Pneumonic plague Smallpox and The War-Comet God Odin

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

The first rough draft of a thesis concerning Comets and Mythological archetypes such as Arthur, Odin and other ''returning kings'' mythos. Will be updated at future times. DISCLAIMER: I own nothing presented in this powerpoint. The information collated and interpreted is simply that - a synthesis of ideas and binary digits that comprise to form images. This is just a creation; like a paper ship, I set it afloat upon the digital sea and I know not where the digital winds may blow it.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 However, by 1993 , revelations about the dating of layers of volcanic acid in the Greenland ice in the vicinity of the AD 540 event - or rather the revelation that there were no acid layers dating to the years around AD 540 - meant that the volcano hypothesis was starting to look thin . This combination of factors allowed a new paradigm to be contemplated - was it possible that the serious global environmental event around AD 540 was not due to a volcano or volcanoes, but rather was due to the next most likely cause of a global environmental event i.e. some loading of the atmosphere from space ? 1 M G L Baillie, School of Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen’s University, Belfast, PDF, p.2 Three British astrophysicists had published a prior hypothesis , back in 1990 (Bailey, Clube and Napier 1990), in which they had proposed that the period between AD 400-600 had been a period of risk of bombardment by comet debris However, for the purposes of this paper I am going to restrict the discussion mostly to the happenings around AD 540 ; an event that falls in a Dark Age and close to the date of the plague of Justinian ( AD 542 ). Hypothesis 1: Cometary instigators of pathogenic viruses on Earth and Ancient ‘Sun-Comet’ Gods and returning/resurrecting Archetypes

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 Yet, according to current knowledge, Tunguska-like impacts occur every 100 years or so - with devastating effects. It is, therefore, not far-fetched to hypothesise that a super-Tunguska (i.e. massive high level multi-megaton explosions and widespread atmospheric and/or oceanic impacts of fireballs over different locations of the globe) is capable of triggering ecological crises on a continental or even global scale and may occur every 2000 , 3000 or 5000 years. 1 Email Cambridge conference 2 "No crater, no catastrophe". This is what could be called the motto of this school of thought. If we were to accept this restriction, Tunguska-like events or even super-Tunguskas would be automatically taken out of the equation. Due to their catastrophic detonation above ground (or in the oceans), they often leave no obvious fingerprints behind . Russian comet February 15 th, 2013 A 600kg fragment of the Chelyabinsk Meteorite at the Chelyabinsk Regional History Museum. The chunk was recovered from the bottom of Chebarkul Lake, some 60km west of Chelyabinsk. The meteorite exploded over Chelyabinsk Region in February 2013

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 Satellite data from NASA has revealed that that four days after the bolide explosion , the faster, higher portion of the plume (red) had snaked its way entirely around the northern hemisphere and back to Chelyabinsk in Russia 1 Mailonline, published: 11:16, 23 October 2013

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 Upon commission of the pope in 1348 , a group of learned men (and at that time only men were deemed capable of being educated and hence, learned) of the medical faculty at Paris concluded that the disaster caused by Plague was a result of a conjunction of Saturn , Jupiter , and Mars in the 40th degree of Aquarius at 1:00 p.m. on March 20, 1345 . This caused hot, moist conditions, which forced the earth to exhale a virulent sulfurous miasma. Curious Constellational Observations 1 History of Epidemics and Plagues, p10

