william shakespeare

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autobiography of William Shakespeare

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William Shakespeare:

William Shakespeare

Autobiography of William Shakespeare:

Autobiography of William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's grave :

Shakespeare's grave

Title page of the First Folio, 1623. Copper engraving of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout. :

Title page of the First Folio , 1623. Copper engraving of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout .

A recently garlanded statue of William Shakespeare in Lincoln Park, Chicago, typical of many created in the 19th and early 20th century. :

A recently garlanded statue of William Shakespeare in Lincoln Park, Chicago, typical of many created in the 19th and early 20th century.

John Shakespeare's house, believed to be Shakespeare's birthplace, in Stratford-upon-Avon.:

John Shakespeare's house, believed to be Shakespeare's birthplace, in Stratford-upon-Avon.

William Shakespeare :

William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (baptized 26 April 1564; died 23 April 1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His surviving works, including some collaboration, consist of about 38plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.

Early life:

Early life William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare , an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield , and Mary Arden , the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer. He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptized there on 26 April 1564. His actual birth date remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, St George's Day. This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholar's mistake, has proved appealing to biographers, since Shakespeare died 23 April 1616. He was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.

Plays :

Plays Most playwrights of the period typically collaborated with others at some point, and critics agree that Shakespeare did the same, mostly early and late in his career. Some attributions, such as Titus Andronicus and the early history plays, remain controversial, while The Two Noble Kinsmen and the lost Cardenio have well-attested contemporary documentation. Textual evidence also supports the view that several of the plays were revised by other writers after their original composition.

Performances :

Performances It is not clear for which companies Shakespeare wrote his early plays. The title page of the 1594 edition of Titus Andronicus reveals that the play had been acted by three different troupes. After the plagues of 1592–3, Shakespeare's plays were performed by his own company at The Theatre and the Curtain in Shoreditch , north of the Thames. Londoners flocked there to see the first part of Henry IV , Leonard Diggesrecording, "Let but Falstaff come, Hal, Poins, the rest...and you scarce shall have a room".

Textual sources :

Textual sources In 1623, John Heminges and Henry Condell , two of Shakespeare's friends from the King's Men, published the First Folio , a collected edition of Shakespeare's plays. It contained 36 texts, including 18 printed for the first time. Many of the plays had already appeared in quarto versions—flimsy books made from sheets of paper folded twice to make four leaves. No evidence suggests that Shakespeare approved these editions, which the First Folio describes as "stol'n and surreptitious copies".

Sonnets :

Sonnets Published in 1609, the Sonnets were the last of Shakespeare's non-dramatic works to be printed. Scholars are not certain when each of the 154 sonnets was composed, but evidence suggests that Shakespeare wrote sonnets throughout his career for a private readership. Even before the two unauthorized sonnets appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim in 1599, Francis Meres had referred in 1598 to Shakespeare's "sugred Sonnets among his private friends". Few analysts believe that the published collection follows Shakespeare's intended sequence.

Style :

Style Shakespeare's first plays were written in the conventional style of the day. He wrote them in a stylized language that does not always spring naturally from the needs of the characters or the drama. The poetry depends on extended, sometimes elaborate metaphors and conceits, and the language is often rhetorical—written for actors to declaim rather than speak. The grand speeches in Titus Andronicus , in the view of some critics, often hold up the action, for example; and the verse in The Two Gentlemen of Verona has been described as stilted.

Authorship :

Authorship Around 150 years after Shakespeare's death, doubts began to be expressed about the authorship of the works attributed to him. Proposed alternative candidates include Francis Bacon , Christopher Marlowe , and Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford . Several "group theories" have also been proposed. Only a small minority of academics believe there is reason to question the traditional attribution, but interest in the subject, particularly the Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship , continues into the 21st century.

Religion :

Religion Some scholars claim that members of Shakespeare's family were Catholics , at a time when Catholic practice was against the law. Shakespeare's mother, Mary Arden , certainly came from a pious Catholic family. The strongest evidence might be a Catholic statement of faith signed by John Shakespeare , found in 1757 in the rafters of his former house in Henley Street. The document is now lost, however, and scholars differ as to its authenticity. In 1591 the authorities reported that John Shakespeare had missed church "for fear of process for debt", a common Catholic excuse.

MADE BY-RAHUL PATEL CLASS-IX:

MADE BY-RAHUL PATEL CLASS-IX

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