cell membrane and cell transport

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it discussed about the property and structure of the cell membrane, diffusion and osmosis and cell transport

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PROJECT IN BIOLOGY:

PROJECT IN BIOLOGY JERICK S. LAZALA EZRA FAITH AZARCON BSED 1-S

CELL AND ITS ENVIRONMENT:

CELL AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

CELL MEMBRANE:

CELL MEMBRANE It is the boundary that separates cell from its neighboring cell. It is considered as the ‘gatekeeper’ of the cell. It is a semi-permeable membrane which allows only certain particles to pass across it.

STRUCTURE OF THE CELL:

STRUCTURE OF THE CELL It is composed of two layers of molecules called phospholipids. Phospholipids is like a fat molecule, but one of the fatty acids is replaced by another part containing a combination of atoms called Phosphate group. Phosphate group is electrically charged and soluble in water.

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL:

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL A model conceived by S.J. Singer and Garth Nicolson in 1972 to describe the structural features of biological membranes. The plasma membrane is described to be fluid because of its hydrophobic integral components such as lipids and membrane proteins that move laterally or sideways throughout the membrane. That means the membrane is not solid , but more like a ' fluid '.

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL:

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL The membrane is depicted as mosaic because like a mosaic that is made up of many different parts the plasma membrane is composed of different kinds of macromolecules , such as integral proteins , peripheral proteins , glycoproteins , phospholipids , glycolipids, and in some cases cholesterol , lipoproteins .

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL:

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL According to the model , the plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer (interspersed with proteins ). It is so because of its phospholipid component that can fold in itself creating a double layer - or bilayer - when placed in a polar surrounding, like water . This structural feature of the membrane is essential to its functions, such as cellular transport and cell recognitio n

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL :

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL

DIFFUSION:

DIFFUSION It refers to the movement of particles or molecules from a region of greater concentration to a region of less concentration. Example: perfume gas molecules diffuse into the air when put on.

DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM:

DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM The equal distribution of molecules or particles inside and outside the membrane. Diffusion occurs until there is a balance inside and outside the membrane.

HOW DOES DIFFUSION OCCUR?:

HOW DOES DIFFUSION OCCUR?

WHY DOES DIFFUSION OCCUR?:

WHY DOES DIFFUSION OCCUR? To reach an equilibrium of concentrated solute particle. It's the process by which particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration A simple reason why this occurs is that particles are always bouncing off each other, and an area with a high concentration of particles would be harder for a particle to bounce into than one with very few particles.

OSMOSIS:

OSMOSIS It is the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane. It is the movement of water into and out of cells.

WHY DOES OSMOSIS OCCUR?:

WHY DOES OSMOSIS OCCUR? Osmosis, just like diffusion, occurs due to the unequal distribution of water inside and outside the membrane. Osmosis occurs until equilibrium(osmotic balance) is reached.

OSMOTIC BALANCE:

OSMOTIC BALANCE Osmotic balance is a kind of dynamic equilibrium that occurs when the amount of water entering and leaving a cell is equal

OSMOSIS:

OSMOSIS

3 TYPES OF SOLUTION WHICH AFFECTS A CELL:

3 TYPES OF SOLUTION WHICH AFFECTS A CELL

HYPOTONIC SOLUTION:

HYPOTONIC SOLUTION Hypotonic solution- a dilute solution, with a higher water concentration than the cell. This solution will cause the cell to gain water through osmosis. It will make the cell swell and will suddenly burst.

HYPERTONIC SOLUTION:

HYPERTONIC SOLUTION A concentrated solution, with a lower water concentration than the cell. The cell will lose water or being plasmolysed. It will result to the shrinking of the cell. Such loss of water in a cell is called PLASMOLYSIS.

ISOTONIC SOLUTION:

ISOTONIC SOLUTION A solution with exactly the same water concentration as the cell. There will be no movement of water across the cell membrane.

3 TYPES OF SOLUTION :

3 TYPES OF SOLUTION ANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL

WAYS OF TRANSPORTING PARTICLES:

WAYS OF TRANSPORTING PARTICLES

FOR SMALL PARTICLES: PASSIVE TRANSPORT:

FOR SMALL PARTICLES: PASSIVE TRANSPORT PASSIVE TRANSPORT- the cell uses no energy for osmosis and diffusion to occur. Some particles cannot pass through the lipid bilayer so the cell membrane uses protein to aid the passage of particles from a region of greater to less concentration. This is called FACILITATED DIFFUSION. The proteins involved here is called PERMEASES.

ACTIVE TRANSPORT:

ACTIVE TRANSPORT The cell uses energy to move a particle. This is used by the cell to get rid of the harmful particles which already entered into the cell. It uses energy to throw that harmful particle outside the cell.

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSPORT:

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSPORT

TRANSPORTING OF LARGER PARTICLES:

TRANSPORTING OF LARGER PARTICLES Some particles cannot diffuse to the cell because of its large size so the cell uses energy to take in and bring out that particular particle.

ENDOCYTOSIS:

ENDOCYTOSIS ENDOCYTOSIS is a process an which a cell uses energy to surround and take in large particles. This process is common to unicellular organisms just like amoeba in capturing their food. PHAGOCYTOSIS is the trapping of solid particles while PINOCYTOSIS is the trapping of liquid droplets.

EXOCYTOSIS:

EXOCYTOSIS EXOCYTOSIS is the reverse of endocytosis. The cell uses energy to expelled materials or particles from its system.

ENDOCYTOSIS AND EXOCYTOSIS:

ENDOCYTOSIS AND EXOCYTOSIS ENDOCYTOSIS EXOCYTOSIS

SOURCES::

SOURCES: http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Fluid_mosaic_model http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl = http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_does_diffusion_occur#ixzz326syR9Pf http://www.wikipedia.org http://www.thefullwiki.org MERRIL BIOLOGY Living Systems williamsclass.com

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