Slide 1: Theories of Motivation Motivation : Motivation Factors within and outside an organism that cause it to behave a certain way at a certain time
Biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior.
Play “What is Motivation?” (4:09) Segment #18 from Psychology: The Human Experience. Three Basic Characteristics of Motivation : Three Basic Characteristics of Motivation Activation is demonstrated by the initiation or production of behavior.
Persistence is demonstrated by continued efforts or the determination to achieve a particular goal, often in the face of obstacles.
Intensity is seen in the greater vigor of responding that usually accompanies motivated behavior Slide 4: Theories of Motivation Instinct—motives are innate
Drive—biological needs as motivation
Incentive—extrinsic things push or pull behavior
Arousal—people are motivated to maintain optimum level of arousal
Humanistic—hierarchy of needs
Competence - demonstrating competence and exercising control in a situation
Achievement – directed toward excelling, succeeding, or outperforming others at some task
Self-Determination – Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation Historic Explanations: Instincts : Historic Explanations: Instincts Instinct Theory : Instinct Theory Emerging in the late 1800s, instinct theories contended that certain human behaviors are innate and due to evolutionary programming
A complex, inherited, unlearned behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species
Animals display automatic and instinctual behavior patterns called fixed action patterns
William James listed 37 instincts.
Instinct theories merely describe and label behaviors rather than actually explaining them. James’ Instincts : James’ Instincts Historic Explanations: Drives : Historic Explanations: Drives Drives : Drives Beginning in the 1920s
Organism feels tension created by imbalances
“Pushes” an organism to restore the balance, typically reducing the drive and restoring homeostasis
Part of drive-reduction theory Drive-Reduction Theory : Drive-Reduction Theory The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
Eating and drinking are examples of drive-reducing behaviors.
Can’t explain why people often engage in behaviors that serve to increase tension and physiological arousal Slide 11: Drives as Tissue Needs Homeostasis—the constancy of internal conditions that the body must actively maintain
Drives may be due to an upset in homeostasis, inducing behavior to correct the imbalance
Animals do behave in accordance with their tissue needs (e.g., increasing or decreasing caloric intake, drive for salt)
However, homeostasis cannot explain all drives Drive-Reduction Theory : Drive-Reduction Theory Drive-Reduction Theory : Drive-Reduction Theory Drive-Reduction Theory : Drive-Reduction Theory Incentive Theories : Incentive Theories External Rewards as Motivators Incentive Theory : Incentive Theory Behavior motivated by the “pull” of external goals, such as rewards, money and recognition.
Drew heavily from well-established learning principles, such as reinforcement, and the work of learning theorists, such as Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, and Tolman.
Tolman also stressed the importance of cognitive factors in learning and motivation, especially the expectation that a particular behavior will lead to a particular goal.
Fails to explain behaviors that are not primarily motivated by any kind of external incentive Biological Explanations: Arousal Theories : Biological Explanations: Arousal Theories Slide 18: Arousal Theory Levels of alertness and responsiveness
People are motivated to maintain an optimum level of arousal—neither too high nor too low
Curiosity motive—helps us understand our environment Yerkes-Dodson Law : Yerkes-Dodson Law The theory that a degree of psychological arousal helps performance, but only up to a certain point
Optimum level of arousal depends on the difficulty of the task.
Each person has an optimum level of stimulation they like to maintain. Yerkes-Dodson Law : Yerkes-Dodson Law Slide 21: Sensation Seeking A person high in sensation seeking tends to look for exciting (and sometimes risky) activities Humanistic Theory : Humanistic Theory Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Slide 23: Humanistic Theories Motivation is affected by how we perceive the world, how we think about ourselves, and the degree to which the environment is supportive and encouraging
Abraham Maslow suggested that motives are divided into several levels from basic survival needs to psychological and self-fulfillment needs Hierarchy of Needs : Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s pyramid of human needs begins at the base with physiological needs, and then proceeds through safety needs to psychological needs.
Higher-level needs won’t become active until lower-level needs have been satisfied. Self-Actualization : Self-Actualization According to Maslow, the need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential
Maslow’s notion that we must satisfy needs at one level before moving to the next level has not been supported by research. Clinical Explanations: Achievement & Competence : Clinical Explanations: Achievement & Competence Competence : Competence Competence motivation—behavior aimed at demonstrating competence and exerting control in a situation
Motivated to show yourself that you can do a challenging task. Slide 30: Achievement Motivation Achievement motivation—behavior aimed at excelling, succeeding, or outperforming others at some activity
A desire for significant accomplishment
A desire for the mastery of things, people, or ideas
A desire for attaining a high standard
Neo-Freudian, Henry Murray (1893-1988) first established the concept of achievement motivation. Used Thematic Apperception Tests to measure it. Achievement & Success : Achievement & Success Measures of achievement motivation generally correlate well with various areas of success.
People who score high in achievement motivation expend their greatest efforts on moderately challenging tasks
High Achievers tend to display original thinking, seek expert advice, and value feedback about their performance. Achievement & Culture : Achievement & Culture In individualistic cultures, the need to achieve emphasizes personal, individual success
In collectivistic cultures, achievements are viewed as a way of bringing glory to one’s family, group, or country. Achievement Motivation : Achievement Motivation Play “Self-Efficacy” (5:00) Segment #19 from Psychology: The Human Experience. Cognitive Explanations: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation : Cognitive Explanations: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Slide 35: Self-Determination Theory Proposed by E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan
Optimal human functioning can occur only if the psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness (social relationships) are met.
Unlike Maslow, they define autonomy as the need to feel that your activities are self-chosen and self-endorsed.
Maslow said autonomy is the need to feel independent & focused on your own potential & development rather than opinions of others. Slide 36: Self-Determination Theory Autonomy—need to determine, control, and organize one’s own behavior and goals
Competence—need to effectively learn and master challenging tasks
Relatedness—need to feel attached to others
People who have satisfied these needs actively internalize and integrate different external motivators as part of their identity and values Extrinsic Motivation : Extrinsic Motivation A desire to perform a behavior because of promised rewards or threats of punishment
What things are you extrinsically motivated to do? Intrinsic Motivation : Intrinsic Motivation A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
What things are you intrinsically motivated to do? Clinical Explanations: Motivating Ourselves and Others : Clinical Explanations: Motivating Ourselves and Others Developing Self Motivation : Developing Self Motivation Associate your high achievement with positive emotions
Connect your achievement with your efforts
Raise your expectations Motivating Others : Motivating Others Cultivate intrinsic motivation
Attend to individual motives
Set specific, challenging goals
Choose an appropriate leadership style
Social leadership Task Leadership : Task Leadership Goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention Social Leadership : Social Leadership Group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support Leadership and Persuasion : Leadership and Persuasion Play “The Power of Persuasion” (11:17) Segment #29 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition).