Slide 1: Origins of Man and Early Societies By Dr. Jennifer Levin-Goldberg Slide 2: Migration 1.Where did early man come from in an evolutionary perspective? 2. How did people all over the world get to where they are? 3. How did early man go from nomadic primitive life to a modern technological industry? Slide 3: Down With Geico! Where did early man come from in an evolutionary perspective? How did people all over the world get to where they are? 3. How did early man go from nomadic primitive life to a modern technological industry? Turn to your partner Mindset Slide 5: Your Ideas Slide 6: Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence comes to light. - Louis Leakey, British paleoanthropologist The First Humans Slide 7: Early Discoveries Slide 8: Stages of Early Human Development 1. 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE 2. 1,500,000 BCE -- 250,000 BCE 3 . 250,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE 4. 30,000 BCE -- 10,000 BCE Paleolithic Age : ( Old Stone Age ) 2,500,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE Slide 9: Primates Human Evolution One theory is that humans evolved from primates. Humans branched off to be Anthropoids and apes as Prosimii. Our closest living relative is the chimpanzee. We share 98% of the same genes with the chimp. Slide 12: The Paleolithic Age “Paleolithic” --> “Old Stone” Age 2,500,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE Hunter/Gatherer Society Nomadic Made tools from stone Slide 13: Stage 1 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE Hominids Australopithecines Australopithecus Afarensis: Lucy: Australopithecus Afarensis: Lucy The first, most complete Australopithecus afarenis skeleton found was located in Hadar, Ethiopia by Dr. Johanson. He found a knee joint, validating that the creature was bipedal; walking upright making the remains a hominid. Hadar, Ethiopia Dr. Johanson Slide 15: Laetoli Footprints Found in Laetoli, Tanzania. The hominid that created it was Australopithecus Afarensis . Slide 16: Ardipithecus Ramidus The oldest known ancestor to modern day humans and is considered the missing link between apes and humans. Known as Ardi. Slide 17: Stage 1 HOMO HABILIS ( “Handy Man” ) His fossils were f ound in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania by Dr. Leakey . First earliest known species of the genus Homo; that is, the first human species. First Homo specie to create and use stone tools for hunting and daily life. Slide 18: The Paleolithic Age Humans during this period found shelter in caves. Cave paintings left behind. Purpose?? Slide 19:
The three themes found in cave art were animals, signs, and human representations. The most common were animals, in particular, the
and the least depicted were human representations.
Slide 20: Stage 2 1,6000,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE HOMO ERECTUS ( “Upright Man” ) Tools were larger and varied First hominid to migrate and leave Africa First to use fire BIPEDAL Slide 22: Their skeletons are larger unlike Australopithecus afarensis and built more like our own. They were carnivores. Their brain size doubled, making their brains much larger. Scientists find a correlation between brain size and body size. According to the research, the larger the brain, the bigger the body. Slide 23: The most famous Homo Erectus fossil was found in a cave in Zhoukoudian, China and became known as Peking Man. Slide 24: Differing Human Migration Theories A. Out of Africa Theory, also known as the Radiation Theory . B. Multiregional Theory, also known as Parallel Evolution Theory Slide 25: Stage 3 200,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE HOMO SAPIENS ( “Wise Man” ) Neanderthals ( 200,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE ) Homo sapien sapien) ( 40,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE ) Slide 26: Stage 3 NEANDERTHALS: Neander Valley, Germany (1856) First humans to bury their dead. Made clothes from animal skins. Lived in caves and valleys. Slide 27:
They didn’t go far from their homes. They hunted and lived in small groups. Their weapons were used to impale animals up close.
was key in hunting because they had to work as a team. They had the ability to use complex speech. Instead of painting on cave walls they painted their faces.
Slide 28: Stage 3 NEANDERTHALS Slide 29: Stage 3 Homo sapien sapiens, a.k.a. Cro-Magnon Man ( “Wise, wise human” ) By 30,000 BCE they replaced Neanderthals. WHY??? Slide 30: Homo sapien sapiens lived on top of hillsides. Hunted from a distance due to advanced weaponry. They were better at obtaining resources. They painted on cave walls demonstrating that they were thinking symbolically. They too buried their dead. Potentially saw Neanderthals as mates. Slide 31: Homo sapien sapiens settlements Their migration pattern. How were they able to cross over though? The Bering Strait Slide 32: The Last Ice Age 70,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE A possible explanation for this was due to the increase of oxygen in the atmosphere which oxidized with the methane present in the atmosphere which kept the Earth warm. This is known as the Great Oxidation Event. Slide 34: The Neolithic Age Neolithic “New Stone” Age 10,000 BCE – 4,000 BCE Gradual shift from: Nomadic lifestyle settled, stationery lifestyle; a.k.a.sedentary Hunting/Gathering agricultural production and domestication of animals. Slide 35: The hunter-gatherer exploits the environment; the agriculturalist modifies it. Slide 36: Is agriculture essential to the development of a civilization? Explain your response. How did Homo sapiens go from nomadic cultures to an agricultural society? What impact do you think agriculture had upon Homo sapiens’ society? Agricultural Revolution Mindset Slide 37: The Agricultural Revolution 8,000 BCE – 5,000 BCE There are conflicting debates justifying how and why agriculture developed. How? Did all regions learn about agriculture independently? Did different region learn about agriculture through cultural diffusion? Why? Did agriculture develop due to changes in the climate Did agriculture develop due to population explosions? Middle East India Central America China Southeast Asia 8,000 BCE 7,000 BCE 6,500 BCE 