Translating the Bible

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Powerpoint from September 7 Evening Service at East End Baptist Church

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Translating the Bible:

Translating the Bible Basics Every Believer should know

Why do we Translate the Bible?:

Why do we Translate the Bible? Original Languages of the Scripture are: HEBREW ARAMAIC GREEK 1 Peter 2:2 “ Long for the pure milk of the word so that by it you may grow in respect to salvation…”

Hebrew:

Hebrew Inscription in the tomb of Abba at Giv’at ha- Mivtar Gezer Calendar Jar handle marked “ l’melek ” (belonging to the king)

Aramaic:

Aramaic Well known in the ancient world Court language of several kingdoms until replaced by Greek Probable every day language of Israel under Roman rule Used in a few locations in the Old Testament: Daniel, Ezra

Greek:

Greek Language of New Testament Koine Greek (which is different from Classical Greek) Everyday, common Greek

Two Choices :

Two Choices Learn archaic languages Gets the exact meaning Uses the same words used by God to inspire Time-consuming for anyone to read Scripture Hard to transmit information Expensive Obscures the meaning Translate the text Relies on experts in the field Uses the same words we use everyday Time-consuming work Less time-consuming for readers Easier to transmit information Clarifies most meanings

Slide8:

ἀπολογία, ας, ἡ (s. ἀπολογέομαι ; Pre- Socr ., Thu. et al.; pap, e.g. BGU 531, 21 [I a.d. ]; PLips 58, 18; Wsd 6:10; TestSol ; Jos. C. Ap. 2, 147; Ar., Just.) freq. as legal term. ① a speech of defense, defense, reply ἀκούσατέ μου τῆς πρὸς ὑμᾶς νυνὶ ἀπολογίας hear the defense which I now make to you Ac 22:1 ( ἀ. πρός τινα as X., Mem. 4, 8, 5). ἡ ἐμὴ ἀ. τοῖς ἐμὲ ἀνακρίνουσιν my reply to those who sit in judgment over me 1 Cor 9:3. Written defense, apology Qua (1). ② the act of making a defense, defense ⓐ in court (Jos., Bell. 1, 621) ἐν τ. πρώτῃ μου ἀ . at my first defense 2 Ti 4:16 (s. πρῶτος 1a α א ). τόπον ἀπολογίας λαμβάνειν περί τινος receive an opportunity to defend himself concerning someth . Ac 25:16. ⓑ gener . of eagerness to defend oneself 2 Cor 7:11. Of defending the gospel Phil 1:7, 16. ἕτοιμοι πρὸς ἀπολογίαν παντί ready to make a defense to anyone 1 Pt 3:15. ③ claim of extenuating circumstance, excuse, οὐκ ἔχειν άπολογίαν εἰπεῖν be unable to say in defense PtK 3 p. 15, 23 (cp. Just., A I, 42, 2 ἀ. παρέχειν ).—DELG s.v . λέγω B. M-M William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker, and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000). Page . Exported from Logos Bible Software, 4:06 PM September 3, 2015.

Major Types of Translations:

Major Types of Translations Thought-for-Thought Goes after units of thought Presents ideas Aims for receiver language to make sense Seeks to be faithful to ideas of original author Word-for-Word Goes after specific words Still must smooth out grammar Aims to reflect original language more than smooth reading in current language Seeks to be faithful to words of original author

Less than helpful types of translations:

Less than helpful types of translations Overkill Amplified Bible: uses every possible word Not-translated Bibles (I have one that leaves “Jesus” in Aramaic Overly-interpreted Bibles (ones that make one assumption, and hang on to it: the above one puts “Jesus” from Greek into Hebrew and then prints it in Hebrew Paraphrases Rely not just on original language but heavily lean on interpreter’s ideas Living Bible Message Bible These are more of one person’s “this is what I think it means” than what it actually says

For Example: Psalm 22:16-18:

For Example: Psalm 22:16-18 Message Bible Now packs of wild dogs come at me; thugs gang up on me. They pin me down hand and foot, and lock me in a cage—a bag Of bones in a cage, stared at by every passerby. They take my wallet and the shirt off my back, and then throw dice for my clothes HCSB 16  For dogs have surrounded me; a gang of evildoers has closed in on me; they pierced my hands and my feet. 17  I can count all my bones; people look and stare at me. 18  They divided my garments among themselves, and they cast lots for my clothing.

English Translations:

English Translations Caedmon Bede Wycliffe Tyndale Geneva Bible->Pilgrims/Puritans King James Bible Revised Standard Version NKJV, NASB, ESV, NIV, NLT,….

King James: 1 Corinthians 13:1-4:

King James: 1 Corinthians 13:1-4 1611 Though I speake with the tongues of men & of Angels, and haue not charity, I am become as sounding brasse or a tinkling cymbal. 2And though I haue the gift of prophesie , and vnderstand all mysteries and all knowledge: and though I haue all faith, so that I could remooue mountaines , and haue no charitie , I am nothing. 3And though I bestowe all my goods to feede the poore , and though I giue my body to bee burned, and haue not charitie , it profiteth me nothing. 4Charitie suffereth long, and is kinde : charitie enuieth not: charitie vaunteth not it selfe , is not puffed vp , Current Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. 2 And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. 3 And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. 4 Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up,

Source Materials for Translations:

Source Materials for Translations Masoretic Text Textus Receptus Additional Textual Sources (Early Translations like Syriac , Latin) Early Church Citations References in other literature Dead Sea Scrolls 1000s upon 1000s

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