HEALTH BEHAVIOR,ILLNESS BEHAVIOR AND SICKNESS ROLE1

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HEALTH BEHAVIOR,ILLNESS BEHAVIOR AND SICKNESS ROLE:

HEALTH BEHAVIOR,ILLNESS BEHAVIOR AND SICKNESS ROLE

HEALTH BEHAVIOR:

HEALTH BEHAVIOR Health: According to WHO, “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”

HEALTH BEHAVIOR:

HEALTH BEHAVIOR It is an action taken by a person to maintain, attain or regain good health and to prevent illness. It reflects a person’s health beliefs It is any activity undertaken by an individual, regardless of actual or perceived health status,for the purpose of promoting, protecting or maintaining health,whether or not such behavior is objectively effective towards that end.

CONTD….:

CONTD…. Health behaviors are expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example: proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Lifestyle is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socio-economic, educational and cultural.

MODEL OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR:

MODEL OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR Health Belief Model: A tool that scientists use to try and predict health behaviors. Developed by Hochbaum,1958; Rosenstock,1960. One of the longest established theoretical model designed to explain health behavior by understanding people’s beliefs about health.

CONTD…..:

CONTD….. It is based on the theory that a person’s willingness to change their health behaviors is primarily due to the following factors: Perceived susceptibility : Person will not change their health behaviors unless they believe that they are at risk.

CONTD…..:

CONTD….. Perceived severity : the probability that a person will change his/her health behaviors to avoid a consequence depends on how serious he or she considers the consequence to be. Perceived benefits: it’s difficult to convince people to change a behavior if there isn’t something in it for them.

CONTD…..:

CONTD….. Perceived barriers : one of the major reasons people don’t change their health behaviors is that they think that doing so is going to be hard. sometimes it’s not just a matter of physical difficulty, but social difficulty as well. changing your health behaviors can cost effort, money and time.

ILLNESS BEHAVIOR:

ILLNESS BEHAVIOR Illness: A highly personal state person’s physical, emotional, social, developmental or spiritual functioning Not synonymous with disease May or may not be related to disease Only person can say he or she is ill (highly subjective)

CHARACTERISTICS OF BEING HELATHY:

CHARACTERISTICS OF BEING HELATHY Presence or absence of disease Complete physical, mental, social well-being Ability to maintain normal roles Process of adaptation to physical and social environment Striving toward optimal wellness Individual definitions

SUCHMAN’S 5 STAGES OF ILLNESS(1979):

SUCHMAN’S 5 STAGES OF ILLNESS(1979) Stage 1: Symptom experiences Cognitive aspect (believe something is wrong) Physical experience of symptoms Emotional response (may consult others and try home remedies) Stage 2: Assumption of the sick role Accepts the sick role and seeks confirmation from family and friends Continue with treatment Excused from normal duties and expectations Emotional responses common Seek professional health service

CONTD….:

CONTD…. Stage 3:Medical care contact Seeks advice of a health professional to: Validate real illness Explain illness in understandable terms Get reassurance (may accept or deny diagnosis) Stage 4: Dependent client role Becomes dependent on the professional for help

CONTD….:

CONTD…. Stage 5: Recovery or rehabilitation Relinquish the dependent role Resume former roles and responsibilities Long term responsibilities and permanent disability necessitate adjustment

SICKNESS ROLE:

SICKNESS ROLE It is a term used in medical sociology concerning the social aspects of falling ill and the privileges and obligations that accompany. It is a concept created by American sociologist Talcott Parsons in 1951.

PARSONS SICK ROLE MODEL:

PARSONS SICK ROLE MODEL Parsons was a functionalist sociologist. He argued that being sick means that the sufferer enters a role of ‘sanctioned deviance’. According to functionalist perspective: A sick individual is not a productive member of society. An individual who has fallen ill is not only physically sick, but now adheres to the specifically patterned social role of being sick.