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 “whether the dog days, as our astrologers pretended to express themselves, the influence of the Dog Star , had that malignant effect between the hours of 1 and 3 in the morning.. I know not, but this was the time when it was reported that above 3,000 people died in one night” 1 Journal of the Plague 1665 , Daniel Defoe, p172 2 “In the first place, a blazing star or comet appeared for several months before the plague , as there did the year after , a little before the Great Fire of London 1666 . The old women, and the hypochondriac older males remarked, especially afterward, though not till both these judgments were over, that those two comets passed directly over the city , and passed by close, so very near the houses , that it was plain they imported something peculiar to the city alone” “That the comet before the pestilence was of a faint, languid colour, and its motion very heavy, solemn and slow but that the comet before the fire was bright and sparkling , or, as others said, flaming and its motion swift and furious , and that, accordingly, one foretold a heavy judgment slow but severe, terrible and frightful, as was the plague . But the other foretold a stroke, sudden, swift and fiery, as was the conflagration; nay, so particular were some people that they looked upon that comet preceding the fire of 1666 , they fancied that they not only saw it pass swiftly and fiercely , and could perceive the motion with their eye, but they even heard it , that it made a rushing , mighty noise , fierce and terrible , though at a distance , but just perceivable .” 2 Journal of the Plague 1665 , Daniel Defoe, p23, 24 “I saw both these stars .. I was apt to look upon them as the forerunners and warnings of God’s judgments and especially after the plague had followed the first , I saw yet another of the like kind , I could not but say God had not yet sufficiently *scourged the city” * Compared with the ancient biblical tale of Nineveh’s destruction as an ‘evil city’’ circa 7 th century BCE

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 “The manner of its first coming to London proves this also, viz, by goods brought over from Holland, and brought thither from the Levant ; the first breaking out of it in a house in Long Acre , where those goods were carried and first opened ; its spreading from that house to other houses by the visible unwary conversing with those that were sick, and the infecting of the parish offices who were employed about persons dead, and the like. These facts are known authorities for the great foundation point ; that it went on and preceded from person-to-person , and from house to house, and no otherwise’’ 1,2,3,4 Journal of the Plague 1665, Daniel Defoe, p191, p198, p201 2 “by the well, I mean such as had received the contagion and had it really upon them and in their blood , yet did not show the consequences of it in their countenances (appearance/upon their faces); nay, even were not sensible of it themselves, as many were not for several (7) days ” 3 “ There were the dangerous people, these were the people of whom the well people ought to have been afraid; but then, on the other side, it was impossible to know them ’’ 4 “but nobody appeared to be ill in the family for 16 to 18 days after , they were not so strict but they would connive at their going privately *abroad; nor would people be much afraid of them afterwards, but rather think they were fortified [for] the better, having not been vulnerable when the enemy was in the house; but we sometimes found it had lain much longer concealed (longer than 18 days) ” 5 “the first person that died of the plague was December 20 th , or thereabouts, 1664 , and in, or about Long Acre whence the first person who had the infection was generally said to have taken it from a parcel of silk imported from Holland, and first opened in that home ’’

PowerPoint Presentation:

What type of Pathogen can survive a cold climate, and a long journey? Can rat fleas really sustain themselves within Silk in a boxed parcel? QUESTIONS:

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 “But after this we heard no more of any person dying of this plague, or of the distemper being in that place till the 9 th February , 1665 , which was about 7 weeks after .., and we were perfectly easy as to the public for a great while for there were no more entered in the weekly bill to be dead of the plague till the 22 nd April , then there were two more buried , not out of the same house , but out of the same street ( Drury lane ) ; and as near as I can remember, it was out of the next house to the first (next door neighbour’s house) : this was 9 weeks asunder and after this we had no more till a fortnight ( 11 weeks total ) and then it broke out in several streets and spread everyway !” 1,2 Journal of the Plague 1665, Daniel Defoe, p205, 206 2 “It is true, there was, as I observed at first, and is well known to many yet living, a very cold winter , and a long frost, which continued 3 months , and this, the doctors say , might check the infection …whereas the principal period when it was needed of this infection, which was from February to April was after the thaw was broken and the weather mild and warm Defoe makes the claim that either monetary bribes or clergy officials were recording other reasons for deaths and distempers other than of plague so as not to cause alarm. Typhus gave the same symptoms of plague and deaths by ‘spotted fever’ and fevers in general were usually over 400 cases in anyone week between late July and later September .

