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The term may refer to a personal transportation vehicle, such as an automobile, or any other vehicle that uses hydrogen in a similar fashion, such as an aircraft. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy (torque) in one of two methods: combustion, or electrochemical conversion in a fuel-cell: In hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles, the hydrogen is combusted in engines in fundamentally the same method as traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. In fuel-cell conversion, the hydrogen is reacted with oxygen to produce water and electricity, the latter being used to power an electric traction motor. Hydrogen fuel does not occur naturally on Earth and thus is not an energy source, but is an energy carrier. It can be made from a number of sources, currently it is most frequently made from methane or other fossil fuels. Hydrogen production via electrolysis of water is inefficient and expensive and is rarely used. Many companies are working to develop technologies that can efficiently exploit the potential of hydrogen energy. INTRODUCTION: Slide 3: Vehicles Buses, trains, PHB bicycle, canal boat (hydrogen), cargo bikes, golf carts, motorcycles, wheelchairs, ships, airplanes, submarines, and rockets can already run on hydrogen, in various forms. NASA uses hydrogen to launch Space Shuttles into space. There is even a working toy model car that runs on solar power, using a regenerative fuel cell to store energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen gas. It can then convert the fuel back into water to release the solar energy. The current land speed record for a hydrogen-powered vehicle is 286.476 mph (461.038 km/h) set by Ohio State University's Buckeye Bullet 2, which achieved a "flying-mile" speed of 280.007 mph (450.628 km/h) at the Bonneville Salt Flats in August 2008. For production-style vehicles, the current record for a hydrogen-powered vehicle is 333.38 km/h (207.2 mph) set by a prototype Ford Fusion Hydrogen 999 Fuel Cell Race Car at Bonneville Salt Flats in Wendover, Utah in August 2007. It was accompanied by a large compressed oxygen tank to increase power. Honda has also created a concept called the , which may be able to beat that record if put into production. Slide 4: Automobiles Main articles: List of fuel cell vehicles and List of hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors Ford Edge hydrogen-electric plug-in hybrid concept Many companies are currently researching the feasibility of building hydrogen cars, and most of the automobile manufacturers had begun developing hydrogen cars (see list of fuel cell vehicles). However, the Ford Motor Company has dropped its plans to develop hydrogen cars, stating that "The next major step in Ford’s plan is to increase over time the volume of electrified vehicles". Similarly, French Renault-Nissan announced in February 2009 that it is cancelling its hydrogen car R&D efforts. In the same month Nissan started testing a new FC vehicle in Japan. Most hydrogen cars are currently only available in demonstration models or in a lease construction in limited numbers and are not yet ready for general public use. The estimated number of hydrogen-powered cars in the United States was 200 as of October 2009, mostly in California.Funding has come from both private and government sources. Daimler had planned to begin its FC vehicle production in 2009 with the aim of 100,000 vehicles in 2012-2013.In early 2008, Hyundai announced its intention to produce 500 FC vehicles by 2010 and to start mass production of its FC vehicles in 2012. Honda introduced its fuel cell vehicle in 1999 called the FCX and have since then introduced the second generation FCX Clarity. In 2007 at the Greater Los Angeles Auto Show, Honda unveiled the FCX Clarity, the first production model, and announced that the car would be available for lease beginning in the summer 2008. Limited marketing of the FCX Clarity, based on the 2007 concept model, began in June 2008 in the United States, and it was introduced in Japan in November 2008. The FCX Clarity is available in the U.S. only in Los Angeles Area, where 16 hydrogen filling stations are available, and until July 2009, only 10 drivers have leased the Clarity for US$600 a month. Honda stated that it could start mass producing vehicles based on the FCX concept by the year 2020. Slide 5: Rockets Rockets employ hydrogen because hydrogen gives the highest effective exhaust velocity as well as giving a lower net weight of propellant than other fuels. It performs particularly well on upper stages, although it has been used on lower stages as well, usually in conjunction with a dense fuel