Culturally Relevant Programming - Corporate Culture

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Culturally Relevant Programming - Corporate Culture

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Culturally Relevant Programming Corporate Culture:

Culturally Relevant Programming Corporate Culture The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Philadelphia, PA 19102 Atlanta, GA 30303 (878) 222-0100 Voice | Data | SMS www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org © The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 2015 (All Rights Reserved)

Biblical Authority:

Biblical Authority Ephesians 4:2-5 (NIV) 2  Be completely humble and gentle; be patient, bearing with one another in love. 3  Make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit through the bond of peace. 4  There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to one hope when you were called; 5  one Lord, one faith, one baptism; ______   Acts 17:26-28 (NIV) 26  From one man he made all the nations, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and he marked out their appointed times in history and the boundaries of their lands. 27  God did this so that they would seek him and perhaps reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from any one of us. 28  ‘For in him we live and move and have our being.’ As some of your own poets have said, ‘We are his offspring.’ 2

Introduction Organizational Culture:

Introduction Organizational Culture Organizational Culture encompasses values and behaviors that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization." Organizational culture is a set of shared assumptions that guide what happens in organizations by defining appropriate behavior for various situations. Culture includes the organization's vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, beliefs, and habits. 3

Introduction Organizational Culture:

Culture as root metaphor sees the organization as its culture, created through communication and symbols, or competing metaphors. Culture is basic with personal experience producing a variety of perspectives. The organizational communication perspective on culture views culture in three different ways: Traditionalism : views culture through objective things such as stories, rituals, and symbols; Interpretivism : views culture through a network of shared meanings (organization members sharing subjective meanings); Critical- Interpretivism : views culture through a network of shared meanings as well as the power struggles created by a similar network of competing [interests]. 4 Introduction Organizational Culture

Inclusive Business:

An Inclusive Business is a sustainable business that benefits low-income communities. It is a business initiative that, keeping its for-profit nature, contributes to poverty reduction through the inclusion of low income communities in its value chain. In simple words inclusive business is all about including the poor in the business process be it as producers or consumers. 5 Inclusive Business

Inclusive Business:

Large corporations traditionally target consumers in the middle and high-income segments of society, and established suppliers and service providers from the formal economy. Inclusive businesses find profitable ways to engage the low-income segment into their business operations in a way that benefits the low-income communities and creates sustainable livelihoods . 6 Inclusive Business

Inclusive Business:

Inclusive businesses may engage low-income communities through, among other things, directly employing low-income people; targeting development of suppliers and service providers from low-income communities; or providing affordable goods and services targeted at low-income communities. Inclusive business is not corporate philanthropy, which has inherent limitations of scope and budget. Rather, it is the search for sustainable business models that "do well by doing good" and have the potential to become part of the mainstream business model within the companies concerned. 7 Inclusive Business

Types of Organizational Cultures:

While there is no single "type" of organizational culture, and organizational cultures vary widely from one organization to the next, commonalities do exist and some researchers have developed models to describe different indicators of organizational cultures. Hofstede Model Cultural differences reflect differences in thinking and social action, and even in "mental programs“… Hofstede relates culture to ethnic and regional groups, but also organizations, profession, family, to society and subcultural groups, national political systems and legislation, etc. 8 Types of Organizational Cultures

Types of Organizational Cultures:

O’Reilly, Chatman & Caldwell Model O’Reilly , Chatman & Caldwell (1991) developed a model based on the belief that cultures can be distinguished by values that are reinforced within organizations. Their Organizational Cultural Profile (OCP) is a self reporting tool which makes distinctions according eight categories - Innovation, Supportiveness, Stability, Respect for People, Outcome Orientation, Attention to Detail, Team Orientation, and Aggressiveness. The model is also suited to measure how organizational culture effects organizational performance, as it measures most efficient persons suited in an organization and as such organizations can be termed as good organizational culture. 9 Types of Organizational Cultures

Types of Organizational Cultures:

