ReEngineering Juvenile Justice

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ReEngineering Juvenile Justice

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ReEngineering Juvenile Justice:

ReEngineering Juvenile Justice The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Philadelphia, PA 19102 Atlanta, GA 30303 (878) 222-0100 Voice | Data | SMS www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org © The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 2015 (All Rights Reserved)

Biblical Authority:

Proverbs 22:6 (NIV) 6  Start children off on the way they should go,     and even when they are old they will not turn from it.   Proverbs 13:20 (NIV) 20  Walk with the wise and become wise,     for a companion of fools suffers harm. 2 Psalm 1 (NIV) 1  Blessed is the one  who does not walk in step with the wicked or stand in the way that sinners take or sit in the company of mockers, 2  but whose delight is in the law of the Lord , and who meditates on his law day and night. 3  That person is like a tree planted by streams of water, which yields its fruit in season and whose leaf does not wither—whatever they do prospers. 4  Not so the wicked! They are like chaff that the wind blows away. 5  Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous. 6  For the Lord watches over the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked leads to destruction. Biblical Authority

Introduction:

The American Juvenile Justice System is the primary system used to address and deal with youth who are caught and convicted of crimes. The juvenile justice system intervenes in delinquent behavior through police, court and correctional involvement, and is largely punitive. 3 Introduction

Introduction:

4 Youth and their parents or guardians can face a variety of consequences including Probation, Community Service, Youth Court, Youth Incarceration and alternative schooling. The juvenile justice system, similar to the adult system, operates from a belief that intervening early in delinquent behavior will deter adolescents from engaging in criminal behavior as adults Introduction

Introduction:

5 The school to prison pipeline has been described as one mechanism that targets young people in schools and funnels them into the juvenile justice system. Zero tolerance policies in schools have increased the numbers of young people facing detention. Introduction Low-income youth, youth of color and youth with learning and cognitive disabilities are over-represented in the justice system and disproportionately targeted by zero tolerance policies.

The Juvenile Justice Problem in America:

6 There are many factors that cause juvenile delinquency. Sometimes children want to test their parents' limits, or society's limits. Some people believe that imposing strict laws such as curfews will cause a drop in juvenile delinquency rates, but sometimes imposing strict rules merely give the children more of an incentive to break them. The Juvenile Justice Problem in America However, sometimes juvenile crimes do in fact occur due to the exact opposite reason, that is, a lack of rules and supervision.

The Juvenile Justice Problem in America:

7 Children many times commit crimes after school and while their parents are at work or preoccupied. Statistics that are mentioned below explain the peak hours of juvenile crime rates and conceptualize this very cause. Additionally, mental illness and substance abuse are large contributing factors. Many people believe that a child's environment and family are greatly related to their juvenile delinquency record. Poverty level is another factor that is related to the chances a child has of becoming a juvenile delinquent. Peer pressure is also at play. The Juvenile Justice Problem in America

The Cost to Taxpayers for Juvenile Confinement:

8 Locking up a juvenile costs states an average of $407.58 per person per day and $148,767 per person per year when the most expensive option is used, according to a new report by the Justice Policy Institute. - 46 States Surveyed by the Justice Policy Institute The Cost to Taxpayers for Juvenile Confinement US News & World Report Circa December 9, 2014

The Cost to Taxpayers for Juvenile Confinement:

9 Overall, the number of young people that were committed to confinement shrunk by 45 percent between 2001 and 2011. Hawaii recently enacted a justice reform bill it expects will cut the state's confined youth population by half, while Georgia and Kentucky also retooled the way their justice systems treat youths… Some states, like New York, saw per-youth incarceration costs rise as their populations declined but resources were used less efficiently. The Cost to Taxpayers for Juvenile Confinement One study found that juvenile incarceration increases a person’s chances of going to jail again by 22 to 26 %. And the likelihood of High School Graduation likewise decreases by around 26%.

The Return on Investment for Youth Programming:

10 Return-on-Investment analysis (ROI) is the formal method economists use to compare the dollar value of the benefits of programs to the programs’ costs. The formula is simply: Return-on-Investment = $ value of Benefits/ $ Cost of program. The Return on Investment for Youth Programming Recent estimates of costs in Minnesota and elsewhere suggest the cost per youth is between $1000 to $5000 per year range with $3000 [per person per year] a reasonable estimate of the costs for an average program.

The Return on Investment for Youth Programming:

11 The outcomes based on research fall into several categories:   • Improved School Performance • Increased Workforce Preparedness • Reduced Juvenile And Adult Crime • Reduced Need Of Social Services and • Improved Health Outcomes The Return on Investment for Youth Programming Public funding is often leveraged with private and donated resources as well as fees paid by families. This leveraging further enhances the return on investment for public dollars.

The Return on Investment for Youth Programming:

12 Third, economists convert specific outcomes into BENEFITS measured in dollars and cents. For example,   • The present value of graduating from high school instead of dropping out is estimated to be $263,000 in income and $98,000 in taxes paid.   • The saved social cost of avoiding a year of residential treatment in a juvenile correctional facility is $75,300. The Return on Investment for Youth Programming

The Return on Investment for Youth Programming:

13 Fourth, these estimates of the benefits and costs are used to calculate the SOCIAL RETURN ON INVESTMENT.   For example, if a program for 100 youth costing $3,000 per youth is able to help just one youth graduate who would not otherwise [if] that program [had not existed] returns a $1.20 for every dollar invested. - If half the investment comes from private or donated sources, the return on investment for public dollars is $2.40. The Return on Investment for Youth Programming If one assumes the program also helped raise grade point averages or keeps even one youth out of residential treatment, the return goes up even higher.

