Their hopes for mass conversion failed, however they did bring disease, the break up of families, and conflict.

The Ursuline Sisters :

The Ursuline Sisters A female version of the Jesuit order. They set up an all female school for Aboriginal girls in Huronia. They convinced already Christianized Aboriginal men to send their daughters to the school.

Missionaries and the Huron:

Missionaries and the Huron Huron resisted the Jesuits A smallpox epidemic swept through Huronia killing thousands. The Huron blamed the missionaries and wanted them to leave. However, some believed it was a sign of what would happen if you did not convert.

Missionaries and the Huron:

Missionaries and the Huron In fear of losing the trade and of death by not converting to Christianity many of the Huron converted. Missionaries blamed the lack of conversions on the Aboriginals nomadic lifestyle. They felt the only way to succeed was through settlement (Farming)

Church and Daily Life:

Church and Daily Life Church=religious and social centre Colonist support their church by giving them a portion of their income called a tithe . At the head of the church was the Bishop. Religious comminutes operated the schools Nursing sisters or Nuns established hospitals. Nuns cared for the poor, orphans or families who did not have support($)

Royal Government and Soldiers:

Royal Government and Soldiers Nouvelle-France

Government and Soldiers:

Government and Soldiers 2 most important people: governor and intendant.They were appointed by the King Intendant : looked after internal affairs (roads, courts, social welfare) Governor : responsible for external affairs (military) Bishop : in charge of the Roman Catholic Church. Oversaw Healthcare, education, and converting the Aboriginal people. New France was a heavily militarized society

Government and Soldiers:

Government and Soldiers Every male was a soldier Population was organized into military units Each Parish had a company of militia consisting of men between 16-60 Captain was chosen by the inhabitants, in peace times they acted as a spokesperson

Important Officials to Nouvelle-France:

Important Officials to Nouvelle-France Minister of Colonial Affairs for France Jean-Baptiste Colbert : 1. Build a colonial empire with a navy to defend it. 2. Halt expansion west. He doesn’t think that colony can defend itself. 3. Colonies can fund France’s military, pay off French debt through the mercantile policy. 4. Don’t want the colony to become too powerful, so they make the government officials answer to the King instead of allowing them to have their own ruling body.

Sovereign Council:

Sovereign Council The Sovereign Council was the ruling body in New France . Sovereign Council was an appointed body modeled after French Parliament to serve as the court, Included an Intendant, a Governor, a Bishop and an attorney general.


Intendant Intendant The first Intendant to arrive in New France is Jean Talon. Responsible for justice, finance, and the welfare of the colony. Usually a professional such as a lawyer. Ran the day-to-day affairs of the colony.


Governor Governor The first Governor of New France is Frontenac. Responsible for military and external relations. Usually a noble and represented the King directly.


Bishop Bishop In charge of the Roman Catholic Church Oversaw Healthcare, education, and converting the Aboriginal people.

Law in Nouvelle-France:

Law in Nouvelle-France Customs of Paris is the civil law of New France Criminal law includes: crimes against God, crimes against the crown, crimes against people and property.

Life on the Farm:

Life on the Farm Nouvelle-France

Life on the Farm:

Life on the Farm 2 classes in New France: Ruling elite and Farmers. The majority of the people were farmers. Farms were characteristically long and narrow.

Indentured Servants:

Indentured Servants Who are they? Men who came to New France to work for a certain amount of years (3-5) under a contract from France. Most of these men were criminals, poor, unmarried, or unemployable in France. What they received : Freedom: many go back to Europe They were promised food, a small salary (half of which was saved for them until after their term of employment,) passage back to France. Drawbacks: These men could not marry, trade for themselves, or farm.

Life on the Farm:

Life on the Farm The farms were established by the river(main arteries) The second row of farms was called the rang . This system of occupying the land allowed for roads to be built. Farmers built their houses at the foot of their lots close to the river or road.

Life on the Farm:

Life on the Farm Mainly wheat growers Next to house the wife and children tended a large vegetable garden, with tobacco patch in one corner and an orchard.