Gerry Johnson (1988) described a cultural web, identifying a number of elements that can be used to describe or influence organizational culture: The Paradigm : What the organization is about, what it does, its mission, its values. Control Systems : The processes in place to monitor what is going on. Role cultures would have vast rulebooks. There would be more reliance on individualism in a power culture. Organizational Structures : Reporting lines, hierarchies, and the way that work flows through the business. Power Structures : Who makes the decisions, how widely spread is power, and on what is power based? Symbols : These include organizational logos and designs, but also extend to symbols of power such as parking spaces and executive washrooms. Rituals and Routines : Management meetings, board reports and so on may become more habitual than necessary. Stories and Myths : build up about people and events, and convey a message about what is valued within the organization. 10 Types of Organizational Cultures

National Culture:

Corporate culture is used to control, coordinate, and integrate company subsidiaries. However differences in national cultures exist contributing to differences in the views on the management. Differences between national cultures are deep rooted values of the respective cultures, and these cultural values can shape how people expect companies to be run, and how relationships between leaders and followers should be resulting to differences between the employer and the employee on expectations. 11 National Culture

National Culture:

Human cognition contains three components, or three broad types of "cultural rules of behavior", namely, Values , Expectations , and Ad Hoc Rules , each of which has a mutually conditioning relationship with behavior. Values are universal and enduring rules of behavior; Expectations , on the other hand, are context-specific behavioral rules; Ad Hoc Rules are improvised rules of behavior that the human mind devises contingent upon a particular occasion. 12 National Culture

Change:

Culture change may be necessary to reduce employee turnover, influence employee behavior, make improvements to the company, refocus the company objectives and/or rescale the organization, provide better customer service, and/or achieve specific company goals and objectives. Culture change is impacted by a number of elements, including the external environment and industry competitors, change in industry standards, technology changes, the size and nature of the workforce, and the organization’s history and management . 13 Change

Change:

There are a number of methodologies specifically dedicated to organizational culture change. When one wants to change an aspect of the culture of an organization one has to keep in consideration that this is a long term project. Corporate culture is something that is very hard to change and employees need time to get used to the new way of organizing. 14 Change

Corporate Subcultures:

Corporate culture is often called "the character of an organization", since it embodies the vision of the company's founders. The values of a corporate culture influence the ethical standards within a corporation, as well as managerial behavior. In addition, there will also be an extant internal culture within the workforce. Work-groups within the organization have their own behavioral quirks and interactions which, to an extent, affect the whole system. For example, computer technicians will have expertise, language and behaviors gained independently of the organization, but their presence can influence the culture of the organization as a whole. 15 Corporate Subcultures

Corporate Subcultures:

Organizations do not have a single culture and cultural engineering may not reflect the interests of all stakeholders within an organization. The neat typologies of cultural forms found in textbooks rarely acknowledge such complexities, or the various economic contradictions that exist in capitalist organizations. Further, it is reasonable to suggest that complex organizations might have many cultures, and that such sub-cultures might overlap and contradict each other. 16 Corporate Subcultures

Cultural Capital:

The term Cultural Capital refers to non-financial social assets that promote social mobility beyond economic means. Examples can include education, intellect, style of speech, dress, or physical appearance. Cultural capital (French: le capital culturel ) is a sociological concept that has gained widespread popularity since it was first articulated by Pierre Bourdieu . Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron first used the term in "Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction" (1973). In this work he attempted to explain differences in children's outcomes in France during the 1960s. It has since been elaborated and developed in terms of other types of capital in The Forms of Capital (1986); and in terms of higher education. 17 Cultural Capital

Cultural Capital:

Cultural capital has three subtypes: embodied, objectified and institutionalised Embodied cultural capital consists of both the consciously acquired and the passively "inherited" properties of one's self; Objectified cultural capital consists of physical objects that are owned, such as scientific instruments or works of art; Institutionalized cultural capital consists of institutional recognition, most often in the form of academic credentials or qualifications, of the cultural capital held by an individual. 18 Cultural Capital

Cultural Identity:

Cultural Identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to, as part of the self-conception and self-perception to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality and any kind of social group that have its own distinct culture. In this way that cultural identity is both characteristic of the individual but also to the culturally identical group that has its members sharing the same cultural identity. 19 Cultural Identity

Cultural Identity:

Since one of the main characteristics of a culture is its "historical reservoir," many if not all groups entertain revisions, either consciously or unconsciously, in their historical record in order to either bolster the strength of their cultural identity or to forge one which gives them precedent for actual reform or change. Some critics of cultural identity argue that the preservation of cultural identity, being based upon difference, is a divisive force in society, and that cosmopolitanism gives individuals a greater sense of shared citizenship. Nations provide the framework for culture identities called external cultural reality, which influences the unique internal cultural realities of the individuals within the nation. 20 Cultural Identity

Kiss-Up; Kick-Down:

Kiss Up; Kick Down is a neologism used to describe the situation where middle level employees in an organization are polite and flattering to superiors but abusive to subordinates. It is believed to have originated in the US and that the first documented use was in 1993. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists described Robert McNamara, an American business executive and the eighth United States Secretary of Defense, as a classic case of the kiss up, kick down personality in August 1993. 21 Kiss-Up; Kick-Down

Kiss-Up; Kick-Down:

" Kiss up kick down means that your middle level people will kiss-up , they will please their masters, political or otherwise, and they will kick down to blame somebody else when things go wrong." For example, NHS Trust bosses are nervous of reporting deficits and seek to under-report until it's too late. They seek to please their political superiors in the short term and shift blame down the line. 22 Kiss-Up; Kick-Down

Machiavellianism In The Workplace:

Machiavellianism in the workplace is the employment of cunning and duplicity in a business setting. Machiavellianism has been studied extensively over the past 40 years as a personality characteristic that shares features with manipulative leadership tactics . The Machiavellian typically only manipulates on occasions where it is necessary to achieve the required objectives. 23 Machiavellianism In The Workplace

Machiavellianism In The Workplace:

Oliver James identifies Machiavellianism as one of the dark triadic personality traits in the workplace, the others being narcissism and psychopathy . A new model of Machiavellianism based in organizational settings consists of three factors: Maintaining Power Harsh Management Tactics Manipulative Behaviors The presence of Machiavellianism in an organization has been positively correlated with counterproductive workplace behavior and workplace deviance. 24 Machiavellianism In The Workplace

Psychopathy In The Workplace:

Psychopathy in the workplace is a serious issue as, although psychopaths typically represent only a small percentage of the staff, they are most common at higher levels of corporate organizations and their actions often cause a ripple effect throughout an organization, setting the tone for an entire corporate culture. Examples of detrimental effects are increased bullying, conflict, stress, staff turnover and absenteeism; reduction in productivity and social responsibility. Ethical standards of entire organizations can be badly damaged if a corporate psychopath is in charge. 25 Psychopathy In The Workplace

Psychopathy In The Workplace:

Hare reports that about 1 per cent of the general population meets the clinical criteria for psychopathy . Hare further claims that the prevalence of corporate psychopaths is higher in the business world than in the general population. Figures of around 3-4% have been cited for more senior positions in business. Unfortunately, even with this small percentage, corporate psychopaths can do enormous damage when they are positioned in senior management roles. 26 Psychopathy In The Workplace

Psychopathy In The Workplace:

According to Dutton, the ten careers that have the highest proportion of psychopaths are: CEO Lawyer Media (TV/radio) Salesperson Surgeon Journalist Police officer Clergy Chef Civil servant 27 Psychopathy In The Workplace

Psychopathy In The Workplace:

Boddy identifies the following bad consequences of workplace psychopathy (with additional cites in some cases): workplace bullying of employees Employees Lose Their Jobs Legal Liabilities Shareholders Lose Their Investments Capitalism Loses Some Of Its Credibility Wasted Employee Time Suboptimal Employee Performance Increased Workload Difficult Working Conditions Poor Levels Of Job Satisfaction Lower Perceived Levels Of Corporate Social Responsibility Raised Staff Turnover Absenteeism Heightened Level Of Workplace Conflict - Arguments, Yelling, Rudeness, Divide And Conquer Counterproductive Work Behavior 28 Psychopathy In The Workplace

Corporate Narcissism:

Narcissism in the workplace is a serious issue and may have a major detrimental impact on an entire organization. Narcissistic individuals in the workplace are more likely to engage in counterproductive work behavior (CWB) especially when their self-esteem is threatened. Narcissism is both a personality trait and a personality disorder, generally assessed with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Oliver James identifies narcissism as one of the dark triadic personality traits in the workplace, the others being psychopathy and Machiavellianism. 29 Corporate Narcissism

Corporate Narcissism:

The narcissistic manager will have two main sources of narcissistic supply: inanimate (status symbols like cars, gadgets or office views); and animate (flattery and attention from colleagues and subordinates). There tends to be a higher level of stress with people who work with or interact with a narcissist, which in turn increases absenteeism and staff turnover. Narcissists typically perform well at job interviews and have a good success rate for landing jobs. Interviews are one of the few social situations where narcissistic behaviors such as boasting actually create a positive impression. 30 Corporate Narcissism

Corporate Narcissism:

Coping Strategies for Dealing with A Narcissistic Manager DuBrin suggests the following coping strategies: Assess The Relationship Realistically Maintain Your Professionalism Flatter The Narcissistic Manager Confront The Problem Gently And Tactfully Document Your Accomplishments Be Willing To Accept Criticism Over Respond To The Manager's Pet Peeves Maintain A Strong Network. 31 Corporate Narcissism

Positive Psychological Capital:

Positive Psychological Capital is defined as the positive and developmental state of an individual as characterized by high self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. At the very end of the twentieth century a new approach in psychology gained popularity: positive psychology. Positive psychology, the study of optimal human functioning, is an attempt to respond to the systematic bias inherent in psychology's historical emphasis on mental illness rather than on mental wellness… 32 Positive Psychological Capital

Positive Psychological Capital:

Two new branches of positive psychology are being implemented into the industrial-organizational world. Positive Organizational Scholarship - originated by Kim Cameron and colleagues is a research field that emphasizes the positive characteristics of the organization that facilitates its ability to function during periods of crisis. Positive Organizational Behavior (POB) – originated by Fred Luthans a former president of the Academy of Management focuses on measurable positive- psychological states that are open to development and have impact on desired employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. 33 Positive Psychological Capital

Workplace Diversity:

The "business case for diversity " stems from the progression of the models of diversity within the workplace since the 1960s. The original model for diversity was situated around affirmative action drawing strength from the law and a need to comply with equal opportunity employment objectives. This compliance-based model gave rise to the idea that tokenism was the reason an individual was hired into a company when they differed from the dominant group. 34 Workplace Diversity

Workplace Diversity:

The social justice model evolved next and extended the idea that individuals outside of the dominant group should be given opportunities within the workplace, not only because it was the law, but because it was the right thing to do. This model still revolved around the idea of tokenism, but it also brought in the notion of hiring based on a "good fit". In the deficit model, organizations that do not have a strong diversity inclusion culture will invite lower productivity, higher absenteeism, and higher turnover which will result in higher costs to the company. 35 Workplace Diversity

Workplace Diversity:

Challenges One of the greatest challenges an organization has when trying to adopt a more inclusive environment is assimilation for any member outside of the dominant group. The interplay between power, ideology, and discursive acts which reinforce the hegemonic structure of organizations is the subject of much study. Everything from organizational symbols, rituals, and stories serve to maintain the position of power held by the dominant group. 36 Workplace Diversity

Workplace Diversity:

Strategies to Achieve Diversity Three approaches towards corporate diversity management can be distinguished: Liberal Change, Radical Change, and Transformational Change. Liberal Change The liberal concept recognizes equality of opportunity in practice when all individuals are enabled freely and equally to compete for social rewards. Radical Changes In contrast to the liberal approach, radical change seeks to intervene directly in the workplace practices in order to achieve balanced workforces, as well as a fair distribution of rewards among employees. Transformational Change Transformational change covers an equal opportunity agenda for both the immediate need as well as long-term solutions. For the short term it implements new measures to minimize bias in procedures such as recruitment or promotion. 37 Workplace Diversity

Questions & Answers:

Questions & Answers 38

Thank You!:

Thank You! The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Philadelphia, PA 19102 Atlanta, GA 30303 (878) 222-0100 Voice | Data | SMS www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org © The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 2015 (All Rights Reserved) 39

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