PowerPoint Presentation:

DECEMBER 20TH FEBRUARY 9TH APRIL 22ND HOLLAND DRURY, LANE LONGACRE MAY 5TH 7 weeks 2 Dead neighbours 9 weeks 11 weeks

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 “..even just as a mad dog runs on and bites any man or woman, while the frenzy of the distemper was upon them, I mean the person so wounded, would have been incurably infected , as one that was sick before, and had the tokens upon him … 2 “.. For when the distemper was at its height, it generally made them raving and delirious , and when they were so, they would never be so persuaded to keep to their beds by force; and many who were not tied, threw themselves out of windows when they found they could not get leave to go out of their doors… 3 “..They fell, as if touched by a stroke from Heaven , as men are killed by a flash of lightening ; but they found reason to alter their opinion afterwards, for upon examining the bodies of such after they were dead, they either had tokens ( signs ) upon them, or other evident proofs of the 4 distemper having been longer upon them than they had otherwise expected … 3 ibid, p166 2 ibid, p160 1 Journal of the Plague 1665 , Daniel Defoe, p159 4 other ‘distempers’ would include scorbutic ailments or scurvy, and typhus or ‘spotted fever’ was also circulating simultaneously

PowerPoint Presentation:

Outbreak began September 29 th , on the feast of St. Michael (Michaelmas) in 1664, 7 (seven) months after a slow, heavy, sinister comet roamed over the City of London, placing it around March, 1664 Beginning of August 1665 begat the start of the plague on the east side of the city. The mortality bill from the 11 th – 18 th July was 1761 By August 1665, large burial pits as large as 40ft in length, 15-16ft broad and in some places, 20ft deep or as close to the water table as possible, where some 50-60 corpses were placed within. By mid to late August, dead carts were bringing from 200-400 corpses weekly in Aldgate and Whitechapel 6 th September, after a huge pit was dug, and upto the 20 th September, 1114 corpses had been thrown into it.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Chronology, speed and spread of infection: Timelines and numbers of cases November – December 1664 : Frenchman dies in Longacre, Drury Lane ; confirmed by two physicians and a surgeon. Suggested that the victim may have had some contact with Rotterdam and Holland in 1663 February 1665 – St.Giles’s parish began to record higher death rates but were badly recorded to defer consciousness from the rising problem of the Plague to the general populace who were generally the poor, the poor trade guilds and migrants seeking employ from the land of Eire (Ireland). Under house rooms or ‘cellars’ were the dwelling places and accommodation of such peoples at the time. December 20 th -27th Buried 291 Increase +/- December 27 th -3 rd Jan Buried 349 + 58 Jan 3 rd - 10 th Buried 394 + 45 Jan 10 th – 17 th Buried 415 +21 Jan 17 th – 24 th Buried 474 + 58 “the last bill was really frightful , being a higher number than had been known to have been buried in one week, since the preceding visitation of 1656 ” – Journal of the Plague, page 7

PowerPoint Presentation:

Frenchman dies in Longacre, Drury Lane

PowerPoint Presentation:

The weather at that time from December until late February 1665 was reported to be cold and severe frosts . Late February to early April , deaths decreased to some degree and the population fell into an early false sense of abatement that the worst was over. 18 th April – 25 th April : Outbreak spreads to 3 surrounding parishes, mainly St. Andrews , Holborn , and St. Clement’s Danes 9 th May – 16 th May : 9 cases of plague; 6 cases of typhus and the frenchman from Longacre relocated to Bearbinder Lane near Stocks’ Market . Combined 50 cases of plague and typhus, or ‘spotted fever’. 23 rd May – 30 th May : 53 burials, 17 by plague. “But those were trifling things to what followed immediately after, for now the weather was hot , and from the first week in June , this infection spread in a dreadful manner, and the bills [of mortality] rose” – Journal of the Plague, page 9

PowerPoint Presentation:

Frenchman dies in Longacre, Drury Lane

PowerPoint Presentation:

Overview of Christopher and John Greenwood's map of London (1827) Bearbinder Lane Source full URL: http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/maps.jsp?map=green&mq_url=3&map_section_x=4&map_section_y=5&overview=yes Source: http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/ Frenchman relocated

PowerPoint Presentation:

2 nd week of July, 4 had died within the city: 1 in wood street, 1 in Fenchurch Street, and 2 in Crooked Lane As the minor cases emerged, and, as if mirroring the same actions of the peoples during the ancient plague of Exodus, the nobility and gentry left the city in their droves for weeks. Due to this, during the months of May and mid- June , most of the horses were removed and it became increasingly difficult to find a horse for hire or sale for up to 6 weeks during the frantic flight *abroad. But, with Health Certificates granted by the Lord Mayor in hand, they left, gaining free passage out from what were rumoured to soon-be-tolls and policed gateways which would barr and forbid entrance to and from the city due to the outbreak, and in an effort to contain the affluval. So, before any pretended or possible “lock-down” or quarantine measures could be legislated for, and as the city was relatively clear of the plague and typhus cases, these Health Certificates were freely granted to the upper classes, and they abandoned the poor and the city. Mid July – 1268 various ‘distempers’, more than 900 dying by plague, St. Giles’s and St. Martins-in-the-field accounting for around 421 of the deaths by plague The route the plague took was parish to parish from Clerkenwell  Cripplegate  Shoreditch & Bishopsgate  Aldgate, whitechapel  Stepney By the 18 th July, an estimated 1,000 homes had been abandoned and over 200,000 individuals had abandoned London *abroad meant domestically, as in another neighbouring county or borough, and not overseas as it is taken to infer in today’s meaning

PowerPoint Presentation:

August 29 th – Sept 5 th 8252 6988 Sept 5 th – Sept 12 th 7690 6544 Sept 12 th – Sept 19 th 8297 7165 August 8 th – 15 th Of all diseases 5319 Of the Plague 3880 August 15 th – 22 nd 5668 4237 August 22 nd – 29 th 7496 6102 Sept 19 th – Sept 30 th 6460 5533 Sept 27 th – October 3 rd 5728 4929 October 3 rd – October 10 th 5068 4227 Totals 59918 49605

PowerPoint Presentation:

2 “I have observed often, that in the parishes of Aldgate , Cripplegate , Whitechapel ( Spitalfields ) and Stepney , there were 500 , 600 , 700 , 800 in a week in the bills; sometimes 2,000 a week in those parishes ; and I saw positively stated under hand (in writing) of one that made as strict an examination as he could, that there really died 100,000 people of the plague in that one year, whereas in the bills, the article of the plague was but 68,590 ”. The Parish clerks did the accounting and it’s understandable why true accounting figures could never be made as 116 sextons, grave-diggers, bell-men, bearers and the drivers of dead carts died of the plague during their duties 1 “the plague, which raged in a dreadful manner from the middle of August to the middle of October , carried off in that time 30,000 or 40,000 of these very people.. Even by account of the weekly bills, which yet, I have reason to be assured, never gave a full account by many thousands , the confusion being such .. that in some places no account at all was kept , but they worked on”. 1,2,3,4 Journal of the Plague 1665, Daniel Defoe, p92, 93, 123, 172 3 “Five parishes only, there died over 5,000 in 20 days ! I must be allowed to say that, if the bills of mortality said 5,000, I always believed it was twice as many in reality , there being no room to believe that the account they gave was right; or that, indeed, they were, among such confusions as I saw them in, in any condition to keep an exact account ” 4 “..but now, on the contrary, most of the people who were taken (infected) during the last two weeks of August , and the first 3 weeks of September , generally died in two or three days time at the farthest, and many the same day they were taken”

PowerPoint Presentation:

