Reforming Public Policy

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

Reforming Public Policy

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Reforming Public Policy:

Reforming Public Policy The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. Atlanta Philadelphia (878) 222-0100 Voice | Data | SMS www.TheAdvocacy.Foundation © The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 2016 (All Rights Reserved)

Biblical Authority:

Biblical Authority Romans 13:1-7 (NIV) 2 Peter 2:13-17 (NIV) Titus 3:1 (NIV) 2

Introduction:

Introduction 3 Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs. The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further substrates include both judicial interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation. Public policy is considered strong when it solves problems efficiently and effectively, serves justice, supports governmental institutions and policies, and encourages active citizenship.

Introduction:

Introduction 4 Other scholars define it as a system of "courses of action, regulatory measures, laws, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives." Public policy is commonly embodied "in constitutions, legislative acts, and judicial decisions."

Introduction:

Introduction 5 Public policy making can be characterized as a dynamic, complex, and interactive system through which public problems are identified and countered by creating new public policy or by reforming existing public policy. Public problems can originate in endless ways and require different policy responses (such as regulations, subsidies, quotas, and laws) on the local, national, or international level.

Introduction:

Introduction 6 Public policy making is a continuous process that has many feedback loops. Verification and evaluation are essential to the functioning of this system. The public problems that influence public policy making can be of economic, social, or political nature. Each system is influenced by different public problems and thus requires different public policy.

Introduction:

Introduction 7 In public policy making, numerous individuals and interest groups compete and collaborate to influence policymakers to act in a particular way. The large set of actors in the public policy process, such as politicians, civil servants, lobbyists, domain experts, and industry representatives, use a variety of tactics and tools to advance their aims, including advocating their positions publicly, attempting to educate supporters and opponents, and mobilizing allies on a particular issue. Many actors can be important in the public policy process, however, government officials ultimately choose the ‘public policy’ in response to the public issue or problem at hand. In doing so, government officials are expected to meet public sector ethics and take the needs of all stakeholders into account.

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis:

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis 8 Policy Analysis is "determining which of various policies will most achieve a given set of goals in light of the relations between the policies and the goals." However, policy analysis can be divided into two major fields. Analysis of existing policy which is analytical and descriptive—i.e., it attempts to explain policies and their development. Analysis for new policy which is prescriptive—i.e., it is involved with formulating policies and proposals (e.g., to improve social welfare). The area of interest and the purpose of analysis determines what type of analysis is conducted.

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis:

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis 9 Various approaches to policy analysis exist. The Analysis ‘of-for’ policy is the central approach in social science and educational policy studies which is linked to two different traditions of policy analysis and research frameworks. The approach of analysis ‘ for ’ policy refers to research conducted for actual policy development, often commissioned by policymakers inside the bureaucracy within which the policy is developed. Analysis ‘ of ’ policy is more of an academic exercise, conducted by academic researchers, seeking to understand why a particular policy was developed at a particular time and the effects, intended or otherwise, of that policy.

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis:

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis 10 There are, in addition three general approaches that can be distinguished: the analycentric , the policy process, and the meta-policy approach. The Analycentric approach focuses on individual problems and their solutions; its scope is the micro-scale and its problem interpretation is usually of a technical nature. The primary aim is to identify the most effective and efficient solution in technical and economic terms (e.g. the most efficient allocation of resources). The Policy Process approach puts its focal point onto political processes and involved stakeholders; its scope is the meso -scale and its problem interpretation is usually of a political nature. It aims at determining what processes and means are used and tries to explain the role and influence of stakeholders within the policy process. The Meta-Policy Approach is a systems and context approach; i.e., its scope is the macro-scale and its problem interpretation is usually of a structural nature. It aims at explaining the contextual factors of the policy process; i.e., what are the political, economic and socio-cultural factors influencing it.

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis:

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis 11 Policy analysis uses both qualitative methods and quantitative methods, including case studies, survey research, statistical analysis, and model building. A common practice is to define the problem and evaluation criteria; identify and evaluate alternatives; and impede or recommend the policy accordingly. Promotion of the best agenda's are the product of careful back-room analysis of policies by a priori assessment and a posteriori evaluation.

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis:

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis 12 There are six dimensions to policy analysis categorized as the Effects and Implementation of the policy across a period of time. Effectiveness Acceptability Equity Cost Feasibility Unintended Effects

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis:

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis 13 Five "E" Approach E ffectiveness: How effective ? E fficiency: How efficient ? E thical considerations: Ethically sound ? E valuations of alternatives: How good ? E stablishment of recommendations for positive change: What can be established ?