Risk Factors That Lead To Delinquency:

14 Violence prevention and intervention efforts hinge on identifying risk and protective factors and determining when in the course of development they emerge. To be effective, such efforts must be appropriate to a youth's stage of development. A program that is effective in childhood may be ineffective in adolescence and vice versa. Risk Factors That Lead To Delinquency Identifying which risk factors may cause delinquency for particular sets of youth at specific stages of their development may help programs target their efforts in a more efficient and cost-effective manner.

Risk Factors That Lead To Delinquency:

15 Risk factors fall under three broad categories: individual, social, and community. Each of these categories includes several subcategories (e.g., family- and peer-related risk factors are grouped under the social category). Individual-Level Factors Prenatal and Perinatal Factors Psychological, Behavioral, and Mental Characteristics Social Factors Family Structure Peer Influences Community Factors School Policies Neighborhood Risk Factors That Lead To Delinquency

Protective Factors That Guard Against Delinquency:

16 To date, protective factors have not been studied as extensively or rigorously as risk factors. However, identifying and understanding protective factors are equally as important as researching risk factors. Individual Protective Factors Intolerant attitude toward deviance High IQ High grade point average (as an indicator of high academic achievement) Positive social orientation Highly developed social skills/competencies Highly developed skills for realistic planning Religiosity Protective Factors That Guard Against Delinquency

Protective Factors That Guard Against Delinquency:

17 Family Protective Factors Connectedness to family or adults outside the family Ability to discuss problems with parents Perceived parental expectations about school performance are high Frequent shared activities with parents Consistent presence of parent during at least one of the following: when awakening, when arriving home from school, at evening mealtime or going to bed Involvement in social activities Parental / family use of constructive strategies for coping with problems (provision of models of constructive coping) Protective Factors That Guard Against Delinquency

Protective Factors That Guard Against Delinquency:

18 Peer and Social Protective Factors Possession of affective relationships with those at school that are strong, close, and pro-socially oriented Commitment to school (an investment in school and in doing well at school) Close relationships with non-deviant peers Membership in peer groups that do not condone antisocial behavior Involvement in pro-social activities Exposure to school climates that characterized by: Intensive supervision Clear behavior rules Consistent negative reinforcement of aggression Engagement of parents and teachers Protective Factors That Guard Against Delinquency

The Multidisciplinary Approach to Juvenile Justice:

19 One way to address the issue of the large numbers of youth with mental substance use disorders in the juvenile justice system is to reform the entire system using a variety of approaches. The four cornerstones are: collaboration between the juvenile justice and mental health systems; identification of youth mental health needs; diversion of youth into community-based mental health treatment when appropriate; and treatment. The Multidisciplinary Approach to Juvenile Justice

Restorative Justice:

20 Restorative Justice is an approach to justice that focuses on the needs of the victims and the offenders, as well as the involved community, instead of satisfying abstract legal principles or punishing the offender. Victims take an active role in the process, while offenders are encouraged to take responsibility for their actions, "to repair the harm they've done—by apologizing, returning stolen money, or community service". Restorative Justice In addition, it provides help for the offender in order to avoid future offences. It is based on a theory of justice that considers crime and wrongdoing to be an offence against an individual or community, rather than the state.

Restorative Justice:

21 Rather than privileging the law, professionals and the state, restorative resolutions engage those who are harmed, wrongdoers and their affected communities in search of solutions that promote repair, reconciliation and the rebuilding of relationships. Restorative justice seeks to build partnerships to reestablish mutual responsibility for constructive responses to wrongdoing within our communities. Restorative Justice Restorative approaches seek a balanced approach to the needs of the victim, [the] wrongdoer and the community through processes that preserve the safety and dignity of all."

Youth Court:

22 Teen Courts are problem-solving courts authorized by law in many states in America. The terms Teen Court, Youth Court , and Peer Court are used interchangeably. Their purpose is to provide an alternative disposition for juveniles who have committed a delinquent act, have committed a minor offense, or have been charged with a misdemeanor, and are otherwise eligible for diversion. Depending on their training, community support, and agreements with traditional court systems, most teen or youth courts are recognized as valid, legal venues for the process of hearing cases, sentencing and sentence fulfillment. Youth Court

Youth Court:

23 Teen courts are staffed by youth volunteers who serve in various capacities within the program, trained and acting in the roles of jurors, lawyers, bailiffs, clerks and judges. Teen courts usually function in cooperation with local juvenile courts and youth detention centers, middle and high schools, and/or community organizations ... Most teen courts are sentencing courts in which the offender has already admitted guilt or pled no contest. Youth Court Often, sentences will involve the defendant's making restitution to someone harmed or inconvenienced by their actions, or creating an informational awareness project about health, safety, respect, or another topic relevant to the offense. One of the more common sentences is community service.

Questions & Answers:

24 Questions & Answers

Thank You!:

25 Thank You! © The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 2015 (All Rights Reserved) The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Philadelphia, PA 19102 Atlanta, GA 30303 (878) 222-0100 Voice | Data | SMS www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org

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