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HIV/AIDS in Africa :

HIV/AIDS in Africa Jelena Stanojevic

What is HIV/AIDS?:

What is HIV/AIDS? HIV is the h uman i mmunodeficiency v irus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS.

What is HIV/AIDS?:

What is HIV/AIDS ? AIDS stands for A cquired I mmuno d eficiency S yndrome.

How is HIV/AIDS transmitted ?:

How is HIV/AIDS transmitted ? HIV is spread primarily by : All unprotected sex with someone who has HIV Having multiple sex partners Sharing needles, syringes, rinse water, or other equipment used to prepare illicit drugs for injection. Being born to an infected mother

HIV/AIDS in Africa:

HIV/AIDS in Africa Africa has a population of 45 million and a diverse economy that has wide polarities between rich and poor Approximately 4.5 million Africans are HIV positive - amongst the highest total number of people living with HIV in any country worldwide HIV affects all age groups, race groups and economic strata Mainly heterosexual Female risk is exacerbated by factors related to sex (biological vulnerability), gender (power differentials)

Challenges in Africa :

Challenges in Africa Providing health care, antiretroviral treatment, and support to a growing population of people with HIV-related illnesses. Reducing the annual toll of new HIV infections by enabling individuals to protect themselves and others. Coping with the impact of millions of AIDS deaths on orphans and other survivors, communities, and national development.

PowerPoint Presentation:

A global view of HIV infection 38.6 million people [33.4‒46.0 million] living with HIV, 2005 2.4 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic Fig

PowerPoint Presentation:

HIV prevalence (%) in adults in Africa, 2005 2.5 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic Fig

Population-based HIV prevalence, 2006:

Population-based HIV prevalence, 2006

Factors underpinning high prevalence in Africa :

Factors underpinning high prevalence in Africa Rapid growth in prevalence, and high current levels of HIV mean there is a very high average risk of infection through sex Consistent condom use hasn’t been widely promoted, and consistent condom use is difficult Mobility, migration, urbanization and poverty exacerbate the epidemic High turnover of sexual partners, late marriage – relationships unstable Median age of first sex is 18, but highest risk of infection occurs in the over 20 age group High levels of violence against women - unemployment, alcohol abuse, inadequate justice system

Things that contribute to the epidemic of HIV/AIDS:

Things that contribute to the epidemic of HIV/AIDS – Early sexual debut – Age differentials between partners – Multiple partners – Coercion (as a product of power differentials) – Violence (rape, statutory rape) - drug abuse

Demographic Impact :

Demographic Impact

Treatment :

Treatment Antiretroviral Therapy Four approved classes of drugs in the HAART regimens Nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors Protease inhibitors Fusion inhibitors

Social Impacts:

Social Impacts

Impact of HIV/AIDS on Africa:

Impact of HIV/AIDS on Africa The effect on life expectancy. The effect on households The effect on healthcare. The effect on schools The effect on productivity The effect on economic growth and development.

Systems :

Systems Health care Increased demand Decreased ability to offer services as a result of staff loss Crowding out Similar impact on Welfare services Education Reduction in demand Greater reduction in ability to offer services

Socialisation :

Socialisation Psychological impact on children Parental illness and death Educators illness and death Increased death in the community Care of orphans The need to care for orphans will increase Ability of traditional arrangements to cope will be eroded Most important long term impact

Prevention :

Prevention Abstinence Monogamous Relationship Protected Sex Sterile needles Counseling and education

HIV and Poverty:

HIV and Poverty Poverty can lead to behaviour which result s in increased risk of infection HIV increases poverty However , t he relationship is not a simple one , as increased resources may increase access to sex

Summary and Conclusions :

Summary and Conclusions

Conclusions :

Conclusions HIV has already reached very high levels in South Africa and is set to rise for a few more years The resultant increase in death will change the structure of the population Households and individuals will feel the greatest economic impact The impact on companies and sectors will vary The economic impact will be felt in the long term

Conclusions…..:

Conclusions….. Health care, welfare and education systems will be adversely affected HIV/AIDS is the single greatest threat to development in South Africa Our greatest concern is the impact that HIV will have on children Innovation in , and commitment to fighting this problem are required to reduce the impact on this and future generations

An Action Agenda:

An Action Agenda There are no: Simple solutions Short term solutions Technical/medical solutions Imposed solutions Money is not the answer Drugs are only part of the answer A multisectoral response is needed

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