CONTD…..:

CONTD….. ‘Being sick’ is not simply a ‘state of fact’ or ‘condition’. It contains within itself customary rights and obligations based on the social norms that surround it. The theory outlined two rights of a sick person and two obligations: Rights: The sick person is exempt from normal social roles The sick person is not responsible for their condition

CONTD…….:

CONTD……. Obligations : The sick person should try to get well. The sick person should seek technically competent help and cooperate with the medical professional.

CONTD…..:

CONTD….. Criticisms: Rejecting the sick role Assumes that the individual voluntarily accepts the sick role. Individual may not accept ‘passive patient’ role He/she may not comply with expectations of the sick role He/she may not give up social obligations He/she may resist dependency He/she may avoid public sick role if their illness is stigmatised.

CONTD….:

CONTD…. Doctor patient relationship Going to see doctor may be the end of a process of help seeking behavior. This model assumes ‘ideal’ patient and ‘ideal’ doctor. Differential treatment of patient, and differential doctor patient relationship-variations depend on social class, gender and ethnicity.

CONTD….:

CONTD…. Blaming the sick ‘Rights’ do not always apply. Individuals are responsible for their illness. In stigmatised illness sufferer is often not accepted as legitimately sick. Chronic illness Model fits acute illness Does not fit chronic/long-term/permanent illness Chronically ill patients are often encouraged to be independent.

SWAZ-HOLLENDER MODEL:

SWAZ-HOLLENDER MODEL Behavioral implications of organic symptoms, Swaz and Hollander, both physicians, saw more extensive behavioral implications of organic symptoms which they incorporated in a modes of doctor-patient relationship based on a threefold typology.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Model Physician’s role Patient’s role Clinical application of model Prototype of model Activity passivity Does something to patient recipient Anasthasia,acute trauma,coma etc Parent-infant Guidance co-operation Tells patient what to do co-operator Acute infection process Patient-child Mutual participation Help patient to help himself Participant in partnership Most chronic illnesses.psycho e Adult-adult

BARRIERS IN EFFECTIVE PROFESSIONAL-PATIENT RELATIONSHIP:

BARRIERS IN EFFECTIVE PROFESSIONAL-PATIENT RELATIONSHIP Lack of knowledge about the health and medical system. Illiteracy in sufficient health resources. Egoism, professional centrist, superior inferior feelings. Lack of socio-cultural, economic knowledge and psychological barrier.

CONTD…..:

CONTD….. Heavy duty of the professional and misunderstanding Socio-political and other pressure, violence, money centered behavior of the provider. Poverty of the user/patient and country.

CONSUMER-PROVIDER RELATIONSHIP:

CONSUMER-PROVIDER RELATIONSHIP Consumer: A person that uses products or services. Health care consumer : Those who use information, products and services. This group includes: well, sick, young, middle-aged, rich, poor etc.

CONTD….:

CONTD…. Provider: Someone who provide a particular goods or services to the consumers. Health care provider : An individual or organization that provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitation health care services in a systematic way to individuals, families or communities.

CONTD….:

CONTD…. The shift in the relationship between patients and medical providers will continue to change the healthcare landscape as the ease of use and reliability of consumer self-diagnostic products advance, according to a group of industry, research and academic leaders that convened at a recent day-long diagnostics workshop hosted by Cambridge Consultants.

CONTD….:

CONTD…. Yet, as the expansion of consumer diagnostics and monitoring products empower consumers to actively manage their own healthcare, new challenges and responsibilities for both consumers and the diagnostics technology industry are emerging.

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACING THE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTICS INDUSTRIES:

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACING THE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTICS INDUSTRIES Testing devices need to be easier to use and less prone to user error, given their use outside of a clinical setting. Results need to be presented in a manner easily understood and interpreted by the consumer and have an actionable outcome.

CONTD….:

CONTD…. Technology must help build consumer confidence by improving the reliability and reducing false results. The market for self-diagnostics products, while building momentum here in the U.S., is likely to grow faster in countries with state-run healthcare systems.

CONTD…..:

CONTD….. Consumers need to be able to record, track and manage this information, much the way runners track their training performance with PDA’s and online tools. The industry must consider how consumer testing of sensitive medical information, for example genetic predisposition, impacts relationships with, and the rights of, family members or employers.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION…………:

THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION…………

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