John Evelyn’s new map of London post-AD 1666

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 A principal source on the origin of the * Black Death is a memoir by the Italian Gabriele de’ Mussi . This memoir has been published several times in its original Latin and has recently been translated into English (although brief passages have been previously published in translation). This narrative contains some startling assertions: If this account is correct, Caffa should be recognized as the site of the most spectacular incident of biological warfare ever, with the Black Death as its disastrous consequence. and that fleeing survivors of the siege spread plague from Caffa to the Mediterranean Basin . that the Mongol army hurled plague-infected cadavers into the besieged Crimean city of Caffa , thereby transmitting the disease to the inhabitants ; Hypothesis 2: Deliberate release of a pathogen and deliberate population reduction as an act of Warfare 1 Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa, authored by Mark Wheelis , History Review, Emerging Infectious Diseases • Vol. 8, No. 9, September 2002, p971

PowerPoint Presentation:

The de’ Mussi account is presumed to have been written in 1348 or early 1349 because of its immediacy and the narrow time period described. The original is lost, but a copy is included in a compilation of historical and geographic accounts by various authors, dating from approximately 1367 . The account begins with an introductory comment by the scribe who copied the documents: “In the name of God, Amen. Here begins an account of the disease or mortality which occurred in 1348 , put together by Gabrielem de Mussis of Piacenza.” “It was as though arrows were raining down from heaven to strike and crush the Tartars’ arrogance. All medical advice and attention was useless ; the Tartars died as soon as the signs of disease appeared on their bodies : swellings in the armpit or groin caused by coagulating humours, followed by a putrid fever ”.

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 “The dying Tartars, stunned and stupefied by the immensity of the disaster brought about by the disease , and realizing that they had no hope of escape, lost interest in the siege. But they ordered corpses to be placed in 2 catapults and lobbed into the city in the hope that the intolerable stench would kill everyone inside. 1 Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa, authored by Mark Wheelis , History Review, Emerging Infectious Diseases • Vol. 8, No. 9, September 2002, p973 2 Historical texts describe their great machines of war as being capable of hurling a large stone (several hundred kilos!) some 300 meters, History of Pandemics, p6 What seemed like mountains of dead were thrown into the city , and the Christians could not hide or flee or escape from them, although they dumped as many of the bodies as they could in the sea. And soon the rotting corpses tainted the air and poisoned the water supply, and the stench was so overwhelming that hardly one in several thousand was in a position to flee the remains of the Tartar army. Moreover one infected man could carry the poison to others , and infect people and places with the disease by look alone. No one knew, or could discover, a means of defense ”.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Flesh and Blood, 1985

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 14th century Europe, following the caravan routes , it was in the lower Volga River basin in 1345 , the Caucasus and Crimea by 1346 , Constantinople by 1347 , Alexandria in the autumn of 1347 , Cyprus and Sicily in that year, Italy by winter 1347 , Marseilles by January of 1348 , Paris in spring 1348 , followed by Germany and the Low Countries in that year, Norway in May 1349 , eastern Europe by 1350 , and finally Russia in 1351 , but smaller outbreaks continued for about 200 more years; 1 History of Epidemics and Plagues, p5

PowerPoint Presentation:

The ultimate origin of the Black Death is uncertain— China , Mongolia , India , central Asia , and southern Russia have all been suggested Tentative chronology of the initial spread of plague in the mid-14th century Spring 1347

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 ”From historical accounts we know that the Black Death was imported into southern Europe from Asia , and reached Marseilles (southeast France ) by November 1347 . Plague then spread to western France by land and sea, reaching Narbonne and Carcassonne at the beginning of 1348 ” 1 Citation: Haensch S, Bianucci R, Signoli M, Rajerison M, Schultz M, et al. (2010) Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death. PLoS Pathog 6(10): e1001134. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001134: Received May 28, 2010; Accepted September 7, 2010; Published October 7, 2010, p4 3 years

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Silk Road route

PowerPoint Presentation:

City Year Mortality Dantzig 1427 80,000 Paris 1466 40,000 Moscow 1570 200,000 Lyon 1572 50,000 Venice 1576 70,000 London 1603 38,000 Egypt 1603 1,000,000 London 1625 35,417 Naples 1656 300,000 London 1665 * 68,596 *”and I saw positively stated under hand (in writing) of one that made as strict an examination as he could, that there really died 100,000 people of the plague in that one year, whereas in the bills, the article of the plague was but 68,590 ”. – Journal of the Plague, Daniel Defoe, p93

PowerPoint Presentation:

A medieval painting dated 1456 AD , depicting a pass of Halley's Comet

PowerPoint Presentation:

1427 1466 1570 1572 1576 1603 1603 1625 1656 1665 1701 10,000 20,000 30,000 75,000 50,000 100,000 200,000 1.000,000 500,000 300,000 2,000,000 Protestant/Germanic Monarchy Moscow Naples London Egypt 1345 Re-installation of Feudal/Neo-Feudal System

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 “One to six days after a human receives a flea-bite, the lymph nodes in the armpit (axilla) and groin become very tender and swollen (as large as an egg). These very painful swollen areas are called buboes (from the Greek bubo , meaning groin). The buboes may suppurate , i.e., break and discharge a particularly fetid pus. Each of the buboes shown below are on young children (to give you a perspective of size). 1 History of Epidemics and Plagues

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 Samuel 6: verses 4-6 [6:4] “Five (5) golden tumours and five (5) golden rats , according to the number of the Lords of the Philistines. For the same plague was on all of you , and on your lords”. [6:5] “Therefore you shall make images of your tumours and images of your rats that ravage the land , and you shall give glory to the god of Israel: perhaps He will lighten his hand from you, from your gods (canaanite Goddesses Ashtoreths and baals – 1 Samuel 7:4 ) and your land” 2 Samuel 24 verses 15-25 [24:15] “ So the LORD sent a plague upon Israel from the morning to the appointed time. From Dan to Beersheeba seventy thousand (70,000) men of the people died ” [24:16] “And when the Angel stretched out his hand over Jerusalem to destroy it, the LORD relented from the destruction and said to the Angel who was destroying the people , “ it is enough; now restrain your hand”. 2 Samuel 24: verses 1-2 (today’s equivalent of a Public Census and counting of the peoples) [24:1] “Again, the anger of the LORD was roused against Israel and he moved David against them to say, “Go, number Israel and Judah ” … [24:2] go throughout all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beersheba, and count the people , that I may know the number of the people ” [24:9] “And there were in Israel eight hundred thousand ( 800,000 ) valiant men who drew the sword, and the men of Judah were five hundred thousand ( 500,000 ) men” (1.3 million total taken in 9 months and 20 days to count them all) As a note, the next chapter is 1 Kings and Og of Bashan, the Giant King of the Philistines is named in 1 Kings 4:19 . The time frame is circa 1000 BC

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 “It is not rare for the area of the bite to become gangrenous and necrotic , i.e., the tissue dies . Other symptoms include restlessness , staggering gait , mental confusion , prostration , delirium , rapid pulse , nausea , aching of the extremities and back , and a high fever (at least 40° C = 104° F ). 1 History of Epidemics and Plagues If the fever doesn‘t break , the infection spreads to the blood , causing blood poisoning and death . This is the course of bubonic Plague . In some cases the microbe can proceed directly to the blood stream and this septicemic Plague can occur before the formation of buboes and results in death before a diagnosis can be made . Some scientists feel that this form of Plague can even be carried by either the common human flea or the body louse . In this infection of the blood, called septicemia , blood vessels break and leak under the skin causing a dark rash as the blood dries (hence the name Black Death , which was given in the 1500s ). This blackening tends to begin at the extremities (as in the fingers of the hand shown below).

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 ”For both bubonic and septicemic Plague , there is hemorrhagic illness ( internal bleeding ), multiple system failure , and death . All of this occurs within three to seven days . The mortality rate for untreated bubonic Plague is about 50–75% and 100% for septicemic Plague . The observed mortality rate for treated bubonic Plague is 14% and 22% for septicemic Plague. 1 History of Epidemics and Plagues Neither bubonic nor septicemic Plague is known to be transmitted from person-to-person ” Part of the "Hell" section of Bosch's Garden of Earthly Delights .