booster. The main disadvantage of hydrogen in this application is the low density and deeply cryogenic nature, requiring insulation- this makes the hydrogen tanks relatively heavy, which greatly offsets much of the otherwise overwhelming advantages for this application. The main advantage of hydrogen is that although the delta-v of a stage employing it is little different to a dense fuelled stage, the GLOW of the stage is rather less. This makes any lower stages lighter. Slide 6: Internal combustion vehicle Main articles: Hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicle and List of hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles Hydrogen internal combustion engine cars are different from hydrogen fuel cell cars. The hydrogen internal combustion car is a slightly modified version of the traditional gasoline internal combustion engine car. These hydrogen engines burn fuel in the same manner that gasoline engines do. Francois Isaac de Rivaz designed in 1807 the first internal combustion engine on hydrogen Paul Dieges patented In 1970 a modification to internal combustion engines which allowed a powered engine to run on hydrogen US patent 3844262. Mazda has developed Wankel engines that burn hydrogen. The advantage of using ICE (internal combustion engine) such as wankel and piston engines is that the cost of retooling for production is much lower. Existing-technology ICE can still be used to solve those problems where fuel cells are not a viable solution as yet, for example in cold-weather applications. HICE forklift trucks have been demonstrated based on converted diesel internal combustion engines with direct injection. Slide 7: Hydrogen does not come as a pre-existing source of energy like fossil fuels, but is first produced and then stored as a carrier, much like a battery. Hydrogen for vehicle uses needs to be produced using either renewable or non-renewable energy sources. A suggested benefit of large-scale deployment of hydrogen vehicles is that it could lead to decreased emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors. According to the Department of Energy "Producing hydrogen from natural gas does result in some greenhouse gas emissions. When compared to ICE vehicles using gasoline, however, fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen produced from natural gas reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 60%. While methods of hydrogen production that do not use fossil fuel would be more sustainable, currently renewable energy represents only a small percentage of energy generated, and power produced from renewable sources can be used in electric vehicles and for non-vehicle applications. The challenges facing the use of hydrogen in vehicles include production, storage, transport and distribution. The well-to-wheel efficiency for hydrogen, because of all these challenges will not exceed 25%. Slide 8: Production For more details on this topic, see Hydrogen production. The molecular hydrogen needed as an on-board fuel for hydrogen vehicles can be obtained through many thermochemical methods utilizing natural gas, coal (by a process known as coal gasification), liquefied petroleum gas, biomass (biomass gasification), by a process called thermolysis, or as a microbial waste product called biohydrogen or Biological hydrogen production. Most of today's hydrogen is produced using fossil energy resources, and 85% of hydrogen produced is used to remove sulfur from gasoline. Hydrogen can also be produced from water by electrolysis or by chemical reduction using chemical hydrides or aluminum. Current technologies for manufacturing hydrogen use energy in various forms, totaling between 25 and 50 percent of the higher heating value of the hydrogen fuel, used to produce, compress or liquefy, and transmit the hydrogen by pipeline or truck. Environmental consequences of the production of hydrogen from fossil energy resources include the emission of greenhouse gases, a consequence that would also result from the on-board reforming of methanol into hydrogen. Studies comparing the environmental consequences of hydrogen production and use in fuel-cell vehicles to the refining of petroleum and combustion in conventional automobile engines find a net reduction of ozone and greenhouse gases in favor of hydrogen. Hydrogen production using renewable energy resources would not create such emissions or, in the case of biomass, would create near-zero net emissions assuming new biomass is grown in place of that converted to hydrogen. However the same land could be used to create Biodiesel, usable with (at most) minor alterations to existing well developed and relatively efficient diesel engines. In either case, the scale of renewable