6,000 BCE 5,000 BCE Now it’s your turn; what do you think? Agriculture first developed in the Fertile Crescent which is in the Middle East. Slide 38: The Agricultural Revolution Why do some archaeologists believe that women were the first farmers? Slide 39: Since men did the hunting and females were responsible for the food gathering, women learned how to plant seeds, as well as process and prepare the food. You Go Girl! Slide 40: Early Settled Communities Growing crops on a regular basis made possible the support of larger populations. More permanent, settled communities emerged. The first towns were Jericho in Israel and the largest was in Catal Huyuk (modern day Turkey). Slide 41: Early Settled Communities Çatal Hüyük Slide 42: Agricultural communities had high birth rates Slide 43: Early farmers had to learn to domesticate wild grains. Why? Click to hear answer Slide 44: What is the next step in the development of human settlements?? Slide 45: CIVILIZATIONS !! CITIES ! Slide 46: Cities could form due to a sedentary lifestyle. This, in turn, created specializations, which resulted in wealth, which would lead to social classes, including poverty. Slide 47: What are the characteristics of a civilization?? Slide 48: Advanced Cities CIVILIZATION Specialized Workers Complex Institutions Record- Keeping Advanced Technology Which gave rise to social classes Government Military Education Legal system Art Religion Slide 49: Challenges facing Agricultural Communities 1. Soil Erosion 2. Overpopulation 3. Epidemics 4.Competition over resources 5. Dependency upon weather 6. Safety/Security Issues Are these issues agricultural communities face today? Slide 50: Why do you think so many civilizations arose in river valley's? Click to hear answer Slide 51: Do you want to play a game? Get in 3 equal groups : Get in 3 equal groups I will ask each group a question by showing a clue on the Power Point. You and your group will discuss what you think the answer is. If you get it correct, your group earns 1 point. If your group gets it wrong, it is up for grabs. If you answer it incorrectly, you do not lose any points. I will only accept the first answer your group says so make sure you are all in agreement on the answer. Good luck! Slide 53: 98% What is this percentage representing? Slide 54: The answer is not bipedalism Slide 55: What type of life or society did early man practice? Slide 56: What link is this to early man? What animal is this? Slide 57: Which hominid species does this settlement pattern represent? Slide 58: This hominid specie was the first to use stone tools Slide 59: What dating method would you use if you found an artifact in its ash? Slide 60: We’re starting from here! Which theory is this? Slide 61: What is he doing that was so significant to the evolution of man? Make sure you say the exact term you learned! Slide 62: My name is Lucy. What species am I? Slide 63: What dating technique is this representing? Slide 64: This hominid specie could hunt its prey from a further distance using spears. Slide 65: What theory is this migration pattern demonstrating? Slide 66: I was the first hominid to leave Africa? Slide 67: What is the term that refers to any member of the family of two-legged primates that includes all humans. Slide 68: Which hominid species became extinct once Homo sapien sapiens arrived on the scene? Slide 69: Too much of this in the atmosphere may have caused what event? Slide 70: Australopithecus afarensis Which hominid specie came before Australopithecus afarensis and is considered the “missing link”? Slide 71: Which hominid was the first homo specie? Slide 72: This is one of the first and largest agricultural communities. Slide 73: Which hominid species evolved into modern man? Slide 74: Which type of society had high birth rates? Slide 75: Cities eventually led to these Slide 76: Which hominid’s brain size doubled? Slide 77: Agricultural communities developed from a more stationary lifestyle instead of a nomadic one. What is another word for this stationary lifestyle? Slide 78: We're Finished! Who won? Slide 79: Assessment time! Slide 80: Next Section Slide 81: What is the difference between a refugee and an internally displaced person? What does it mean to immigrate? What dies it mean to emigrate? What causes people to become an immigrant? What causes people to become an emigrant? Migration Mindset Push and Pull Factors: Push and Pull Factors Push Migration Factors of Migration: Conditions that drive people to leave their homes. Examples: Land scarcity, political and/or religious persecution, civil strife or revolutions, unsafe, poverty, lack of services, lack of modernization and infrastructure, and lack of jobs. Slide 83: Pull Factors of Migration: Conditions that attract people to a new area. Examples: religious and political freedom or ideologies, industry, jobs, available land, modernization, available services and infrastructure like education, health care, government services, safety. Turn to your partner Slide 84: Let’s do an activity! Slide 85: I will say a factor and you will have to identify which factor it is an example of according to a movement. If it is a Push factor , you will have to do 3 Jumping jacks. If it is a Pull factor , you will have to do 3 calf raises. If it is both a Push and Pull factor , you will have to do 3 squats. Here we go! Slide 86: WAR Slide 88: Climate/Weather Slide 89: Flood Slide 90: Social reasons such as discrimination Slide 91: Civil strife, warfare, and genocide Slide 92: Family Slide 93: Available Land Slide 94: Poverty Slide 95: Modernization Slide 96: Religious Freedom Slide 98: Available medical services Slide 99: Soil Erosion Slide 101: What were the push and/or pull factors of early man’s migration? Internally Displaced Person (IDP): Internally Displaced Person (IDP) A person that is forced to flee their home from persecution, due to political, religious, military or other problem and remains in their country just in another place for safety. Still a push factor. Slide 104: Refugee - someone that is forced to flee their home from persecution, due to political, religious, military or other problem and leaves their country for safety reasons. Turn to partner Assessment Time: Assessment Time