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death 1 Citation: Haensch S, Bianucci R, Signoli M, Rajerison M, Schultz M, et al. (2010) Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death. PLoS Pathog 6(10): e1001134. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001134: Received May 28, 2010; Accepted September 7, 2010; Published October 7, 2010, p2 “we show that at least two variants of Yersinia pestis spread over Europe during the second pandemic . The analysis of up to 20 diagnostic markers reveals that the two variants evolved near the time that phylogenetic branches 1 and 2 separated and may no longer exist . Our results thus resolve a long-standing debate about the etiology of the Black Death and provide key information about the evolution of the plague bacillus and the spread of the disease during the Middle Ages. There is no doubt that the ongoing third pandemic was caused by biovar Orientalis , but an attribution of the first and second pandemics to Antiqua and Medievalis (branch 2 – next slide) , respectively , is questionable. Unlike Devignat’s hypothesis (each plague pandemic was caused by a different biovar), recent aDNA (ancient DNA) analyses of samples from the 7 th – 9 th and 18 th centuries yielded Orientalis-specific microsatellites and the characteristic 93 bp glpD deletion , thus suggesting that the Orientalis biovar also caused Justinian’s plague and the second pandemic ”. Medievalis biovar is unable to reduce nitrates due to a G to T mutation that results in a stop codon in the napA gene Orientalis biovar cannot ferment glycerol because of a 93 bp deletion in the glpD gene “Y. pestis evolved from its parent species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis within the last 20,000 years”

PowerPoint Presentation:

The samples from France and England also have the ancestral version of SNP s12 , which places them near the split between branches 0, 1 and 2 . In contrast, the samples from the Netherlands have the derived version of SNP s12 , which maps them to the beginning of branch 1 UK and France MEDIEVALIS BIOVAR OREINTALIS BIOVAR ANTIQUA BIOVAR ANTIQUA BIOVAR “Y. pestis evolved from its parent species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis within the last 20,000 years”

PowerPoint Presentation:

“Our finding of identical genotypes (based on 20 markers) in Saint-Laurent-de-la-Cabrerisse and Hereford thus lends support to historical evidence which suggest that plague spread from France to England in the second half of the 14th century ”. However, the Y. pestis genotype identified in our skeletons from Bergen op Zoom differed from those found in Hereford and Saint-Laurent-de-la-Cabrerisse , implying that Bergen op Zoom (and possibly other parts of the southern Netherlands) was not directly infected from England or France in AD 1349 ”. “Instead, our results are more consistent with the idea that the genotype in Bergen op Zoom represents a different route of plague spread , possibly from the northern to the southern Low Countries in AD 1350 ”.

PowerPoint Presentation:

“Together with prior analyses from the south of France and Germany , our data from widely distributed mass plague pits ends the debate about the etiology of the Black Death, and unambiguously demonstrates that Yersinia pestis was the causative agent of the epidemic plague that devastated Europe during the Middle Ages . However , there is an apparent discrepancy between the genotypes identified in this study and those reported elsewhere on aDNA from Justinian’s plague ( 542 CE ) and the second pandemic ” 1 Citation: Haensch S, Bianucci R, Signoli M, Rajerison M, Schultz M, et al. (2010) Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death. PLoS Pathog 6(10): e1001134. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001134: Received May 28, 2010; Accepted September 7, 2010; Published October 7, 2010, p6 In the first of these analyses, aDNA from Justinian’s plague and the second pandemic was concluded to correspond to biovar Orientalis (now designated 1.ORI) on the basis of microsatellites. The second analysis demonstrated the presence of the 96 bp glpD deletion that is characteristic of 1.ORI in samples from the 7th to 9th century (Justinian’s plague) and about 1720 ( the end of the second pandemic ). In our study we did not find the glpD deletion in Yersinia pestis aDNA from the Black Death period ( 1348-50 ).

