METHODS : METHODS There are two methods of
Multistage flash distillation
Multistage flash distillation : Multistage flash distillation As of July 2004, the leading method is Multi-stage flash distillation (85% of production world-wide). The traditional process used in these operations is vacuum distillation—essentially the boiling of water at less than atmospheric pressure and thus a much lower temperature than normal. This is because the boiling of a liquid occurs when the vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure and vapor pressure increases with temperature. Thus, because of the reduced temperature, energy is saved.
REVERSE OSMOSIS : REVERSE OSMOSIS In the last decade, membrane processes have developed very quickly, and most new facilities use reverse osmosis technology. Membrane processes use semi-permeable membranes and pressure to separate salts from water. Membrane systems typically use less energy than thermal distillation, which has led to a reduction in overall desalination costs over the past decade. Desalination remains energy intensive, however, and future costs will continue to depend on the price of both energy and desalination technology
AGRICULTURAL USE : AGRICULTURAL USE Water resources management in modern Egypt is a complex process that involves multiple stakeholders who use water for irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, hydropower generation and navigation. In addition, the waters of the Nile support aquatic ecosystems that are threatened by abstraction and pollution. Egypt also has substantial fossil groundwater resources in the Western Desert.
MERITS : MERITS Intelligence Collection Management is the process of managing and organizing the collection of intelligence information from various sources. The collection department of an intelligence organization may attempt basic validation of that which it collects, but is not intended to analyze its significance. It is a blurry line between validation and true analysis; this is often an argument in the US intelligence community, where NSA may, in the opinion of or DIA, try to interpret the information when such interpretation is the job of another agency CIA.
CONCLUSION : CONCLUSION Hereby from the above brief discussion about desalination we come to know the various desalination methods in the world.
DEMERITS : DEMERITS The membranes are sensitive to abuse.
The feedwater needs to be removed
RO technologies require reliable energy source