Nutrition and food supply

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Nutrition and food supply :

Nutrition and food supply

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Biochemical nutritional indicators in children with protein energy malnutrition attending Kanti Children Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal Author and Year: Mishra SK, Bastola SP et.al, 2009 Study design: descriptive study cross sectional with control Sample size: a total of 120 cases which include 60 PEM cases and 60 controls were selected Location and setting: hospital setting, Kanti Children's Hospital (KCH), Maharajgunj , Kathmandu, Nepal Outcome measure: determine biochemical nutritional indicators among children suffering from PEM and to compare all biochemical parameters with well nourished children and also determine the factors affecting PEM among children under five years.

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Result: No relation between the educational status of parents of children with PEM parents belongs to mainly housewives and laborers occupations children were in PEM group exact birth weights of children were not known. Most of the children are colostrum fed and were immunized. No difference in mean serum glucose, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, haemoglobin in both groups mean total protein, albumin, and calcium were significantly low in PEM group There was significantly higher incidence of hypoproteinemia , hypoalbuminaemia , and hypocalcaemia, in PEM group when compared to control group.

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Conclusion: children with protein energy malnutrition had altered biochemical parameters which were related to food intake biochemical metabolism needed during growth and development of children less than five years of age. higher proportion of hypoglycaemia , hypoproteinemia , hypoalbuminaemia , anaemia , hypocholesterolemia and hypocalcaemia in children with PEM when compared to normally nourished children

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2. Assessment of iodine nutrition status among school age children of Nepal by urinary iodine assay Author and Year: Gelal B, Aryal M et.al, 2009 Study design: population based cross-sectional study Sample size: 1,094 school age children Location and setting: whole nation, Nepal Outcome measure: evaluate the iodine status of Nepalese school age children by measuring urinary iodine excretion (UIE). Result: The median UIE at the national level was 193.10 microg /l, indicating adequate iodine intake in Nepalese schoolchildren. current iodine nutrition status is at satisfactory levels in Nepal Conclusion: An effective monitoring program must be continued

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3. Prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among healthy women of reproductive age in Bhaktapur , Nepal Author and Year: Chandyo RK, Strand TA et.al, 2007 Study design: cross-sectional study Sample size: Five hundred healthy women of reproductive age Location and setting: urban community, Bhaktapur , Nepal Outcome measure: determine the prevalence of anemia and iron status as assessed by biochemical markers and explore the associations between markers of iron status and iron intake. Result: prevalence of anemia was 12% (n=58). prevalence of depleted iron stores was 20% (n=98) prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 6% (n=30). Fifty-four percent of the women ate less than the recommended average intake of iron. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia in our study was substantially lower than the national figure for non-pregnant women.

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4. Nutrition knowledge and practices, and consumption of vitamin A--rich plants by rural Nepali participants and nonparticipants in a kitchen-garden program Author and Year: Jones KM, Specio SE et.al, 2005 Study design: cross-sectional nutrition survey Sample size: 430 MARD households with kitchen gardens and 389 non-MARD control households. Location and setting: terai (the flat, subtropical agricultural region that borders on India) in rural Nepal Outcome measure: developed and evaluated the impact of a nutrition program added to the Market Access for Rural Development (MARD) Project

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Result: The lack of knowledge about nutrition, including the causes, prevention, and treatment of night-blindness and anemia, was remarkable. Conclusion: striking lack of nutrition knowledge in these communities, and a clear opportunity to increase the intake of vitamin A through home production of vitamin A-rich plants

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5. Low birth weight Author and Year: Dipendra Kumar Yadav , 2011 Study design: hospital based cross sectional study Sample size: A total of 1426 birth occurred during the study period (December 2009 to January 2010), of which 306 met the study criteria Location and setting: hospital setting, Gynecology and Obstetrics ward in Janakpur Zonal Hospital. Janakpur , Nepal Outcome measure: LBW has been associated with higher probabilities of infection, malnutrition or others

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Result: Among which 66(21.56%) were low birth weight (LBW) and 240 were normal birth weight (NBW). Overall mean birth weight was found to be 2.75 ± 0.639 kg. It was observed that 61% mothers were illiterate and 26% of them delivered LBW babies. Socio-demographic factors (maternal age, educational level and economic status) and antenatal care are more important factors interplaying which lead to LBW babies. Conclusion: This study suggests that there are several factors interplaying which lead to LBW babies.

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6. Causes of vision impairment and assessment of need for low vision services for students of blind schools in Nepal Author and Year: Kansakar I, Thapa HB et.al, 2009 Study design: survey Sample size: 12 blind schools in Nepal, which were registered with Nepal Association for Welfare of Blindness (NAWB). Outcome measure: evaluate causes of vision impairment of students enrolled in blind schools in Nepal and assess the need for low vision rehabilitation services in these students.

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Result: Nearly three-fourth of the children had become blind within one year of age and 52.3% visually impaired at birth and 20.7% developed vision impairment within one year of age. major etiological factors were those of childhood such as Vitamin A deficiency, measles and similar causes (42.11%) followed by hereditary causes (25.26%). Conclusion: general public and community health workers, with governmental and institutional support is required to achieve Vision 2020 objectives to decrease childhood blindness

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7. A prevalence of thyroid disorder in Western part of Nepal Objectives : The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among the patients who attended the Charak Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal . Materials and Methods: A hospital based study Results : The total number of cases was 1504, which included 23.20% males and 76.80% females. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 17.42%. Females had more thyroid dysfunction than the males. A higher prevalence of the thyroid dysfunction was observed in the subjects who ages were above 41-50 years. Conclusion : Females and people of advanced ages were more vulnerable to thyroid dysfunction in the population.

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8. Infectious Diseases and Malnutrition Status in Nepal: an Overview Author and Year: Shiba Kumar Rai, Kazuko Hirai et.al, 2002 Result: People in rural areas are more affected by malnutrition than those in urban areas. This has been attributed to poverty, lack of education, and rampant infectious diseases. The most significant nutritional disorders are protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and iron deficiency anemia.

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9. Household food insecurity and nutritional status of children aged 6-23 months in Kailali district of Nepal Helen Keller International, Nepal, 2010 reported that The AAMA “Action Against Malnutrition through Agriculture” project is implemented by Helen Keller International (HKI) in Kailali district of Nepal a cross sectional survey was carried out in January, 2009 to assess the relationship between household food insecurity and malnutrition among children aged 6-23 months by analyzed data from families of 368 children. More than two-thirds (69%) of households were classified as food insecure (insufficient access to adequate food). Stunting, underweight and wasting were 41%, 24% and 9% among children respectively. Anemia was 57%. There was no significant association between household food insecurity and stunting, underweight and anemia among children. This report results suggest that nutritional status of children is not only influenced by food but also by other non-food factors.

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9. A Study on Nutritional Status of Under Five Jirel Children of Eastern Nepal Author and Year: Chapagain RH, Adhikari AP et.al, 2005 Study design: observational study Sample size: 309 Jirel children Location and setting: Rural community, Jirel community in Jiri VDC of Dolakha District Outcome measure: assess the nutritional status of under five years of children of age group 12 months to 60 months

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Result : 51.13 percent were found to be normal and 12.62 percent were having severe malnutrition in MUAC measurement . According to Gomez classification, 37 percent children were normal but no one was found to be severely malnourished. 64 percent were found to be having mild to moderate malnutrition. According to Waterlow’s classification 71 percent were found to be normal and 29 percent were stunted while no one was found to be wasted . Conclusion : Due to poor socio economic status and high prevelance of helmenthic infection the nutritional status of Jirel children is not good in comparison to national, district and Jiri VDC averages

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