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis:

The Science Behind Public Policy Analysis 14 Techniques used in Policy Analysis Cost Benefit Analysis Management by Objectives (MBO) Operations Research Decision making based on Analytics Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) & Critical path Method (CPM)

Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning:

Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning 15 Our increasingly complex society confronts us with more and more difficult pol­icy problems that are not easily solved. Some au­thors characterize the problems of modern society as “squishy,” “fuzzy,” and “wicked” and as often having the following attributes:   1. They are not well defined. 2. Their solutions cannot usually be proven to be correct before application. 3. No problem solution is ever guaranteed to achieve the intended result. 4. Problem solutions are seldom both best and cheapest. 5. The adequacy of the solution is often difficult to measure against notions of the public good. 6. The fairness of solutions is impossible to measure objectively.

Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning:

Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning 16 There are many examples of complex problems. What is the best location in a state for a maximum security prison? Should a ban on phosphorus that has proven ineffective in improving water quality be lifted? A city council is consid­ering offering tax breaks for developers willing to build offices in certain sec­tions of downtown. Should the mayor veto the plan? The county executive has proposed a $50 million expansion of the metropolitan airport. Should the county board of supervisors support this plan? These problems will be an­swered: that is, decisions will be made. Even if the decision is to do nothing, it will still have consequences for citizens.

Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning:

Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning 17 We believe there is a set of systematic procedures or policy analysis methods that can be used to attack contemporary policy problems. We also believe there is a subset of these methods that are basic methods, yielding quick results and serving as theoretically sound aids to making good policy decisions. Some people might argue that the variety of public policy problems is so great that no one set of systematic procedures could be developed for dealing with all of them. Critics might also say that the geographic and political context for these problems is so far-ranging that they don’t have much in common, thus defying any standard approach.

Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning:

Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning 18 Policy analysts are often required to give advice to policy makers In incredibly short periods of time, in contrast to university researchers and think-tank consultants who are hired specifically to conduct intensive research on public policy issues. Some have called this latter type of work “policy studies” or “policy research.” Analysts doing this work are typically given comparatively large bud­gets and long periods of time to produce results, and they work with large sets of data. Consequently the methods they use are different than those used by staff who work for decision makers on a day-to-day basis. The terms ‘researched analysis” and “quick analysis” were coined to describe this difference.

Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning:

Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning 19 The goals of persons who produce “researched analysis” are different than those of persons who produce “basic analysis.” Certain to be critically reviewed by their peers, researchers seek the truth behind problems and non-intuitive, or even counter-intuitive solutions. Fellow researchers are impressed with the complexity, elegance, and precision of the analysis. For quick, basic analysis the goals are much more practical. The goal may be simply to inform public decision mak­ers well enough so they don’t get caught in major errors. An example might be to assist the mayor of a large city who must decide whether to side with the di­rector of public works in defending the cost of garbage collection when an oppo­nent claims the cost to be double that of other cities of comparable size.

The Eightfold Plan to More Effective Problem-Solving:

The Eightfold Plan to More Effective Problem-Solving 20 The Eightfold Path is a method of policy analysis assembled by Eugene Bardach , a professor at the Goldman School of Public Policy at the University of California, Berkeley. It is outlined in his book A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis: The Eightfold Path to More Effective Problem Solving...

The Eightfold Plan to More Effective Problem-Solving:

21 Bardach's procedure is as follows: Define the Problem Assemble Some Evidence Construct the Alternatives Select the Criteria Project the Outcomes Confront the Trade-offs Decide Tell Your Story A possible ninth-step, based on Bardach's own writing, might be "Repeat Steps 1 - 8 as Necessary." The Eightfold Plan to More Effective Problem-Solving

The Eightfold Plan to More Effective Problem-Solving:

22 The New York taxi driver test is a technique for evaluating the effectiveness of communication between policy makers and analysts. Bardach contends that policy explanations must be clear and down-to-earth enough for a taxi driver to be able to understand the premise during a trip through city streets. The New York taxi driver is presumed to be both a non-specialist and a tough customer. The Eightfold Plan to More Effective Problem-Solving

Political Feasibility Analysis:

Political Feasibility Analysis 23 Political Feasibility Analysis is used to predict the probable outcome of a proposed solution to a policy problem through examining the actors, events and environment involved in all stages of the policy-making process. It is one frequently used component of a policy analysis and can serve as an evaluative criterion in choosing between policy alternatives.

Political Feasibility Analysis:

Political Feasibility Analysis 24 Feasible policies must be politically acceptable or at least not unacceptable. Political unacceptability is a combination of two conditions too much opposition or too little support. One common mistake is widespread in practice that feasibility becomes a dominant criterion of preferable alternative.

Political Feasibility Analysis:

Political Feasibility Analysis 25 Feasibility is “the state or degree of being easily or conveniently done”. More plainly, one might ask “can we get this done?” Feasibility, as it pertains to the political arena, speaks to the political climate. The question then becomes: “In this political climate, can we get this done?” Political feasibility is a measure of how well a solution to a policy problem, will be accepted by a set of decision makers and the general public. For a policy to be enacted and implemented, it must be politically acceptable, or feasible. A policy alternative's lack of political feasibility can often be attributed to its lack of political support or the result of controversy that may surround the issue the policy seeks to address.