energy production today is small and would need to be greatly expanded to be used in producing hydrogen for a significant part of transportation needs .As of December 2008, less than 3 percent of U.S. electricity was produced from renewable sources, not including dams. In a few countries, renewable sources are being used more widely to produce energy and hydrogen. For example, Iceland is using geothermal power to produce hydrogen, and Denmark is using wind. Slide 9: Bicycles Main article: PHB (bicycle) Pearl Hydrogen Power Sources of Shanghai, China, unveiled a hydrogen bicycle at the 9th China International Exhibition on Gas Technology, Equipment and Applications in 2007 Motorcycles and scooters ENV is developing electric motorcycles powered by a hydrogen fuel cell, including the Crosscage and . Other manufacturers as Vectrix are working on hydrogen scooters.Finally, hydrogen fuel cell-electric hybrid scooters are being made such as the FHybrid. Tractors A concept for a hydrogen powered tractor has been proposed. Airplanes For more details on this topic, see Hydrogen planes. The Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator powered by a hydrogen fuel cell Companies such as Boeing, , and the German Aerospace Center are pursuing hydrogen as fuel for airplanes. Unmanned hydrogen planes have been tested, and in February 2008 Boeing tested a manned flight of a small aircraft powered by a hydrogen fuel cell. The Times reported that "Boeing said that hydrogen fuel cells were unlikely to power the engines of large passenger jets but could be used as backup or auxiliary power units onboard." In Europe, the Reaction Engines A2 has been proposed to use the thermodynamic properties of liquid hydrogen to achieve very high speed, long distance (antipodal) flight by burning it in a precooled jet engine Slide 10: NGVs ICE-based CNG or LNG vehicles (Natural gas vehicles or NGVs) use Natural gas or Biogas as a fuel source. Natural gas has a higher energy density than hydrogen gas and has only water and carbon dioxide as waste products. Since the majority of home hydrogen refuelling systems use natural gas as a source for hydrogen, natural gas powered vehicles are easily demonstrated to have a lower carbon dioxide footprint. When using Biogas, NGVs become carbon neutral vehicles which run on animal waste.CNG vehicles have been available for several years, and there is sufficient infrastructure to provide refueling stations in addition to the home refueling systems. The ACEEE has rated the Honda Civic GX, which only uses compressed natural gas, as the greenest vehicle currently available. Slide 11: BEVs As Technology Review noted in June 2008, "Electric cars—and plug-in hybrid cars—have an enormous advantage over hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles in utilizing low-carbon electricity. That is because of the inherent inefficiency of the entire hydrogen fueling process, from generating the hydrogen with that electricity to transporting this diffuse gas long distances, getting the hydrogen in the car, and then running it through a fuel cell—all for the purpose of converting the hydrogen back into electricity to drive the same exact electric motor you'll find in an electric car." Thermodynamically, each additional step in the conversion process decreases the overall efficiency of the process. The Daily Mail in April 2009 reported "Gordon Murray, one of the world's leading automotive engineers, dismisses electric cars as 'too expensive and too heavy'.".(power-to-weight ratio) In a separate statement he says this of electric vehicles: "Electric vehicles certainly have a place in urban areas and niche, low volume products but with today’s battery technology they have a bad lifecycle footprint and again do nothing for safety, parking and congestion. Car manufacturers are largely ignoring the problems and almost every new model is launched larger and heavier than the last. There have been a few noticeable exceptions like the Smart and the Japenese KEI class cars but none of these help in all the problem areas." Taking the Mini-E as an example, this can achieve a range of 156 miles (251 km) under optimum driving conditions but Mini have said most users can expect between 100–120 miles (160–190 km). However, most commutes are 30–40 miles (48–64 km) miles per day. Ed Begley, Jr., an electric car advocate, noted, "The detractors of electric vehicles are right. Given their limited range, they can only meet the needs of 90 percent of the population." In addition, new Nickel-metal hydride and lithium batteries are non-toxic and can be recycled, and "the supposed 'lithium shortage' doesn’t exist". Slide 12: THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.