Life on Farm: Income:

Life on Farm: Income Farming never made a lot of money Farmers supplemented income by: Woodcutting Fishing Hunting Maple Syrup

Life on the Farm:Seigneurial System:

Life on the Farm:Seigneurial System Land was owned by the Crown Land was then granted to landlord who were required to perform certain duties. This method of landholding was called the Seigneurial System Landlords were called the Seignuer Draw on board system. NOTE-farm would further be divided among sons

Seigneur Duties and Rights:

Seigneur Duties and Rights Duties Conserve oak trees for his majesties ships Mines and minerals Make a place of residence Clear the land Roads for public use Leave sandbars open for fishing (except his own) Subdivide land and settle farmers on it. Rights Fish Hunt Trade with Aboriginals Payments they received were their own

Farmers duties to the Seigneur/Church:

Farmers duties to the Seigneur/Church Construct a house Cultivate the land Pay annual taxes Payment of portion of grain and fish 3-4 days of free labour on the seigneur’s land Give portion of crop to church as Tithe

Seigneurial System: Summary:

Seigneurial System: Summary Positive Encouraged settlement Seigneur’s were agents of the colony System designed to produce wealth among landowners Negative Seigneur’s did not gain high status like in France Farmers could easily leave land for fur trade

Towns in Nouvelle-France:

Towns in Nouvelle-France

Towns in Nouvelle-France:

Towns in Nouvelle-France 2 main towns: Quebec and Montreal Quebec : divided into 2 sections: A. Lower Town by the water docks and warehouses B. Upper Town which was the wealthier part of the city -classy, welcomed ships from Europe, centre of government and religion. Montreal : Frontier town - Backdoor-linked colony to interior - Commerce was fur trade

Transportation in Nouvelle-France:

Transportation in Nouvelle-France Confined by water Used canoes or sailing crafts Settlement caused roads In winter roads were not ploughed Waterway still best method Every family had at least 2 horses: one for work and one for pleasure Note : Riding fast was a popular recreation. Laws had to be passed to control speeding. If bowled over a pedestrian you received a fine.

Marriage and the Family:

Marriage and the Family Nouvelle-France

Marriage and the Family:

Marriage and the Family Few careers for women Young girls were better educated Teenage girls were hired as domestic servants. Few became nuns Women got married when they became of age(12-16 yrs old) Women remarried when husband died or looked after farm

Marriage and the Family:

Marriage and the Family Women were influential in the economic life of colony Colony wanted people to marry young and have many children (1 child every 2 years during childbearing years) Many children died due to disease or military Average # of children:6 Boys entered the military at 16 yrs of age

Marriage and the Family:

Marriage and the Family If could not support children family would give them up as servants to the wealthy. Children did not have childhood: Cleaned Barns Tended garden and animals Household chores Tended the fire Brought fuel Carried water from river

Marriage and Family:

Marriage and Family Parents wanted their children to marry someone who is wealthy When one child marries into a family of status or wealth the entire family improves due to alliances.

Filles du Roi:

Filles du Roi Who are they? Women sent to the colony to marry men already living there. Mostly young women who were orphaned in France. The orphanage would be paid to send healthy girls over 14 who would bear children for the colony. Benefits: Families were offered bonus money for having large families of 10 or more children. Also called “Daughters of the King.”

13 Colonies:

13 Colonies British Colonies

13 Colonies:

13 Colonies Arrived in 1607 Jamestown on Chesapeake Bay Instead of fur trade, tobacco

13 Colonies:

13 Colonies 3 groups New England Mass, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island -Based on farming, fishing, logging 2. Middle Colonies -NY, NJ, Pennsylvania, Delaware -Rich agriculture area, timber and iron

13 Colonies:

13 Colonies 3. Southern Colony -Maryland, Virginia, The Carolinas and Georgia Economy-tobacco used blacks as slaves

Population: 13 colonies vs. Nouvelle-France:

Population: 13 colonies vs. Nouvelle-France Year New France* 13 Colonies 1660 3 000 90 000 1710 18 000 331 711 1720 24 474 446 185 1750 53 000 1 170 760 1760 64 041 1 593 625 *Kings Daughters

Reason for Disparity:

Reason for Disparity Landscape Milder climate Fertile Land Fur trade did not require large population Immigrants more opportunity to survive British did not follow mercantilism as much 13 colonies traded crops with Europe

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