Political Feasibility Analysis:

Political Feasibility Analysis 26 Steps In A Political Feasibility Analysis Identify The Policy's Environment The first step for the policy analyst is to identify the space in which the policy problem exists. Next the analyst defines the specific policy issue area level of public awareness timing of the policy proposal concerns and voting patterns of different demographics

Political Feasibility Analysis:

Political Feasibility Analysis 27 Assemble Information and Organize It Key Players Site of Action Belief Systems Resources Motivations

Advocacy Evaluation:

Advocacy Evaluation 28 Advocacy Evaluation , also called Public Policy Advocacy Design, Monitoring, and Evaluation , evaluates the progress or outcomes of advocacy, such as changes in public policy. This is different from policy analysis, which generally looks at the results of the policy, or mainstream program evaluation, which assesses whether programs or direct services have been successful. Advocacy strives to influence a program or policy either directly or indirectly; therefore, the influence is being evaluated, rather than the results of that influence.

Advocacy Evaluation:

Advocacy Evaluation 29 Advocacy evaluators seek to understand the extent to which advocacy efforts have contributed to the advancement of a goal or policy. They do this in order to learn what works, what does not, and what works better in order to achieve advocacy goals and improve future efforts.

Advocacy Evaluation:

Advocacy Evaluation 30 Policy advocacy evaluation focuses on the contribution towards achieving policy, and not on the results of that policy. Policy advocacy evaluators look at these dependent variables (many of which interrelate significantly with movement in the policy cycle): Intermediate Goal Examples: Increased awareness of constituents about the need for policy (Problem Identification - Agenda Setting) Change in rate of key-words use by politicians, sometimes starting from 0 (Problem Identification - Agenda Setting) Increase in ratio of policy being implemented according to the adopted legislation (Adoption->Implementation) Developed capacity of advocacy actor or network of actors to conduct advocacy efforts Ultimate Goals Policy change itself in the desired direction (of the policy cycle). This is the highest level intermediate outcome, and as an inherent best practice, is the goal of most policy advocacy efforts. Policy Advocacy works to move a policy through the policy cycle.

Advocacy Evaluation:

Advocacy Evaluation 31 Distinct Challenges of Advocacy Evaluation Contribution vs. Attribution Long Term Nature of Advocacy Shifting Strategies Complexity and Theories of Change

Advocacy Evaluation:

Advocacy Evaluation 32 Typology of Policy Advocacy Direct Advocacy Indirect Advocacy Grassroots Lobbying Activism Astro-Turfing

The Governmental Learning Spiral:

The Governmental Learning Spiral 33 The Governmental Learning Spiral is a technique used to solve specific governance challenges. It is used during prearranged educational events such as conferences, e-learning, and trainings to improve performance in democratic governance. The Governmental Learning Spiral—a heuristic and multidisciplinary tool—has been developed and implemented at international governmental learning events throughout the past decade.

The Governmental Learning Spiral:

The Governmental Learning Spiral 34 The technique consists of an eight-stage learning process, which includes the planning and aftermath as well as the learning event itself. A major characteristic of this type of governmental learning event is facilitation by a learning broker who oversees all aspects of event organization. These include logistics, content preparation, drafting and implementation of the agenda, moderation of the learning sessions, and follow-up activities. The learning broker designs the learning process according to the specific governance challenge at hand.

The Governmental Learning Spiral:

The Governmental Learning Spiral 35 The event must be structured based on several factors: The specific challenge a government is facing An analysis of the kind of knowledge a government needs to address it The particular political and institutional environment, which determines who will participate in the activity The participants invited to the event must represent different substantive and organizational perspectives and play a precisely defined role as both knowledge holders and knowledge seekers. When this is achieved, participants have unlimited access to the collective wealth of the shared tacit and explicit knowledge.

The Governmental Learning Spiral:

The Governmental Learning Spiral 36 The Governmental Learning Spiral technique consists of an eight-stage template . The stages of the learning process organized chronologically in the template and split into three distinct sequences for a particular learning event. Before During After

The Governmental Learning Spiral:

The Governmental Learning Spiral 37 Application Examples Second International Conference on Federalism A global dialogue on federalism Seminar on the Iraqi judiciary system and the second chamber of parliament Workshop about lessons of a decade of Public Sector Reform: Voices of African Client Stakeholders Global multimedia training and e-learning initiative in the area of private-public partnership in infrastructure Making a difference in Minearal -Rich Areas of the Deomocratic Republic of the Congo

Questions & Answers:

Questions & Answers 38

Thank You!:

Thank You! The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. Atlanta Philadelphia (878) 222-0100 Voice | Data | SMS www.TheAdvocacy.Foundation © The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 2016 (All Rights Reserved) 39

authorStream Live Help