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 Plague predated the Middle Ages by more than 1000 years. The first recorded epidemic erupted in Mongolia in 46 CE . Before it burned itself out, it had taken about two-thirds of the population with it . China was next to play host in 312 CE . Its northern and western provinces were decimated; more than 90% of the population was lost to the disease. The next major Plague epidemics (pandemics?) occurred: in 540 CE at Pelusium , Egypt and reached Constantinople in 542 CE and spread into Europe and Asia (the Plague of 2 Justinian ) in the following decade; Smaller outbreaks continued for about 200 more years; London in 1664–1666 ; Austria in 1711 ; The Balkans from 1770–1772 . The last major pandemic ran from 1855–1896 worldwide , but mostly in China and India , wherein more than 12 million died . Manchuria in 1910–1911 lost about 60,000 to pneumonic Plague with a repeat in 1920–1921 ; A minor outbreak occurred as recently as the summer of 1994 in Surat , India closely following an earthquake in September 1993 . 2 Historians only recently have developed an interest in this particular pandemic that ranged from 541 to 767 . Research indicates that its victims may have numbered as many as 100 million . Population losses of 50–60% in North Africa , Europe , and central and southern Asia have been estimated . The historian Procopius claimed 10,000 deaths each day . Whole provinces were wiped out . ― “All the inhabitants, like beautiful grapes, were trampled and squeezed dry without mercy”, wrote Bishop John of Ephesus of the Plague‘s destruction in Palestine 1 History of Epidemics and Plagues, p5

PowerPoint Presentation:

FUT2 gene and the CCR5-Delta 32 gene deletion: Evidence of Plague immunity and cell memory

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 “and therefore, that in the beginning of the effluvia (infection), an order was published by the Lord Mayor and by the magistrates according to the advice of the physicians and apothecary, that all of the dogs and cats should be immediately killed , and an officer was appointed for the execution. It is incredible, if their account is to be depended upon , what a prodigious number of these creatures were destroyed. I think they talked about 40,000 dogs and five times as many (5x) cats . All possible endeavors were used also to destroy the mice and the rats , especially the latter , by laying rat’s bane and other poisons for them, and a prodigious amount of them were also destroyed ” 1,2,3,4 Journal of the Plague 1665, Daniel Defoe, p114, 115

PowerPoint Presentation:

Does Yersinia pseudotuberculosis originate from the soil itself and Earth , and if cometary debris falls to Earth after a fly-by, could this fallen mixture of space bacteria (such as ammonium and iridium) lead to food contamination and the spread of ancient plague , and, does y.pseudotuberculosis have an age of around 20,000 BC - would this transmit into the food chain and then into other animal hosts and fleas to acquire new DNA/RNA gene coding ? Would Earth-quakes permit re-release of pathogens? High frequency of reactive arthritis in adults after Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 outbreak caused by contaminated grated carrots - Ann Rheum Dis (2013) Transmission of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in the Pork Production Chain from Farm to Slaughterhouse - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2008) Multiple Outbreaks of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections in Finland - J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) A Widespread Outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:3 Infection from Iceberg Lettuce - The Journal of Infectious Disease (2004) - The present study is the first report of a Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreak in which a specific food has been implicated in a population-based, controlled epidemiologic study and traced back to be the source of contamination. Also noted was roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) fecal matter Salad and Pseudoappendicitis: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a Foodborne Pathogen - The Journal of Infectious Disease (2004) Reactive arthritis after an outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 infection - Ann Rheum Dis (2003) virF-Positive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica Found in Migratory Birds in Sweden - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) The Superantigen Gene ypm Is Located in an Unstable Chromosomal Locus of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis - J. Bacteriol. (2002) Reactive Arthritis and Reiter's Syndrome Following an Outbreak of Gastroenteritis Caused by Salmonella enteritidis - Clinical Infectious Diseases (2001)

authorStream Live Help