ROBOTIC SURGERY : ROBOTIC SURGERY Slide 2: Robotic surgery is the use of robots in performing surgery.
Three major advances aided by surgical robots have been remote surgery, minimally invasive surgery and unmanned surgery.
Some major advantages of robotic surgery are precision, miniaturization, smaller incisions, decreased blood loss, less pain, and quicker healing time.
Further advantages are articulation beyond normal manipulation and three-dimensional magnification. Slide 3: HISTORY
In 1985 a robot, the PUMA 560, was used to place a needle for a brain biopsy using CT guidance. In 1988, the PROBOT, developed at Imperial College London, was used to perform prostatic surgery.
Da Vinci Surgical System and Computer Motion with the AESOP and the ZEUS robotic surgical system.
Intuitive Surgical bought Computer Motion in 2003; ZEUS is no longer being actively marketed. Slide 4: The da Vinci Surgical System comprises three components: a surgeon’s console, a patient-side robotic cart with 4 arms manipulated by the surgeon (one to control the camera and three to manipulate instruments), and a high-definition 3D vision system. Articulating surgical instruments are mounted on the robotic arms which are introduced into the body through cannulas. The surgeon’s hand movements are scaled and filtered to eliminate hand tremor then translated into micro-movements of the proprietary instruments. The camera used in the system provides a true stereoscopic picture transmitted to a surgeon's console. Slide 5: In 1997 a reconnection of the fallopian tubes operation was performed successfully in Cleveland using ZEUS.
In May 1998, Dr. Friedrich-Wilhelm Mohr using the Da Vinci surgical robot performed the first robotically assisted heart bypass at the Leipzig Heart Centre in Germany.
On 2 September 1999, Dr. Randall Wolf and Dr. Robert Michler performed the first robotically assisted heart bypass in the USA at The Ohio State University.
In October 1999 the world's first surgical robotics beating heart coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) was performed in Canada by Dr. Douglas Boyd and Dr. Reiza Rayman using the ZEUS surgical robot. Slide 6: In 2001, Prof. Marescaux used the "Zeus" robot to perform gall bladder surgery on a patient in Strasbourg, France while in New York.
In September 2001, Dr. Michel Gagner used the Zeus robotic system to perform a cholecystectomy on a woman in Strasbourg, France while in New York.
In February 2008, Dr. Mohan S. Gundeti of the University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital performed the first robotic pediatric neurogenic bladder reconstruction. The operation was performed on a 10-year-old girl. Slide 7: In January 2009, Dr. Todd Tillmanns reported results of the largest multi-institutional study on the use of da-Vinci robotic surgical system in gynecologic oncology and included learning curves for current and new users as a method to assess acquisition of their skills using the device.
In January 2009, the first all robotic-assisted kidney transplant was performed at Saint Barnabas Medical Center in Livingston, New Jersey by Dr. Stuart Geffner. The same team performed eight more fully robotic-assisted kidney transplants in the next six-month period. Artificial Intelligence and the dawn of Fully Autonomous Robot Surgeons : Artificial Intelligence and the dawn of Fully Autonomous Robot Surgeons In May 2006 the first AI doctor conducted unassisted surgery on a 47 year old male to correct heart arrythmia, the results were rated as better than an above average human surgeon. The machine had a database of 10,000 similar operations and so in the words of its designers was "more than qualified to operate on any patient", the designers believe that robots can replace half of all surgeons within 15 years. Applications : Applications General surgery
Many general surgical procedures can now be performed using the state of the art robotic surgical system. In 2007, the University of Illinois at Chicago medical team, lead by Prof. Pier Cristoforo Giulianotti, performed the world's first ever robotic pancreatectomy and also the Midwests fully robotic Whipple surgery, which is the most complicated and demanding procedure of the abdomen. In April 2008, the same team of surgeons performed the world's first fully minimally invasive liver resection for living donor transplantation, removing 60% of the patient's liver, yet allowing him to leave the hospital just a couple of days after the procedure, in very good condition. Slide 10: Cardiothoracic Surgery
Robot-assisted MIDCAB and Endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) surgeries are being performed with the da Vinci system. Mitral valve repairs and replacements have been performed. East Carolina University, Greenville(Dr W. Randolph Chitwood), Saint Joseph's Hospital, Atlanta(Dr Douglas A. Murphy), and Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati(Dr J. Michael Smith) have popularized this procedure and proved its durability with multiple publications. Slide 11: PLACED INSIDE THE HUMAN BODY FOR RECORDING THE FUNCTIONS OF INTERNAL ORGANS Slide 12: ROBOT USED FOR SCANNING PERSONS Slide 13: ADVANCED DAVINCI ROBOT Slide 14: A TOOL USED FOR PERFORMING SURGICAL OPERATIONS Slide 15: A DOCTOR WORKING WITH ROBOT